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Ferns of British India. 



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ADIAXTUM HtSPIDULUM. (Su>.) 





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.* j.c* *•*«•• t\a r "'i. 



ADIANTu*. 



5». ♦ 



HANDBOOK 



TO THE 



Ferns of British India, 



Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. 



HV 



COL. R. H. BEDDOME, F.L.S., 

Lote Conserz'ator of Forests, Madras, 

Author of " The Ferns of British India," " The Ferns of Southern India," 
" The Flora Syhatica of Southern lndia" <SrY., &•'<-. 



WITH THREE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS. 



CALCUTTA : 
TH ACKER, SPINK AND Co.; 

Bombay: THACKER & Co., Lim.; Madras: HIGGINGBOTHAM Ä: Co. ; 

London : W. THACKER Sc Co. 
1883. 



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) ! 



/ 



/ 



M j , 



*( 23 JUN^ 
PXFOH^- 



I ONDON 
WILLIAM RIDRK AND SON, FRINTKKS. 
UARTHOLO.MEW CLOSE. 



PREFACE. 



r I^HIS handbook is a digest of the Information on Indian 
*- Ferns contained in Sir VV. Hooker's " Species Filicum," 
the "Synopsis Filicum, ,, Mr. J. Smith's " Historia Filicum," 
also of Mr. Clarke's " Ferns of Northern India," and of the 
author's works, "The Ferns of Southern India" and "The 
Ferns of British India." 

The author's former works werc compiled in India, 
without access to libraries or to any herbarium with 
typical speeimens. He has now had the advantage of going 
thoroughly through the Wallich ian ferns at the Linnaean, 
the large collections at Kew and in the British Museum, 
and of comparing his own collections with typical forms ; 
he is ? besides, indebted for much assistance to Messrs. 
Baker and Clarke, especially in the determination of all 
critical forms, so that he has been able, he believcs, to 
clear up many doubts and to correct many errors. 



VI 



Preface. 



V* 



The generier nomenclature is, with few exceptions, that 
of the " Synopsis Filicum," but the sub-genera have been 
raised to the rank of genera ; this avoids the inconvenience 
of double generic names, and may be admitted on this score 
even by those who do not consider the wide difference in 
habit of such genera as Phegopteris, Pölypodium, Pleopeltis, 
and Drynaria of any value generically, and who base their 
genera on the sori alone, without reference to habit, vena- 
tion, or vernation. 

The geographical limits of the work comprise the whole 
of British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. 



West Hill, Putney, 
May, 1833. 



,t ■ 



'.\ 






. r 



TABLE OF THE 

ORDERS, TRIBES, AND GENERA OF FERNS 

AS FOLLOWED IN THIS WORK. 



ORDER FILICES. 



Genus. 
I Gleichenia 



SUB-ORDER I.— GLEICHENIACEÄ. 

Capsules opening vertically, surroundcd by a broad 
transvcrse complete ring 

SUB-ORDER IL— POLYPODIACEAÄ. 

Capsules surroundcd by a jointed, vertical and elastic 

ring. 

A. ImrOLUCRAT^. Sori vrith an indusium t except 

im Alsophila. 

TRIBE I.-CYATHE^E. 

Sori globose, capsules sessile or stalked, often on 
a raised receptacle. Indusium (wantingin Alsophila) 
inferior, including the sorus, lateral and resembling 
a scale, or cup-shaped, often when young enveloping 
the sorus, evcntually opening at the summit, or 
breaking down with a more or less regulär margin, 
caudex generally arborescent. 

Receptacle elevated, indusium globose, inferior, quitc 
covering the sorus when young .... 

Indusium a cup-like scale below the sorus, but never 
quite covering it, veins free 3 Amfiiicosmia 

Indusium none 4 Alsophila 

Receptacles not elevated, indusium inferior globose . 5 Diacalfe . 

Indusium umbrella-shaped, six-lobed ... 6 Matoma . 



2 Cyathea 



Page. 



11 



viü Table of the Genera of Ferns. 

# 

Genus. Pack. 

TRIBE II.— DICKSONIE*:. 

Sori globose, indusium inferior, subglobose, free, 
sometimes covering the whole sorus, closed, at length 
bursting irregularly, more frequently cup-shaped 
entire or with two Hps. 

Fertile fronds contracted with revolute margins, 
indusium hemispherical, very fugacious or wanting, 
veins free 7 Struthiopteris 20 

Indusium thin, subglobose, open at the top and 
laciniate 8 Woodsia . . 20 

Indusium medial on a vein, tbick globose pedicellate, 
bursting into two lips 9 Peranema . . 22 

Indusium apical on a vein, two-valved . .10 Cibotium . . 24 

Indusium apical on a vein, cup-shaped . . .11 Dennstvedtia . 24 

TRIBE III.— HYMENOPIIYLLE.L. 

Filmy ferns, indusium inferior, apical on a vein, 
two-lipped or tubulär. 

Indusium more or less two-lipped . . . .12 Hymenophyllum 28 

Indusium tubulär, the mouth truncate or slightly two- 
lipped 13 Trichomanes . 36 

TRIBE IV.— DAVALLIE/E. 

Indusium squamiform, suborbicular or tubulär, 
open at the apex, fastened broadly at the base, and 

sometimes at the sides. 

* 

Indusium apical on a vein, suborbicular coriaceous, 
attached by a broad base, the sides free . . . 14 Humata . .46 

Indusium as in Humata, but thin and smaller and 
narrower 15 Leucostegia . 48 

Indusium a subcylindric cyst formed of the substance 
of the frond, apical on the veins . . . .16 Prosaptia . . 56 

Indusium apical, tubulär, attached by the base and 
sides 17 Davallia . . 58 

Indusium apical, half cup-shaped, attached by the 
base and sides 18 Microlepia . 62 



Table of the Genera of Ferns. 



IX 



Genus. Page. 

Indusium apical, Compound, suborbicular, onlyopen at 

the top 19 Stenoloma . 68 

Indusium medial 013 a vein membranaceous, hood- 
Mce 20 Cystopteris . 70 



TRIBE V.— LINDSAYE/E. 

Indusium apical on the vcins, in a conünuous or 
interrupted line, the outer valve being the margin of 
the frond, the inner membranaceous. 

Veinsfree 21 Lindsaya . 

Veins anastomosing 22 Schizoloma 



72 

77 



TRIBE VI.— PTERIDE.K. 

Indusium oblong or linear, formed of the more or 
less changed and reflexed margin of the frond, open- 
ing inwardly. 

Indusium globose to linear usually niany and distinct, 
sometimes confluent and continuous, bearing the 
capsules on its under side, veins free . . .23 AniANTUM . 82 

Indusium roundish and distinct, or more or less con- 
fluent but not continuous, capsules on the frond . 24 Cuf.ilanthes 88 

Indusium as in Pteris, the ultinoate segments of fronds 
small and very narrow 25 Onychium . 95 

As in Pelfcea, but fronds dimorphic .... 2ÖCRYProGRAMME 98 

Indusium quite continuous, sori at first dot-like, but 
soon running into a line 27 Pelina . . 98 

Indusium quite continuous, sori linear continuous, 
occupying a slender filiform receptacle in the axis 
of the indusium, veins free 28 Pteris . . 104 

As in Pteris, but lowest veins ineeting and forming 
an arch 29 Campteria . 1 16 

As in Pteris, but veins all anastomosing without free 
included veinlets 30 Doryopteris . 120 

As in Pteris, but veins all anas'ömosing with some 
free included veinlets 31 Litobrochia . 120 



X 



Table of the Genera of Ferns. 



Genus. Page. 

Anomalous 32 Ceratopteris . 123 

Indusium continuous, sori linear, continuous, covering 
all or nearly all the space betwcen the midrib and 

margin, fronds dimorphous, capsule ring vertical . 33 Lomaria . 1^25 

As in Lomaria, but capsule ring oblique . -34 Plagiogyria . 1 27 



38 Doodia 



TRIBE VII.— BLECHNEiE. 

Indusium linear or oblong parallel with the midrib 
and opening towards it, not neaf the margin. 

Indusium membranaceous, distinct from the margin of 
the frond, parallel with and usually contiguous to 
the midrib, veius free 35 BlechnüM 

As in Blechnum, only veins anastomosing . 36 Blechnidium 

Indusium linear-oblong, thick, in single rows parallel 
with and near the midrib, sori sunk in cavities . 37 Woodwardia 

Indusium lunate, thin, in one or more rows, parallel 
with and near the midrib, sori not sunk 

TRIBE VIII.— ASPLENIEiE. 

Indusium linear or oblong or horseshoe-shaped, 
opening towards the midrib, sometimes double, sori 
attached to the veins. 

Indusium linear, single, veins free, their apices com- 
bined by a transverse marginal vein 

Indusium linear or oblong single, veins free 

As in Asplenium, but indusium more or less curved . 

As in Asplenium, but indusium double 

As in Diplazium, but veins anastomosing . 

As in Asplenium, but veins anastomosing obliquely 
only towards margin of frond .... 

Indusium sausage-shaped, veins anastomosing and 
forming elongated areoles 

Indusium linear elongated, submarginal, fronds fan- 



130 
133 

135 

135 



39 Thamnopterts . 137 

40 Asplenium . 141 

41 Atiiyrium . 161 

42 Diplazium . 174 

43 Anisogonium . 191 

44 Hemidictvum . 194 

45 Allantodia . 195 

46 Actiniopteris . 197 



Table of the Genera of Ferns. xi 

Genus. Pagb. 

TRIBE IX.— ASPIDIEiE. 

Indusium superior, elliptical, subglobose or reni- 
form fixed either by the centre or a sinus. 

Indusium elliptical, emarginate at the base, attached 
longitudinally to the linear recep'acle, veins free . 47 DiDYMOCHLvfcNA 199 

Indusium of Didymochlaena habit and venation of 
Nephrodium 48 Mesochi^ena . 199 

Indusium orbicular, veins free ' .49 POLYSTICHUM . 201 

Indusium orbicular, veins generelly anastomosing 
acutely with free veinlets from their junction . . 50 Cyrtomium . 211 

Indusium peltate orbicular, or reniform, veins co- 
piously anastomosing with free included veinlets . 51 Aspidium . .212 

Indusium reniform, veins only slightly anastomosing . 52 Pleocnemia . 223 

Indusium reniform, veins free 53 Lastrea . 228- 

Indusium reniform, one or more of the lower veinlets 
anastomosing with the corresponding one of the 
nextgroup 54 Nephrodium . 267 

As in Lastrea, but always simply pinnate, the pinnae 
articulated and furnished with white dots above . 55 Nephrolepis . 282 

As in Lastrea, but wide creeping and scandent with 
jointed stems and entire fronds . . 56 Oleandra . 285 

B. ExiNVOLUCRATiE.— Sori without an indusium. 

TRIBE X.— POLYPODIEiE. 

Sori on the back of the lobes, round or rarely 
somewhat oblong. 

Stipes continuous with the caudex, habit of Lastrea, 

veins free . 57 Phegopteris . 288 

Stipes continuous with caudex, venation and habit of 
Nephrodium 58 Goniopteris . 296 

Stipes continuous with caudex, venation and habit of 
Aspidium 59 Dictyopteris . 298 

Stipes articulated with caudex, veins fiee . .60 Polypodium . 302 

Veins ibrming regulär areoles, the lower one or more 

with a free included soriferous veinlet .61 Goniophlebium 316 



xü Table of the Genera of Ferns. 

Gsnus. Page. 

Areoles copious, cach with two or more sori, fronds 
always simple and woolly beneath . . .62 Niphoboi.us . 324 

Fronds flabellate in two halves, veins copiously anas- 
tomosing 63 Dipteris . . 334 

Fronds either with the base oak-leaf-like, or with 
separate sterile oak-leaf-like small fronds . 64 Drynaria . . 338 

Fronds various, veins copiously anastomosing with 
free included veinlets . . . . .65 Pleopeltis . 344 

TRIBE XI.— GRAMMITIDE/*:. 

Sori on the back of the lobes more than twice as 
long as broad, usually linear. 

As in Cheilanthes, but without an indusium, sori 
though oblong or roundish at first, soon confluent 
into a continuous line 66 Nothol/ena . 373 

Sori linear, close to midrib on both sidcs, fronds 
grass-like 67 Monogramme . 375 

Sori linear or linear-oblong, otherwise as in Phegop- 
teris 68 Leptogramme . 377 

As in Nephrodium, but sori linear .... 69 Stegxogramme. 380 

Habit of Cheilanthes, sori linear, veins free . . 70 Gymnogramme . 380 

Habit of Polypodium, sori linear, veins generally 
united by transverse veinlets near margin . . 71 Syngramme . 3S4 

As in Pleopeltis, with copiously anastomosing veins, 
sori linear, stipes articulatc with caudex . . 72 Selliguea . 389 

As in Selliguea, but slipcs not articulate and fronds 
leathery 73 Loxogramme . 392 

Anomalous, veins arcuately anastomosing at the base, 
forming costa 1 areoles 74 Brainra . 395 

As in Gonioptfris, but sori elongated or confluent . 75 Menisci um . 397 

Sori carried along the veins imperfectly articulated, 
fronds simple 76 Antrophyum . 401 

Grass-like ferns, sori in continuous marginal lines, 
veins free 77 Vittaria . . 404 



Table of the Genera of Ferns xiü 

' Geh us. Page. 

Sori in a continuous linear, or intenmpted central or 
snbmarginal line, veins reticulated, fronds pinnate . 78 T\emtis . 410 

As in Taenitis, but fronds simple and dimorphous . 79 Drymoglossum . 410 

Veins copiously reticulated and completely soriferous. 80 Hemionitis ■ .413 

TRIBE XII.— ACROSTICHE/K. 

Sori not confined to the veins, but spread entirely 
over the frond beneath. 

Fronds simple, veins free 81 Ei.aphoglossum. 416 

Fronds pinnate, Lomaria-)ike, veins all simple* or 
sometimes arcuate at the base ; scandcnt ferns . 82 StenochLvENa . 421 

Fronds pinnate, not Lomarialike, veins all simple ; 
not scandent 83 Polybotrya . 424 

Similar to Elaphoglossum, but with a connecting 

vein rnnning round the margin . . .84 Aconiopteris . 427 

Veins copiously anastomosing with free included 

vdnlets 85 Gymnopteris . 429 

Veins copiously anastomosing without free included 
veinlets. Sea-coast fern 86 Acrostichum . 440 

Drynaria-like fronds, pinnne articulated, but stipe 

adherent to caudex 87 Photinopteris . 442 

Fronds with stag's-horn-like divisions, vernation 
articulate, sori in large patches only on the fertile 
fronds 88 Platycerium . 444 

SUB-ORDER III.— OSMUNDACEiE. 

Capsules two-valved, opening across the apex, 
furnished with a short horizontal ring . . .89 Osmunda . . 447 

SUB ORDER IV.— SCHIZÄACE-ffi. 

Capsnle two-valved, opening down the side, 
cxowned by a complete operculiform ring. 

Capsules sessile in 2-4 rows on one side of close 

spikes 90 Sciiiz^a . . 45 2 



XIV 



Table of the Genera of Fekns. 



Genus. Pa<;k 

Capsules smooth, very abundant in a branched 
panicle 91 Anemia . 453 

Capsules solitary in the axils of large imbricated 
clasping involucres ; scandent . . . .92 Lygodium . 453 

SUB-ORDER V.— MARATTIACEJE. 

Capsule opening by a slit down one side or a pore 
at the apex, without a ring. 

Capsules sessile, very close together, but not concrete 93 Angiopterts . 458 

Capsules concrete, in bc at-shaped spore-cases . . 94 Marattia . 460 

Capsules concrete in raised circular masses which are 
hollow in the centre 95 Kaiti.fussia . 462 



SUB-ORDER VI.— OPHIOGLOSSACE-ffi. 

Capsules dceply two-valved, opening down the side 
nearly to the base, without a ring. 

Capsules sessile in two rows on a narrow close spike . 96 Ophioglossum . 462 

. 467 



97 Helmintho- 
stach vs 



Capsules in small cres f ed Clusters forming a loose ) 
spike 1 

Capsules in two rows on the face of spikcs which form 
a Compound panicle 98 Botrychium 



469 




GUICHEKtA CLAttCA. (Hast.) 




Al'HÜA 1I00KMU. l/*"f.) 



HANDBOOK TO THE 

FERNS OF BRITISH INDIA, CEYLON, 



AND THE 



MALAY PENINSULA. 



ORDER FILICES. 

Capsules (sporangia) one-celled, usually membranaceous and 
dorsal (on the back of the frond), or marginal, encircled by a 
complete or incomplete, jointed, elastic ring, collected in Clusters 
(sori) of a definite but varied form, with or without a covering (indu- 
sium) or panicled or spicate, rarely laxly scattercd ; or the capsules 
have the ring obsolete, or none, or the ring is confined to the apex of 
the capsule, where it forms a longitudinally striated crown, bursting 
vertically ; or the capsules are sunk in a many-celled, fleshy or corky 
receptacle of varied forms, opening by pores or clefts on the upper 
surface ; spores minute, various in form ; vernation generally circi- 
nate, rarely erect 

SUB-ORDER I.-GLEICHENIACEJE. 

Sori dorsal; of few (2-10) capsules; capsules opening vertically 
surrounded by a broad, transverse, complete ring ; indusium none ; 
caudex generally creeping ; stipes often dichotomous ; fronds rigid, 
generally large, and dichotomously branchcd, frequently bearing 
axillary buds ; vernation circinate. 



2 Fkrns of British India and Ceylon. 



GENUS L— GLEICHENIA. (Smith.) 
(In honour of Gleichen, a German botanist). 

Sori of few sessile capsules, situated on a lower exterior veinlet ; 
caudex generally creeping ; frond rarely unbranched, generally 
dichotomously divided, often proliferous from the axils of the forks ; 
pinnae deeply pinnatifid, with the segments small and concave, sub- 
orbicular, or pectinate with elongated lobes. 

§ Sori solitary at the apex of a veinlet. 

i. Gleichenia circinata. (Sw.) Fronds dichotomous, divari- 
cated, lobes of the pinnules bead-like, ovate, or subrotund, the 
margins slightly recurved ; capsules 3-4 ; branches and rachis 
glabrous, or more or less scaly. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 177, as semivestita 
Labill. Hook. Sp. Fi/, p. n. 

Malacca. 

(Also in Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and New Caledonia.) 

§ Sori near the middle, or at the forking, of the veinlets. 

2. Gleichenia glauca. (Hook.) A largo straggling fern many 
feet long ; stipes stout forked ; prima ry pinnas opposite, secondary 
pinnae alternate, close, 6-8 inches long by 1-2 broad, lanceolate, 
acuminate, pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, the segments or pinnules 
oblong-lanceolate, but obtuse, more or less glaucous beneath, 
glabrous or tomentose, and paleaceous on the stipes and rachis ; 
capsules 3-5, often mixed with hairs. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 30, as 
gigantea Wallich. G. longissima, BL Hook. Sp. Fi/, p. 12. G. 
gigantea, Wa/l. Cat. Polypodium glaucum, Thunb. F/. Jap. 338, 
which is the oldest specific name. 

Bhotan and Sikkim, alt. 4,500-7,500 feet. Very common about 
Darjeeling, Khasya, 3,500-5,000. Common in Nepal, MalayPeninsula. 

(Also in China, Japan, the Malay Islands, Sandwich Islands, 
Tropical Australia, Polynesia, West Indies, and Tropical America.) 

3. Gleichenia Norrisii. (Mett.) Branches of the frond one- 
jugate, oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 feet long, pinnae lanceolate, the lower 
distinctly stalked, sprcading, 6-9 inches long, cut down to a narrow 




GLEICHEN!.* LINEARIS (Bwm.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



wing into close entire ligulate blunt Segments, upper gradually 
smaller, reflexed ; texture subcoriaceous, both surfaces glabrous, the 
lower green or glaucous; veinlets once forked ; sori medial, 12-20 
to a segment. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 346. Hook. Sp. FiL p. 449. 
Malacca. 

4. Glejchenia linearis (Burm.under Polypodium). Stipes zigzag, 
repeatedly di- or trichotomous, the ultimate branches bearing a pair 
of forked »pinnse ; a distinct pair of pinnae also arises from the base 
of the forked branches, pinnules usually glaucous beneath, usually 
entire with recurved margins, texture hard, veinlets usually three- 
branched from the base, the centre one being often forked or 
pinnate. Bedd. F. S. I. 1 74, as dichotoma. Gl. dichotoma, Willd. 
fftok. Sp. FiL p. 15. Polypodium lineare, Burm. FiL Ind. 235, /. 67, 
fig. 2, oldest specific name. This fern has long been known under 
the name of dichotoma, which, however, must be dropped, as there 
is an older specific name. 

Mountains of southern India and Ceylon, up to 6,000 feet, 
Sikkim, Bhotan, Nepal, Kumaon, Khasya, &c, up to 5,000 feet. 
Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Japan, Tropical Australia, America, Polynesia ) 

SUB-ORDER II.— POLYPODIACEiE. 

Sori dorsal or marginal, subglobose, of many capsules, with or 
without an indusium, usually pedicellate, more or less completely 
suirounded with a jointed vertical and elastic ring, and bursting 
transversely (except in Hymenophylleaj). 

A. — iNVOLUCRATiE. — Sori furnished with an indusium (except 
in Alsophila), Tiibes Cyalhese to Aspidieae. 

TRIBE I.— CYATHEiE. 

Sori dorsal, globose, often at or near the forking of a vein ; 
capsules numerous, often very compact sessile or stalked, generally 
on an elevated receptacle, often mixed with hairs, obovate usually 
with abroad, vertical, or sub-oblique elastic ring; indusium (none in 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon". 



5 



Alsophila) inferior, including the sonis, lateral and resembling a scale 
on the under side of the sonis, or cup-shaped, often when young en- 
veloping the sorus, eventually opening at the summit.or breaking down 
with a more or less regulär margin ; caudex very often arborescenL 

GENUS II.— CYATHEA. {Smith.) 

{Kyathos, a cup — the form of indusium.) 
Suii on a vein, or in the axil of the forking of a vein, receptacle 
elevated, globose, or elongated ; 

indusium globose inferior, cov- ■ • 

ering the whole sorus, after- . ■■■ ■ . ' j 

wards breaking at the summit, 
and forming a more or less 
persistent cup, even or irregu- 
lär, at the margin ; generally 
arborescent ; stipes often acu- 
leated ; fronds simple, pinnate, 
or decompoundly pinnate. 
* Fronds undivided. 

1. CVATHEA SINUATA. {Hook. 

and Grev.) Caudex erect, z-4 
ft. long, about 1 inch in diame- 
ter ; frond simple, 2-3 ft. long, 
uj inches wide, elongate-lan- 
ceolate, sinuate, acuminate, t 
pering at the base ; veins pin- 
nate ; veinlets soriferous near 
middle. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 259 ; 
Hook. Sp. Fil.p. 16. 

Ceylon, in the Singhe-Rajah Forest. 

** Fronds pinnate. 

x. Cvathea Bbunonis. {Wall.) Stipes r2 feet long; fronds 
2-3 ft long, pinnate glossy ; pinnse 6-14 inches long, alternate, 
between membranous and coriaceous, oblon^-lancjolatc, acuminate 
with a long narrow point obliquely truncated at the base and shortly 




(/Au*.) 



Perns of British India and Ceylon. 



petiolate, sinuate-crenate ; veins three-branched or pinnate, the 
veinlets occasionally anastomosing amongst themselves, or with the 
next group ; sori medial on the veinlets ; indusium very persistent. 
Bedd. F. B. L t. 87 ; Hook. Sp. Fi!, p. 16. 

Penang and Malacca. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

3. Cyathea Hookeri. (Thw.) Small, but with a trunk-like 
caudex 1 \ inch thick ; stipes short black, muricated at the base and 
sub-paleaceous ; fronds coriaceo-membranaceous, 2-3 feet long, 4-5 
inches wide, elongate-lanceolate, acuminate, pinnate pinnatifid at the 
apex; pinnae from a broad base, which is more or less auricled, 
lanceolate acuminate, sessile or sub-sessile, coarsely dentate-pinnatifid, 
more or less entire towards the apex and base, and the lower ones 
gradually diminishing in size and obtuse at their apex ; veins pinnate ; 
sori medial on the veinlets ; indusium soon breaking up and becoming 
cup-like. Bedd. F B. I. t. 260. Thw. En. FL Zy.p. 396. Hook. 
Sp. Fi!, p. 16. 

Ceylon, in the Singhe-Rajah Forest. 

*** Fronds decompoundiy pinnate. 

4. Cyathea spinulosa. ( Waü.) A tall tree fern ; stipes and 
main rachis beneath, strongly aculeate, dark purple ; fronds glabrous, 
tripinnatifid ; main rachis and rachis of pinnules ferruginous above ; 
rachis of pinnules and main vein of segments scaly below, but the 
latter glabrous above ; segments falcate-oblong acute, serrulate, the 
margin more or less recurved ; veinlets once-forked, or more rarely 
three-branched; sori copious near the costules or main veins; in- 
dusium completely covering the sorus when young, soon breaking 
irregularly. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 57. Hook. Syn. Fi!, p. 23. 

The Wynad at 3,000 feet elevation, North and South Canara 
Coorg, Jeypore Hills (Vizag), Nepal, Jaintea Hills. The Wynad 
speeimens are in every way identical with those from Northern 
India collected by Wallich, and Mr. Clarke is in error in stating 
that the South Indian plant is a Hemitelea, as on comparing with 
him the speeimens he had examined at Kew I found that they were 
•'Alsophila latebrosa," and that this Cyathea was not represented 




CYATUBA SPINULOSA. (H'aH.) 



8 Ferns of British Indta and Ceylon. 



from S. India in the Cyathea bundles at Kew, although there was 
a specimen of it from Dalzell e^sewhere, labelled " Lastrea also- 
philoides," and a specimen from Canara, mixed with Hemitelea. 
I find no 3-branched veinlets in my specimens ; but I have no 
barren pinnoe in which only they oecur. Except in being much 
more aculeate, over-ripe examples are with difüculty distinguished 
from Alsophila latebrosa ; it is however perfectly glabrous on the 
segments beneath, whereas in the Alsophila there is generally some 
pubescence on the costules, and minute hairs on the veinlets. I 
have never found this fern much above 3,000 feet elevation, but 
the Alsophila is common at the highest altitudes on the Nilgiris, 
Pulneys and Anamallays. 

GENUS III.— AMPHICOSMIA. (Fk.) 
(Amp/ii, around ; kosmos y world ; in allusion to its wide distribution.) 

Sori globose, dorsal, on a veinlet ; receptacle elevated ; indusium 
a cup-like scale below the sorus, but never completely covering 
the capsules as in Cyathea. Arborescent ferns like Cyathea, and a 
connecting link between that genus and Alsophila, very difficult to 
determine except with unripe sori ; veins all free ; fronds ample 
decompound. (Hemitelea only differs in having the costal veins 
anastomosing. None are found in India.) 

1. Amphicosmia Walkern. {Hook.) Stipes unarmed or slightly 
m«irica*e ; fronds ample bi-tripinnate, thxk, firm, very coriaceous ; 
primary pinnae i\ foot long, secondary pinnse rather remote, 3-4 
inches long, deeply, nearly to the costa pinnatifid, or again pinnate, 
oblong, narrow-acuminate ; the costa, as is the rachis, hairy above and 
scaly below ; pinnules or lobes oblong, very obtuse, entire or crenate ; 
veinlets once-forked, three-branched or even pinnate ; sori close to 
the costules; indusium cup-shaped under the sorus. Hook. Sp. Fi/, 
p. 30. Bedd. F. S. I. tab. 261. 

Ceylon, centre of the island at the higher elevations. Var. ß tri- 
pinnata has the ultimate pinnules lobed, but there are intermediate 
forms. 



io Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



2. Amphicosmia decipiens. (/. Scott, under Hemitelea.) A 
lofty tree fern, very prickly on the main and secondary rachises, 
tertiary rachis (that of the pinnules) bullate-scaly, not pubescent ; 
pinnules glabrous, or nearly so, segments sometimes much narrowed 
where fertile ; veinlets forked, or often three-branched and even four- 
branched in the sterile portions ; sori in two rows close along the 
main veins or costa of the segment ; involucre a hemispheric cup. 
J. Scott, in Lin. Trans. \xx. 33, /. 14. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 311. Shows 
the veins and bullate scales correctly, but not the involucre. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 1,000-4,000 feet. Khasya below Nung- 
klow. Differs from the next in being much more prickly and in 
the segments being generally longer and narrower. I do not feel 
certain it is distinct from Cyathea spinulosa, as I have not seen the 
involucre in very young State. 

3. Amphicosmia Brunoniana. (IVall. under Alsophila.) A 
large tree fern ; main rachis somewhat prickly, secondary rachis 
slightly muricated or smooth ; rachis of the pinnules crisped-pubes- 
cent ; segments minutely hairy on the veinlets (under the lens), not 
contracted in fruit ; veinlets forked, or three-branched veinlets very 
rare; sori and involucre as in the last. Clarke,p. 430. Alsophila 
Brunoniana, Wall. Alsophila latebrosa, var. hemitelioides,y. Scott, 
1. c. 34. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 4,000-7,500 feet; East Nepal; Khasya 
3,000-5,000 feet, very common. 

The specimen forwhich Mr. Clarke gives the locality "Deccan *' 
is a specimen of Cyathea spinulosa, collected at Mendeb in Canara 
by Dr. Richie. 

Mr. Clarke's variety ß Scottii, " segments of the fertile pinnules 
unusually large, deeply crenated, with many three-branched veinlets," 
is founded on a single pinna in the Kew Herbarium, collected by 
Scott in Sikkim and labelled by him latebrosa, var. ß; it is perhaps 
a new species. 

4. Amphicosmia alterans. {Hook, under Alsophila.} Rachis 
glabrous, smooth, turning brown ; fronds subcoriaceous, glabrous, sub- 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. ii 

tripinnate ; primary pinnae short, petiolate very remote, 10-14 inches 
long, 2-3 inches wide, oblong acuminate, deeply pinnatifid, pinnate 
near the base; Segments 1-1J inch long, oblong acute subfalcate 
entire or serrate, all horizontal, the extremity suddenly pinnated with 
oblong undivided sessile pinnules serrated at the margin; veins once 
forked (rarely twice-forked) ; sori in the axil of the fork, or in 
the lower veins, considerably above it; involucre a hemispherical 
cup completely surrounding the base of the sorus. Bedd. F. B. L 
t. 236, under Alsophila. Hook. Syn. Fit. p. 41. 

Penang. My specimens distinctly show the indusium. 

GENUS IV.— ALSOPHILA. (Brown.) 

(A/sos, grove; p/iileo, to love.) 

Sori globose, dorsal, on a vein or at the forking of a vein ; recep- 
tacle generally elevated, often villous ; involucre none, but the bullate 
scales along the costa of the Segments may often be mistaken for 
such. Arborescent ferns ; fronds decompoundly pinnate; veins never 
anastomosing, simple forked or pinnate. 

1. Alsophila latebrosa. (Hook.) A lofty tree fern ; stipes 
aculeate at the base, muricated upwards, dark mahogany-brown; 
primary pinnae oblong acuminate, 12-24 inches long, 6-8 inches 
wide; pinnules lanceolate-acuminate, 3-4 inches long, cut down 
nearly to the rachis into linear-oblong, blunt slightly-toothed 
Segments on each side ; rachis of pinnules beneath glabrous or 
pubescent ; veins generally minutely hairy (under the lens) ; veinlets 
forked ; numerous bullate scales along the costa of the segments 
beneath and also along the rachis of the pinnules ; sori occupying the 
lower two-thirds of the segment. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 58. Hook. Syn. 
Fil. p. 43. 

Nilgiris and all the western mountains in the Madras Presidency 
and the Shevaroys, up to 7,000 feet ; but often found as low as 
3,000 ; Sikkim, Bhotan and Khasya, 3,500-5,000 feet ; also through- 
out the Malay Peninsula and Penang. I cannot distinguish the 
two varieties given by Mr. Clarke. The South Indian specimens 



12 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

vary from quite or nearly quite glabrous to as pubescent as those 
from Sikkim, and the Penang specimens seem quite identical. 

2. Alsophila glauca. (/". Sm.) A lofty tree fern ; more or 
less prickly; fronds subcoriaceous, glabrous, glaucous beneath ; pinnae 
2-3 feet long,pinnules 4-5 inches long, £ to 1 inch broad, deeply, nearly 
to the costa pinnatifid; Segments linear-oblong subfalcate, when 
fertile often contracted, entire or distantly crenulate ; veins forked, 
and often three-branched ; receptacle naked or hairy. J. Sm. in 
Hook. Jour. Bot. iii. 419. Bedd. F. B. /. /. 86 (as A. Brunoniana). 
Alsophila contaminans, Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 41. Chnoophora glauca, 
Bl. En. Fil.Jav, 443. 

Sikkim, Bhotan, Assam, Khasya, Cachar, Sylhet, Chittagong, 
Burmah and Malay Peninsula, up to 4,000 feet. 
(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

3. Alsophila ornata. (J. Scott.) A lofty tree fern ; stipes 
paleaceous at the base, slightly muricated, and, as well as the main 
rachises, glossy purplish-brown ; fronds herbaceous-membranaceous; 
primary pinnae oblong- lanceolate, rather abruptly contracted into a 
short, deeply pinnatifid apex; pinnules nearly all petiolate lanceolate, 
oblong acuminate, deeply, nearly to the costa pinnatifid ; Segments 
ovate in the sterile, narrow oblong in the fertile, slightly falcate, 
serrated; costa of the pinnules somewhat hairy above and scaly 
below ; veinlets forked or a few three-branched. /. Scott, in Trans. 
Lin. Sic , xxx. 36, /. 16 a. Bedd, F. B. I. t. 342 

Sikkim, on the banks of the Rungbee, below the Government 
Cinohona plantation, at 2,500 feet elevation, called Dang pashin by 
the Lepchas. 

4. Alsophila Andersoni. (f. Scott) A tall tree fern; stipes 
muricated and rough, clothed more or less with lanceolate subulate 
deciduous scales ; rachises tawny villous below, somewhat scabroüs 
above ; fronds ovate-lanceolate, herbaceous-membranaceous, piJose ; 
primary p'nnas oblong-lanceolate acuminate ; pinnules pinnatifid 
nearly to the rachis with an attenuated serrated apex ; segments 
broad-oblong, slightly falcate, sharply serrated ; veinlets simple or 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



U 



once forked, 10-is pair to each segment, all except the upper two or 
thiee with a single sorus a liitlc below the middle; the costules, 
veins, and veinlets beneath all furnished with long weak white 
hairs, which aie also present in a less degree 011 the upper surface. 
/. Scott, in Trans. Lin. Soc. xstx. t. 17. Bald. F. B. 1. 1. 310. 

Sikkim, in the tropical Valleys below the Government Cinchona 
plantation, alt. 1,000-2,500 feet. Khasya. Olled Pulai-nock by 
the Lepchas. 

5. Alsophila Oldhami. 
(Btdd.) A tree fern, 6-10 " «tejjgw,, *V^_ 

fect, unarmed ; principal 
rachises half an inch thick, 
deep purple, asperous ; 
fronds herbaceous - num- 
branareuus ; primary pinnic 
about 2 feet long by 8-9 
inches broad, oblong ac- 
uminate ; secondary 4-5 
inches long by about 1 
inch broad, lanceolate acu- 
minate; cut down nearly 
to the rachisinto numerous 
linear oblong blunt-toothed 
segroents on each side; --' ^7 

costa hairy above, scaly 
below ; veins simple, or 
once-forked ; sort in two 
parallel rows below the middle of the 1 
343, Alsophila comosa, Scott, /. c. t. 16 B., not Wall. 

Khasya hills; Sikkim, in the forest between Darjeeling and 
Surail, 5,000-6,000 feet ; Moulmein. 

6. Alsophila comosa. (Hook.) A tree fern, unarmed; stipes 
paleaceous, with long linear-subulate scales, pale brown, as well as 
the rachises, which are tawny-villous on the Upper side; fronds 




einlets. 



[BcdJ.) 
. F. B. I. t. 



14 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

herbaceous, glabrous, and scaleless ; primary pinnae 14-16 inches 
long, 6-8 inches wide; pinnules oblong-acuminate from a rather 
broad and truncated sessile or shortly petioled base, serräted two- 
thirds of the way to the costule, pinnatifid with very narrow sinuses ; 
lobes close-placed, oblong, serräted ; veins, simple or rarely forked ; 
sori about half- way between the margin and the costule ; receptade 
small, very slightly elevated. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 41. Bedd. F. B. L 
t. 84. 

Singapore. 

(AUo in the Malay Islands.) 

7. Alsophila commutata. (Met/.) A tree fern; stipes 
paleaceous, at the base tuberculate-asperous ; fronds bi-pinnate, 
partial rachis slightly squamose ; pinnules all petiolate, sterile ones 
oblong-lanceolate, fertile portions often contracted, coriaceous, 
glossy as if varnished, ending in an acuminated serrulated point, 
pinnatifid scarcely half-way down to the rachis ; segments ovate- 
obtuse, serrate, the margins thickened, or very slightly recurved; veins 
simple or ofcen forked ; sori frequently confined to the lower part of 
the pinnules, and a little distant from the costa of the segments. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 43. Bedd. F. B. I. 1. 235 (as squamulata.) 

Malacca, on Mount Ophir. 

8. Alsophila glabra. (Hook.) A tree fern ; stipes asperous, 
paleaceous at the base, the rachises purple-ebeneous, polished, 
glabrous, or with a few scales, or with adpressed pubescence ; 
fronds subcoriaceous-membranaceous ; primary pinnae i£-2j feet 
long, deeply pinnatifid at the apex; pinnules, upper ones sessile, 
lower ones petiolate from a truncated base, oblong acuminate, 3-6 
inches long, 5-9 inches wide, pinnatifid i to i way to the costule, 
sometimes more in Himalayan examples ; segments triangulär or 
rounded, rarely ovate, serräted ; veinlets all simple ; sori arranged in 
the shape of a V inverted, not extending to the apex of the lobe. 
Hook. Syn. FiLp. 43. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 60. 

All the western hüls of the Madras Presidency up to 4,000 feet ; 




la crin:ta, (Hock.) 



16 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

North Arcot and Cuddapa Hills, Jeypore, &c, and probably general 
through the northern Circa» s in moist shady places on the hills; 
Himalayas, very common in Sikkim, Nepal, &c. ; Burrnah and 
Ceylon. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and S. China.) 

The hairs of the rachis are exaggerated in my figure quoted above. 

9. Alsophila crinita. (Hook.) A lofty tree fern ; stipes 
and ma ; n rachis stramineous, brown, hispid-paleaceous, and 
strongly muricate ; spines short, tipped with a black gland; fronds 
subcoriaceous ; rachises above pilose, beneath and on the costae 
densely paleaceous-crinite ; scales sometimes short and minute, 
generally elongate and adpressed; primary pinnae 2 feet long, 10 inches 
wide ; pinnules oblong acuminate, sessile pinnatifid neaily to the 
costules ; lobes narrow-oblong, sub-obtuse, falcate, the margins 
recurved, serrattd ; costa and veins often pilose; veinlets forked; sori 
covering the whole under side of the lobes mixed with ciliate 
scales. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 42. Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 59. 

Nilgiris, Pulneys, and Anamallays, 5,000-7,000 ft. e^evation. 
Ceylon central provinces. By far the most beautiful of all the tree 
ferns. 

10. Alsophila albo-setacea. {Bedd.) Main rachis purplish, 
muricated, and (in age) only slightly scaly; pinnae long petioled; 
rachis of pinnas very scaly; pinnules with the one-two lowest 
Segments free, the rest cut down nearly to the rachis, oblong sub- 
falcate, slightly crenate ; veinlets all forked from near the base, one 
branch often (or both rarely) again forked ; costae sparingly clothed 
beneath with long white setaeeous hairs, which are also present in 
a less degree on the costa and costules above ; costules beneath 
furnished with deeiduous bul'ate scales, which often have a hyaline 
setaeeous point at the apex ; sori copious. Bedd. Supplmt. to Ferns, 
p. 2 (not figured). 

Nicobar Islands (Kurz). 




DUCALPB iSPIDlOlDBS. ( tit.) 



i8 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

GENUS V.— DIACALPE. {BL) 
{Dia and ka/pe, a vessel, in allusion to the cup-shaped indusium.) 

Sori globose, the receptacles small, scarcely elevated ; indusium 
inferior (i.e., below the sorus), globose, hard-membranaceous, entire, 
a leijgth bursting very irregularly at the sumrait ; capsu^es numerous, 
nearly sessile, ring broad, veinlets simple, free. 

i. Diacalpe aspidioides. {BL) A large Compound fern ; stipc 
scaly, particularly near the base ; fronds tripinnate, submembranaceous, 
rachis of pinnae pubescent with adpressed scales ; pinna». alternate 
or sub opposite, segments of pinnules oblong- cuneate, lobed, and 
decurrent, glabrous, or furnished with long weak scales ; veinlets 
not reaching the margin ; sori medial on the anterior lower vein- 
lets, involucre bursting irregularly, or sometimes into two regulär 
lips. BL En. PL Jav. FiL 241. Hook, Syn. FiL p. 45. Bedd. 
F. S. f.t. 257. 

Nepal to Bhotan, Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet. Ceylon, higher 
parts of central provinces. Tenasserim on Mooleyit 5,000-6,000 
feet. Tavoy. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

2. Diacalpe fceniculacea. {Hook, under Folystichum.) 
Rhizome creeping; stipes tufted, 6-12 inches long, densely 
clothed below with lanceolate reddish-brown scales ; fronds 1-2 
feet long, 9-12 inches broad, deltoid-lanceolate, 4-5-pinnatifid, 
lower pinnule 6-8 inches long, 3-4 inches broad, pinnules sub- 
deltoid, 2-3 inches long, secondary pinnules cut down to the rachis, 
their lower divisions often again pinnatifid ; segments linear, very 
aoute, subcoriaeeous and very glossy, with a few scattered long 
scale-like hairs beneath ; indusium leathery, dark purple, spherical, 
attached by the point under its centre, not stalked, Splitting irregu- 
larly from above. Clarke, p. 434. Hook, Syn, FiL p, 256. Bedd. 
F. B. L tab. 36, under Lastrea (indusium incorrect as to shape). 

Sikkim, 7,000-10,000 feet elevation, abundant at Buckeem ; 
Upper Ratong, 8,000-9,000 feet. 



Ferss of British Ixdia and Ceylon. 



GENUS VI.— MATONIA. (lir.) 

(After Dr. Maton, a London physician.) 

Rcceptacle of the sori expanded into a firm membranaceous, 
umbrella-shaped obscurely six-lobed stipitate involucre, whieh Covers 
and cncloses six large sessile capsules ; veins forked free, except those 
round the sori, which are clusely reticulated. 

i. Maton ia pectinata. (Br.) 
Rhizome creeping ; stipe slendcr, 
6-8 feet high ; fronds fan-like, 
conjugate-subpedately-fiabeUate, 
the pinDffi produced on the an- 
terior or upper side of the diver- 
gent branches, rigid- coriaceous, 
lioear, pinnatifid nearly to the 
costa, glabrous, often glaucous 
beneath, i-i feet long ; sori 
situate at the posterior base of 
the segments. Br. in Wall. PL 
As. Rar. i, /. 16. Hook. Syn. 
FU. p. 45. Btdd. F. B. 1. 1. 186. 

Malacca, on Mount Ophir ; 
ore of the rares t and handsomcst 
of ferns. 

(Also in Borneo.) 

TRIBE II.— DICKSONIEÄ. 

Sori globose, on the back or apex of a vein ; indusium inferior, 
subglobose, free, sometimes covering the whole sorus, closed, or at 
length bursting irregularly ; more frequently cup-shaped, entire, or 
with two ups ; caudex arborescent in Cibotium ; veins free, or 
anastomosing. 




2o Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



GENUS VIL— STRUTHIOPTERIS. (Willd.) 

(Struthios ostrich, the fronds like feathers of the bird.) 

Sori dorsal on the veins of the changed and contracted pinnae 
of the fertile frond, and quite concealed by the revolute margins ; 
indusium very thin hemispherical, very fugacious, or wanting ; caudex 
erect or creeping ; fronds stipitate, dimorphous, fertile ones pinnate ; 
pinnae torulose or flattish ; veins all free pinnate. (Differs from 
Onoclea in having free veins.) 

i. Struthiopteris orientalis. (Hook.) Fronds ovate-oblong, 
not attenuated at the base ; fertile ones oblong, contracted ; pinnae 
linear-oblong, rlattened, two-edged, the broad refracted margins 
covering the whole back, dark brown, glossy, at length spreading, 
and torn at the margin. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 46. Bedd. F. B. J. 
/. 171. 

Sikkim, elevation 900-1,200 feet, Khasya, Assam. 

(Also in Japan and Western China.) 

GENUS VIII.— WOODSIA. (Br.) 

(In honour of Joseph Wood, a British botanist.) 

Sori globose; indusium inferior, soft, membranaceous,calyciform, 
or more or less globose, and sometimes enclosing the sorus, at length 
opening at the top, the margin laciniate or fringed ; veins free, simple, 
or forked. Small herbaceous ferns, the stipes tufted, often jointed. 

1. Woodsia hyperborea. (Br.) Glabrous, or with the stipes, 
rachis and costa beneath slightly hairy and scaly; fronds 5 inches 
long by i inch broad, linear-lanceolate, pinnate ; pinnae cordate- 
ovate, pinnatifid, with few broadly obovate entire lobes, the lower 
ones distinct ; indusium smaller than the sorus, but fringed with long 
hairs which extend beyond it. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 46. Clarke y 

P- 434- 

Kashmir, Sind Valley, elevation 8,000 feet ; collected only oy 

Mr. Levinge. 

(Also in Alpine and Arctic Europe and North Asia.) 




OKIENTALIS. [Hook.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



2. Woodsia lanosa. (Hook.) Like hyperborea, but the frcnd 
densely ferruginous, with soft long hairs and scales, stipe also villous 
or lanate, but becoming glabrous in age. Perhaps a very tomentose 
variety of No. i. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 47. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 341. 

Only in Northern India — mountains of Kumaon; Pindari, 12,000 
feet ; above Namik, 1 1,600 feet; Sikkira Lachen, 14,000 to 16,000 
feet; Mount Donkia, 18,000 feet. 

3. Woodsia elongata. (Book) Glandulosely pilose; fronds 
up to 12 inches long by i-i£ inch broad, narrow oblong pinnate, 
pinnae rather distant alternate sessile from a broadish base, oblong 
obtuse, pinnatifid not more than half down, lobes short, rounded, 
dentate ; sori globose, much elevated ; indusiura larger than the 
sorus, very membranaceous, globose, soon bursting with a lacerated 
apex, not ciliated. Hook. Syn. Fil. ^.47. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 14. 

Himalayas, from Dhurmsala to Sikkim, 8,000 to 12,000 feet; 
common. 



GENUS IX.— PERANEMA. (Don) 

(Perty around ; nema % a thread; the sorüs on a thread-like stalk.) 

Sori globose, on the back of a vein or veinlet ; indusium in- 
ferior, globose, coriaceous, pedicellate, at first enclosing the whole 
sorus, at length bursting vertically into two spreading lips ; veins 
free, forked, clavate; fronds large, decompound. Sphaeropteris, 
Wallich. 

1. Peranema cyatheoides. (Don.) Fronds up to 4-6 feet 
high, stipate, deltoid decompound, ultimate pinnules sessile, linear- 
oblong, obtuse, half an inch long, pinnatifid, repand, or crenate ; 
main rachis scaly or pubescent. Don. Fr. Fl. JS'ep. p. 1 2. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 73. Sphaeropteris barbata, Wall. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 49. 

Nepal and Bhotan, 6,000-10,000 feet; Khasya, 4,500-6,000 
feet ; Anamallays, 6,000 feet. 



24 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



GENUS X.— CIBOTIUM. (Kaulf) 

(Kibotos, a casket — form of the indusium.) 

Sori at the apex of a vein, intra-marginal ; indusium distinctly 
two-valved, the outer valve coriaceous, distinct from the substance 
of the frond ; veins free, simple, forked, or pinnate ; arborescent, 
with large decompound coriaceous fronds. Only diffcrs from Dick- 
sonia in the onter valve of i/ie indusium being distinct from the sub- 
stance of the frond, 

i. Cibotium Barometz. {Link.) Arborescent; fronds tri- 
pinnate, lower pinnae ovate-lanceolate, 1-2 feet long, 6-12 inches 
broad ; pinnules linear-acuminate, cut down within a short dis- 
tance of the rachis above, and sometimes quite down to it at the 
base, segments linear-oblong, acute, subfalcate, upper surface naked, 
shining, lower glaucous, sometimes furfuraceous ; sori 2-12 to a lobe ; 
the valves nearly equal, transversely oblong. Link, Fi/. Sp. /. 166. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 49. C. glaucum, ßedd. F. B. I. /. 83. 

Mishmee, Assam, Tavoy. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and South China.) 



GENUS XI.-DENNST;EDTIA. {Bernh.) 

(In honour of Dennstadt, a German writer.) 

Sori at the apex of a vein ; indusium cup-shaped, not at all, or 
very indistinctly, two-valved; veins free, simple, forked, or pinnate; 
not arborescent; fronds herbaceous or membranaceous. Patania 
Presl. a name of later date. Dicksonia See. Patania. Hook. 

1. Dennstvedtia scabra. (Wall, under Dicksonia.) Rhizome 
wide-creeping, villous ; main rachis scabrous, often wavy ; fronds very 
variable in size, up to 2 J-3 feet long, and 2 feet broad ; deltoid 
or ovate, bipinnate, surface beneath with scattered glistening hairs, 




PERAHEMA CVATHiOJOES. (Don.) 



26 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 




Iower pinnae 4-8 inches long, lanceolate, pinnules quite distinct, 

i-i£ inches long, the lower ones cut down nearly 
to the rachis into numerous pinnatifid oblong del- 
toid segments ; sori 2-6 to the lower segments ; 
indusium cup-shaped, subglobose. Watt* Cat 
Dicksonia, Hcok, Syn. FiL p. 54. Dennstaedtia 
deltoidea, Bcdd. F. S. / /. 258. 

Ceylon, central provinces; Himalayas, Kumaon 
to Bhotan, 4,000-8,000 feet ; Khasya, 4,000-6,000 
feet ; Birma and the Malay Peninsula generally, very 
common. 

2. DENNSTiEDTiA Elwesii. {Baker, undcr Pa- 
tania.) Fronds lanceolate, tripinnatifid, i-ij foot 
long ; rachis Stramin eous glabrous ; pinnae lanceolate, 
nearly sessile, 3-4 inches long, £-£ inch broad, the 
rachis flattened ; pinnules 20-30-jugate, lanceolate, 
sessile cuneate at the base, 1 \-2 lines broad, deeply 
pinnatifid ; segments ligulate, erecto-patent, many 
entire parallel, lowest on the upper side often bifid, both sides 
glabrous ; veins solitary in the centre of each segment ; sorus 
covering the entire apex of the segment. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 54. 
Bedd. Suppl. to Ferns, t. 347. 

Sikkim, near Lachen, 8,500 feet ; Choongtam, 9,000 feet. 

3. Dennstvedtia appendiculata. (Wall, under Dicksonia) 
Fronds oblong or lanceolate, bipinnate, 12-18 inches long, 6 inches 
broad ; rachis hairy ; pinnae close together, their rachises parallel, 
lower ones linear-lanceolate, 3-4 inches long, cut down to the rachis ; 
pinnules linear-oblong, \ inch long, 2 lines broad, pinnatifid into 
linear segments, under surface glandulosely pilose; sori 2-6 to 
a pinnule placed at the base of the sinuses ; indusium cup- 
shaped, globose. Wall. Cat. 65. Dicksonia (Patania) appendiculata. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 54. Bedd. R B. I. /. 82. 

Senchal above Darjeeling, 8,500 feet ; Lachen Valley, in Sikkim, 
Nepal ; Kumaon Gori Valley, 5,500 feet ; Banks of the Vishnugunga, 
above Panchkisar, 8,000-9,000 feet. 



h? 12 

DKNNSTiEDTIA 
SCABRA. (Wall.) 




".,-=> 



s&^ 







28 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



TRIBE III.-HYMENOPHYLLEJE. 

Sori terminal or marginal from the apex of a vein ; receptacle 
elongated, often filiform an d long, and exserted more or less, clothed 
especially below with sessile orbicular imbricated subpeltate com- 
pressed capsules, surrounded by a complete transverse ring, opening 
vertically ; indusium inferior, various in shape, generally of the 
same texture as the frond. Small, often epiphytal ferns, herbaceo- 
membranaceous, more or less laxly cellular, variously costate and 
veined. Caudex frequently long, creeping, and filiform. 



GENUS XIL— HYMENOPHYLLUM. (Z.) 
(Hymen, membrane ; phyllon^ leaf.) 

Sori marginal, more or less sunk in the frond or exserted, ter- 
minating a costa or vein ; indusium inferior, more or less deeply 
two-lipped or two-valved, toothed, fringed, or entire ; receptacle 
elongated, columnar, exserted, or included ; capsule mostly orbicu- 
lar, depressed, attached by the centre, furnished with a broad trans- 
verse ring, opening irregularly at the apex. Small, often minute 
ferns, growing on trunks of trees and damp rocks in moist places, 
generally on the mountains ; fronds delicately membranaceous, 
simple or Compound, costate, or with simple or branched, never 
anastomosing, veins. 

* Margin of the frond entire. 

I. HYMENOPHYLLUM PARVIFOLIUM. (Baker,) 

A very tiny species, rhizome slender, creeping, 
tomentose ; stipes about i line long ; frond 
very minute, 2-3 lines long, 1 line broad, 
linear-oblong, margin entire ; simple or 2-3- 
cleft at the apex, sometimes half-way down, 
furnished only with a central costa and a 
few faint, irregulär, free spurious venules, the 
HYMENornYLLUM margin not thickened ; sori solitary, terminal^ 
PARviFOLiuM. {Baker.) the cuneate base sunk in the frond divided 





DENN5T.VDTIA APPEND1CULATA. (Wall.) 



*o Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

about half way down ; valves rounded entire. Baker, Syn. Fil. 
f. 56. Bedd. F. B. I. t 225. 
Moulmein. 

2. Hymenophyllum tenellum. (K~hn.) Rhizome wide-creep- 
ing hairy or with fine hair-like scales ; stipes \-i\ inch long; 
slender, somewhat hairy, fronds 1-2 inches long, |-i inch broad, 
oblong to deltoid, tripin natifid, margin entire, main rachis winged, 
more or less furnished beneath with ferruginous hair-like scales; 
pinnae 4-6 jugate, deltoid, cuneate-truncate at the base on the lower 
side, lower pinnules 1-2, cleft at tip with ligulate blunt lobes, \ line 
broad, partial rachises and veins more or less hairy beneath, glabrous 
above ; sori 2-6 to a pinna, terminal in the lobes ; involucre with 
hemispherical lobes, and a cuneate entire immersed base. Baker, 
Syn. Fil. p. 57. H. polyanthos, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 267. H. emer- 
sum, Baker, Syn. Fil. ist ed. p. 457. 

Ceylon. (C. P. 3,360.) Differs from any form of polyanthos 
in having the rach : ses and veins hairy beneath. 

3. Hymenophyllum exsertum. (Wall.) Stipe 1-2 \ inches 
long, slender ; fronds 2-6 inches long, 1-2 inches broad, lanceolate- 
oblong, ovate or short triangulär bipinnatifid ; main rachis winged 
above or throughout, more or less densely clothed with deciduous 
ferruginous hairs ; lower pinnae rhomboidal, lanceolate-acuminate, 
divided more than half way down to the rachis into simple or forked 
linear pinnules, slightly hairy on the principal veins ; sori 2-8 to a 
pinna, terminal or axillary in the Segments on both sides, involucre 
divided down nearly to the base ; valves oblong, bluntly denticulate 
at the apex. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 58. Bedd. F. S. L t. 9. 

. Himalayas and Khasya Hills, 2,000 to 9,000 feet ; Birma ; all 
the Western Ghats of the Madras Presidency ; Ceylon, central pro- 
vinces. Very common. 

4. Hymenophyllum polyanthos. (Siü.) Stipes 2-3 \ inches 
long, wingless or narrowly winged towards the apex ; fronds glabrous, 
or nearly so, 2-8 inches long by 1-3 inches broad, not crisped, ovate- 




HVMENOFKYLLUM EXSERTVK. (H'fl//.| 



32 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

oblong tripinnatifid ; main rachis with a narrow wing ; lower pinnae 
triangulär rhomboidal, divided down to a narrow centre into several 
pinnules on each side, the lowest of which are cuneäte or rhomboidal, 
deeply pinnatifid, ultimate Segments linear, 1-1} line long, less than 
ia line broad; sori 2-12 to a pinna, terminal or axillary on the 
segments on both sides ; involucre small, divided down nearly to the 
base ; valves ovate or rounded entire or slightly denticulate. Swartz y 
Syn. Fil. t. 149. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 60. H. microglossum, V.D.B. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 59. H. polyanthos ß. minor. Bedd. F. B. /. 
t. 306. H. Blumeanum, Spreng. Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 266. 

Himalayas and Khasya mountains, 1,000-12,000 feet elevation. 
Western Ghats of the Madras Presidency ; Ceylon ; Birma. 

(Also widely distributed in all tropical and subtropical regions 
throughout the world.) 

The typical form is only from Northern India, and is a very 
large fern. 

Var. ß microglossum is from the western ghats of South 
India. Bedd. F B. I. t. 306. A small form with the stipe more or 
less winged ; but Mr. Clarke sends nie a fern under this name from 
Bhotan, which is intermediate between this and the type with some of 
the fronds running very close to Blumeanum. 

Var. y Blumeanum. Fronds very narrow and elongate, and 
pinnae sometimes simply pinnatifid only. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 266. 

Ceylon ; Tinnevelly and Travancore mountains. This has 
generally been considered a quite distinct species by botanists in 
Ceylon and South India, but Mr. Clarke says it runs into the type in 
Northern India, and cannot be separated. With only Ceylon and 
South Indian specimens in view, it is difficult to consider them all 
forms of one species, but after seeing the Himalayan forms, I quite 
agree with Mr. Clarke that they cannot be separated as species. 

5. Hymenophyllum javanicum. (Spreng.) Glabrous or nearly 
so; stipe 2-4 inches long, erect, margined above with a broad, 
crisped wing ; fronds 4-8 inches long, 3-4 inches broad, triangulär, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 33 



tripinnatifid ; main rachis with a broad crisped wing ; lower pinnae 
1J-2 inches long, triangular-rhomboidal, erect-patent, divided 
down to a narrow crisped centre into several plane or slightly crisped 
pinnules on both sides, the lower of which are several times deeply 
pinnatifid ; sori 6-20 to a pinna, terminal and axillary on the Seg- 
ments on both sides; involucre about as broad as the segments, 
divided down nearly to the base ; valves orbicular, entire, or denticu- 
late. Spreng. Syst Zw. 132. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 60. H. crispatum 
(Wall.), Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 207. 

Himalayas, Nepal, and Bhotan, 5,000-8,000 feet; Khasya, 
3,500-5,500 feet ; Western Ghats of the Madras Presidency ; 
Ceylon, central provinces ; Birma and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, Bourbon, and the 
Philippines.) 

Var. ß badium. {Hook, and Grev.) Frond hardly or not 
at all crisped. H. badium, Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 60. Bedd. F. B. I. 
t. 282. 

Sikkim, Malay Peninsula, Tenasserira on the Mooleyit Moun- 
tain. 

6. Hymenophyllum ciliatum. (Sw.) Stipe 1-2 inches long, 
furnished with tufts of stellate hairs, decurrently winged above ; wing 
ciliate ; frond oblong, acuminate, tripinnatifid, 2-0 inches long, 1-2 
inches broad at the centre ; main rachis broadly winged throughout 
ciliated and hairy like the stipe ; lower pinnae oblong or rhom- 
boidal, with a broad central undivided portion, and numerous erect- 
patent simple or forked ciliated linear segments 2-3 lines long ; sori 
2-12 ona pinna, placed at the end of the lateral segments on both 
sides, involucre immersed suborbicular ; valves divided about half- 
way down, and conspicuously ciliated. Hook. Syn. Fil. /. 63. Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 305. 

Sikkim. 

(Also in tropical America from Cuba and Mexico to Chili and 
South Brazil ; Tropical Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar, Bourbon, 
Seychelles and Johanna Island ; New Zealand.) 

4 



34 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Mr. Clarke seems to doubt the Sikkim locality, but my speci- 
mens received from Dr. Jerdon quite agree with the type. 

** Margin of the frond serrulate. 

7. Hymenophyllum Simonsianum. (Hook.) Stipe slender, 
wiry or winged, naked or with a few ferruginous hairs, 1-2 inches 
long ; fronds linear-oblong, 2-6 inches long, up to 1 £ inch broad, 
pinnatifid to the winged rachis ; the primary Segments fan-shaped, 
i-6 lobate, ultimate segments broadly oblong, serrulate; sori 1-4 
terminal on the divisions of the upper pinnae, involucre broadly oblong, 
divided nearly to the base ; valves serrulate. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 68. 
ßcdd. F. B. I. /. 281. 

Sikkim, 4,000-10,000 ; common. Khasya Hills. 

8. Hymenophyllum Smithii. (Hook.) Stipe 1-2 inches long, 
wiry naked or slightly tomentose ; fronds oblong-acuminate, 3-8 
inches long, 2-3 inches broad, bipinnatifid ; rachis winged above, 
ciliated below ; pinnae oblong-triangular, with a winged rachis and 
simple or 1-4 times forked linear-serrulate segments ; sori 1-4 ter- 
minal on the segments of the pinnae on both sides ; involucre oblong, 
small, divided half down ; valves entire. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 69. 
Bedd. F. B. I. 1. 277. 

Malacca and Penang. 

(Also in Philippines and Java.) 

9. Hymenophyllum denticulatum. (Sw) Stipe 1-2 
inches long, erect, ferruginously hairy or naked, often winged towards 
the apex ; rachis winged throughout ; fronds 2-3 inches long by 1 or 
more broad at the base, ovate to narrowly oblong, glabrous, or with 
scattered hairs, slightly crisped, pinnatifid to the rachis; primary 
segments pinnatifid, secondary ones oblong, sometimes again divided, 
serrulate on the margin, involucre ovate, glabrous or scabrous, or 
rarely slightly hairy; valves serrulate, or pectinate. Swartz, Syn. 
FiL L 148 and 375. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 70. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 278. 
C/arke, Ferns of North fndia, p 438. 



Ferns ok British India and Ceylon. 35 

Khasya hüls, about Cherra Poonjce, 4,000-5,000 feet ; Bhotan, 
Birraa, Moulmein mountains, 7,000 fect. 
(Also in Java.) 

Vab. ß flaccidum. Main rachis often wilh much furru- 
ginous hair beneath ; fronds flaccid, hardly at all crisped, uldmate 
Segments slightly serrulate in their Upper portion only, the main 
rachis quite entire, valves of the involucre slightly serrulate at the 
summit. H. Khasianum, Htok, Syn. Fil. p. 464. Bedd. F. B. J. 
t. 276. Clarkt, l. f., p. 438. 

Khasya Hills, growing with the type. Mr. Clarke, who has seen 
it growing, considers it only a variety of denticulatum. 



10. Hymenophvllum 
Neesii. {Hook) Stipe 
3-1 inches long, naked, 
or slightly winged, with 
a crispate margin on both 
sides; frond ovate, about 
a inches long, j-i inch 
b'oad, tripinnatifid ; ra- 
chis winged throughout, 
the wing and pinnas 
much crisped ; pinnse 
with distant, narrow, sim- 
ple or 1-3 times deeply 
forked, deeply toothed 
Segments ; sori small, 
usually single, supra- 
axillary on the Upper 




[Hooi.) 



pinns ; involucre subeylindrical below, divided more than half-way 
down, with two acute spinulose-dentate valves. Hook. Syn. Fil. 
p, 71. Bedd. F. S. I- t. 279. Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense, 
Bedd. F.S-It. 365. 



36 Ferxs of British Ixdia and. Ceylon. 

Ceylon, central provinces ; Tinnevelly on the Chokampatty hüls, 
5,000 feet ; Penang. 

(Also in Java, Borneo, Fiji, and Philippines.) 

11. Hvmenophyllum Levingii. (Clarke.) Very delicate in 
texture ; stipe 1 inch, with moniliform hairs ; frond 1-2 inches long, 
more or less covered with moniliform hairs, narrowly oblong, not 
crisped, pinnatifid to the winged rachis; primary segments 1-4 
lobate, ultimate segments oblong, remotely serrate, their midrib with 
many hairs and lanceolate scales of the same texture as the frond ; 
involucres usually 1-2 at the end of the segment, small glabrous 
subquadrate ; valves separating nearly to the base entire or slightly 
toothed at the apex. Clarke, F. of North fndia, p. 439. /. xxix. 

fig- 3- 

Sikkim ; Yoksun and Neebay, 7,000 feet elevation. 



GENUS XIII. — TRICHOMANES. {Smith.) 

(Thrix, a hair; manos, soft.) 

Sori marginal, always terminating a vein, more or less sunk in 
the frond, involucre monophyllous, tubulär, closely corresponding 
with the frond in texture, the mouth truncated or winged, or slightly 
two-lipped ; receptacle filiform, elongated, often considerably exserted 
bcyond the mouth of the involucre, capsuliferous principally at the 
basc ; capsule sessile, depressed, surrounded by an entire broad 
nearly transversa ring, bursting vertically. Like the last genus in 
habit of growth and delicaey of texture. 

1. Trichomanes Motleyi. (/*. Z>. B.) Rhizome creeping, 
more or less tomentose; fronds very small, sessile, or shortly 
stalkcd» atx>ut { inch broad, cordate-orbicular, sometimes some- 
what IoIkhL sterile ones nearly entire, fertile ones with a deep apical 
sinus ; veins in the sterile fronds radiating from the base without any 
dtstinet central costa, but a distinet costa is present in the fertile 
frv>nd$ ; spurious \xins indistinet, a distinet marginal band ; involucre 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 37 

stalked, proceeding frora the base of the sinus, the mouth spreading 
and much dilated. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 73. T. Henzaiense, Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 183. 

Tenasserim, Andamans, Ceylon. 

(Also in Borneo and New Caledonia.) 

2. Trichomanes exiguum. {Bedd. under Hymenophyllum.) 
Rhizome wide-creeping ; stipe very short ; frond \ to \ inch linear- 
oblong, narrowed at the base, blunt repand, rarely somewhat 
pinnatifid; veins pinnate from a central costa, simple or forked, 
spurious venules few but nearly as prominent as the veins, not 
reaching the costa, and often not touching the margin ; involucre 
solitary, terminal, the base sunk in the frond ; valves entire, large 
and spreading; receptacle exserted or included. Bedd. F. B. I. 
/. 275. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 464. 

Wynaad and Coorg, 3,000-4,000 feet ; Ceylon. 

3. Trichomanes neilgherrense. {Bedd.) Rhizome creeping 
more or less tomentose ; stipe 3-6 lines long, glabrous or tomentose, 
fronds glabrous, very small up to 1 inch long, ovate to elliptic lan- 
ceolate or linear, entire or somewhat lobed ; veins from a more or 
less distinct central costa, spurious venules numerous, a marginal 
band generally present ; involucres terminal, 1-2 sunk in the frond, 
the mouth exserted, more or less two-lipped ; receptacles exserted. 
Bedd. F. S. I. t. 6. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 74. 

Nilgiris, abundaht about Walaghat, 3,000-4,000 feet ; Anamal- 
lay hüls, Tinnevelly and Travancore hüls ; Ceylon, central provinces. 

4. Trichomanes Henzaianum. {Parish.) Rhizome creeping, 
tomentose; stipe from obsolete up to £ inch long; frond ±-| 
inch each way, very thin, orbicular to obovate-cuneate, more or less 
lobed, central costa present or often obsolete, except towards the 
base, above which it branches off into veins ; veins prominent and 
distinct, spurious venules copious, marginal band absent or incon- 
spicuous ; involucres 1-6 sunk in the frond ; the mouth two-lipped. 



Furns of British Indta and Ceylon. 



Hook. Syn. Fil. p 75. Read. 



Parish in Hook. 2 Cent. Ftrns, I. 1. 
F. B.Li. 303- 

Moulmein and Pegue, on trees. 

5. Trichomanes muscoides. (Sc) Frond stalked, 1-3 inches 
long, by \-\ inch broad, linear- oblong to suboi bicular, eniire or 
variously lobed, 
spmious venules 
copious ; sori 
i-8, terminal on 
the lobes, the 
g tube stink in the 
frond, the mouth 
free, dilated, but 
usually scareely 
two-lipped. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 
p. 75. Btdd. F. 
B.I.t. 304. 

Northern In- 
dia ( received 
from Dyas) ; 
Khasya. 

(Also in tro- 
pical America 
and Africa, Poly- 
nesia, &c.) 

Mr. Clarke 
states that the 
typical form is 

not found in Northern India, but only the variety sublimba- 
tum, distinguished by having no troce of a marginal band, but in 
Grimth's specimen collected on the Khasya hüls, this marginal band 
is more or less present in some fronds, and I do not think it can 
be separated as a variety. This species, as I understand it, is not 




N?I8. 
TRICHOMANES PARVULUM. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



present in Ceylon or S. India, the Ceylon plant being identtcal with 
the Nilgiri T. neilgherrense. 



6. Trichomanes parvulum. (Point.) Rhizome wide-creep- 
ing, interlaced ; stipe i inch long, wiry, slender, tomentose below; 
frond i to £ inch each way, orbicular in general outline, cuneate or 
tntncate at the base, flabellately cut about half-way down from 
the outeredge in the direction of the base into narrow irregulär Seg- 
ments ; veins close, prominent, so that the frond, when dry, appears 
channelled ; dichotomous at a very small angle ; sputious venules 
numerous ; sori 4-6, terminal on the central segments, the tube 
quite sunk in the frond, the mouth dilated at the sides. Hook. 
Syn. Fil.p. 75. Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 179. 

Nilgiris. 

(Also in Japan, China, Java, Polynesian Islands, Madagascar, 
Johanna Island, and the Moluccas.) 



'.) Rhizome wide-creep- 



7. Trichomanes proi.if.rum. (Bit 
ing, interlaced; stipe i-z ine her. 
long, slender, bearing 1-3 deeply 
divided fronds about 1 inch broad 
each way, ovate ■ lanceolate to 
toundish ; segments narrow dicho- 
tomonsly branched, divided down 
nearly to the central rachis ; veins 
numerous, irregulär; sori 4-12, 
terminal, the tube quite sunk, the tf 

mouth obscurely two-Iipped; re- 
ceptacles exserted. Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 76. Bedd. FS././. 26 

Nilgiris, west slopes, 3,000 feet ; Travancore Hills, Ceylon. 

(Also in Java and the Philippine Islands.) 




N?I9. 
ICHOMAN ES niCITATUM. 



8. Trichomanes Digitatum. (Swarlz) Stipe very slender, 
naked, \ inch long; frond 1-3 inches long, i-i inch broad, irregulär 
in general outline, divided down nearly to ihe base, or a broadly- 



40 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 



winged rachis into long broadly-linear dichötomous segments, some- 
tiraes ciliate, with only a central costa in each ; sori 2-6, terminal on 
the segments ; involucre cup-shaped, quite sunk, the mouth broadly 
dilated, slightly two-lipped. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 76. T. coiticola, 
Btdd. RS.I.I. 264. 

Ceylon, Ambagamwa district ; also collected by GrifGth either 
in North India or the Malay peninsula. 

(Also in Mauritius, Bourbon, Java, and the Polynesian Islands.) 



9. Trichomanes Kurzii. (Btdd.) Rhi/ome slender, wide 
creeping; stipe very short; frond not 1 inch long, cuneate below, 
deeply pinnaü- 
fid, primary seg- 
ments 1-3 lo- 
bate, ultimate 
segments linear, 
texture thick, 
surface some- 
what undulated, 
{Btdd.) margin bound- 

ed by a thickened line, a central vein only in each segment ; sori 
1-2 to a Trend, subterminal, the involucre turbinate, sunk in the 
frond, the mouth dilated but without lips. Btdd. F. B. I. f. 286. 
Trich. nanum, Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 77. Crepidomanes nanum, V. 
D. B. Hymen. Suppl.p. 122. Clarkt, F. N. Lp. 440. 

Assam, Andaman Islands ; Mähbar, at Poodoopady, foot of the 
Tambacherry Ghat. 




10. Trichomanes viridans. (Meli.) Rhizome creeping, to- 
mentose ; fronds with a broadly winged stipe -J-i inch long, very 
irregulär in outline, more or less deeply pinnatifid nearly down to the 
midrib ; segments again more or less deeply divided, obtuse and 
rounded at the apex of the lobes ; veins erect-patent Crom a 
central costa one to each lobe of the segments ; spurious venules 
lineolate, numerous, very short and detached ; sori numerous, terminal 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon, 41 

at the apex of the lobes, tube almost entirely exserted, only the base 
being sunk in the margin of the frond, the mouth dilated. Kuhn, 
£**• 35> t* 389. T. pusillum, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 302. (Not of 
Swartz.) 

Moulmein. 

11. Trichomanes intramarginale. (Hook and Graf.) Rhi- 
zome slender, creeping, tomentose ; stipe short ; frond 1-2 inches 
long, |— i inch broad, tapering below, erect pinnatifid, central portion 
1 line broad, segments few, erect, simple, forked or pinnate, sub- 
coriaceous, opaque, the apices retuse, a central costa only in each 
segment, but the margin thickened ; involucres 1-4 to a frond, sub- 
cylindric, tapering at the base, sunk entirely in the apex of the 
segments ; receptacles protruding. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 79. Bedd. F. 
S. I. /. 208. 

Sivagiri Hills (Tinnevelly district) ; Malabar plains, foot of the 
Bhagamandal Ghat, which descends from Coorg ; Ceylon, in the 
Ambagamwa district. 

12. Trichomanes pallidum. (Blume.) Rhizome creeping, 
slender, tomentose ; stipe 1-3 inches long, wiry, slender ; fronds 2-6 
inches long by i-i£ inch broad, ovate to lanceolate bipinnatifid, 
divided down to a narrowly winged rachis, glauco-fuscous when dry, 
primary divisions broad-lanceolate, the segments all acute-linear, 
simple or forked ; veins broad and few ; sori 1-4 to a pinna, super- 
axillary on short segments partially sunk, short cylindrical, attenuated 
at the base, the mouth broad-spreading, but scarcely two-lipped. 
Blume Hook. Syn. Fit. p. 80. T. glauco-fuscum, Hook. Sp. Fil. 1 , 
p. 128. Bedd. F. S. L t 263. 

Ceylon, Ambagamwa district ; Penang. 

(Also in the Pacific Islands, and the Philippines.) 

13. Trichomanes bipunctatum. (Poir.) Rhizome wide- 
creeping, tomentose, rather slender, stipes 1-2 inches long, naked 
slightly winged above; frond 1-4 inches long, ij- 2 inches broad, 



42 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



ovate, tripinnatifid, main rachis with a very narröw wing or free 
below; pinnas ovate-rhomboidal, pinnatifid down to a narrowly- 
winged rachis ; the lower pinnule again deeply pinnatifid ; ultimate 
segment linear ; texture firm, membranaceous ; a central costa in 
each segment, spurious venules none or indistinct ; sori 1-4 to a 
pinna, axillary or terminal on the Segments; tube sunk or some 
what exserted ; the mouth very distinctly two-lipped, the lips sub- 
triangular with a round ed apex. Poiret in Encyc. Meth. Bot. 
viii. 69. Trich. Filicula, Bory. Hook, Syn. FiL p. 81. Bedd. 
F B. I. t. 283. 

Himalayas and Khasya hüls, up to 6,000 feet ; all the western 
furests of the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, up to 8,000 feet ; 
Ceylon ; Birma. 

(Also throughout the tropics of the whole world.) 

Var. ß insigne. (V. D. B.) A narrower more slender form. 
Bedd. F B. I. /. 284. 
N. W. Himalaya. 

Var. y plicatum. ( V. D. B.) Ultimate Segments of the 
pinnules very narrow and acute ; wing of the rachis somewhat 
crisped. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 285. 

Birma. 

14. Trichomanes pyxidiferum. (Z.) Rhizome wide-creep- 
ing, tomentose, rather slender; stipe 1-2 inches long, naked, 
winged above ; frond 1-6 inches long, i-i£ inch broad, ovato- 
oblong, tripinnatifid, main rachis with a very narrow wing ; pinnae 
ovate-rhomboidal, pinnatifid down to a narrowly- winged rachis, with 
the lower pinnule again deeply pinnatifid ; ultimate segment linear, 
often emarginate at the apex; texture membranaceous; a central 
costa in each segment; spurious venules none or indistinct; sori 
1-4 to a pinna, axillary, tube more or less winged, mouth broadly 
dilated but scarcely two-lipped ; receptacle filiform, exserted. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 81. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 7. F. B. /. /. 301. A 
small variety. 

Scarcely distinguishable from No. 1 3, except by the involucre. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 43 



South Indian forests, Ceylon, Birma, Eastern Bengal. 
(Also in the tropics throughout the world.) 

Var. ß limbatum. Fronds up to 8-10 inches long, by 1^-2 
inches broad, flaccid, and larger and less cut than the type. Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 348. 

Khasya Hills, 6,000 feet. 

15. Trichomanes birmanicum. {Bedd.) Rhizome thick, wiry, 
wide-creeping, tomentose; stipe 1-3 inches long, winged throughout; 
frond 2-7 inches long up to 2 J inches broad, ovate, rachis winged ; 
pinnae very Compound, very minutely furfuraceous (under the lens), 
the ultimate Segments very narrow, \ line broad, a single costa to 
each ultimate segment ; sori copious, supra-axillary, much exsertcd, 
the mouth truncated. Bedd. F. B. I. Suppl. t. 349. 

Birma, common on the Mooleyit mountain, 5,000-6,000 
feet. 

16. Trichomanes radicans. (Sw.) Rhizome wiry, wice- 
creeping, tomentose; stipe strong, up to 6 inches long, naked or 
nearly so ; fronds up to 12 inches long and 6 inches brcad, 3-4-pin- 
natifid, main rachis naked or winged sometimes to the base of the 
stipe, lower pinnae 1-4 inches long, ovate-rhomboidal, ultimate 
segments oblong, one-nerved, tex'ure firm, membranaceous ; sori 
lateral, 1-4 to a pinnule, the tube small, subcoriaceous, more or 
less exserted, the mouth slightly lipped or altogether truncated, 
receptacle slender, elongated. Swartz, Fl. Ind. Or. 1736. Hook. 
Syn. Fil.p. 8z. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 181. T. umbrosum, Wallich. 

Himalayas from Nepal to Bhotan, 2,000-7,000 feet ; common 
in Khasya, 2,000-5.500 feet; Mergui. 

(Also scattered throughout warm, temperate regions of both 
hemispheres, and known as the Irish fern.) 

Mr. Clarke says it often climbs to the height of 10 feet, and is 
1-2 pinnate with finely divided fronds, in which State it is very 
distinct ; but it also varies so as to be with difficulty distinguished 
from pyxidiferum on one hand and auriculatum on the other. 



44 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Var. ß anceps. (Wall.) Frond smaller; stipe often winged 
to the base, primary segments pinnatifid or somewhat 2-pinnatifid ; 
lips of the involucre slightly broader than the tube. C/arke, F. N. 
Lp. 441. 

Sikkim and Khasya, frequent. 

17. Trichomanes auriculatum. (Blume.) Rhizome strong, 
wide-creeping, tomentose ; frond nearly sessile, 1-2-scarcely 3-pin- 
natifid, 6-12 inches long, 1-2 inches broad, rachis more or less 
winged, pinnae shortly stalked, ovate-rhomboidal, obliquely cuneate 
at the base, irregularly pinnatifid half down or more, ultimate Seg- 
ments ovate entire with flabellate nerves, or narrowly oblong one- 
nerved, texture subcoriaceous ; sori 2-12 to a pinna, the tube nearly 
or quite exserted, the mouth truncate. B/ume, Fl.Jav. FiL p. 225. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 82. Bedd. F. B. L t. 182. 

Sikkim, Bhotan, 2,000-7,000 feet, frequent; Khasya, 3,000- 
5,500 feet, common ; Cachar. 

(Also in Japan, Formosa, Philippines, Java, and Guiana.) 

18. Trichomanes javanicum. (Blume.) Caudex tufted with 
strong wiry roots; stipe 1-4 inches long, wiry, erect, naked, or 
villous ; fronds 2-8 inches long, 1-2 inches broad, ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, simply pinnate, pinnae oblong serrate, or linear fimbriate, 
texture subcoriaceous; veins numerous, close, central costa not 
clearly marked or continuous to the apex ; sori 1-4, placed in the 
axils of the linear segments on the upper side of the pinnae ; tube 
free, the mouth broadly dilated, but not two-lipped, receptacle much 
exserted. Bl. En. Pl.Jav. FiL 224. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 83. Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 180. 

Chittagong, up to 1,000 feet; Cachar; Malay peninsula. 
(Also in Borneo, Java, Polynesian Islands, and Madagascar.) 

19. Trichomanes rigidum. (Swartz.) Stipe tufted, erect, 
wiry, 2-8 inches long, naked or very slightly winged above ; fronds 
2-8 inches long, 2-6 inches broad, deltoid or ovate, acuminate, 
3-4 pinnatifid, the main rachis usually only slightly winged towards 




sjAvisrc»»- (*'•> 



46 Ferns of British Inima and Ceylon. 



the top ; lower pinnae 2-3 inches long, erect-patent, ovate or lan- 
ceolate-rhomboidal cut down the rachis ; pinnules deeply pinnatifid 
with deeply toothed or pinnatifid linear lobes, texture subcoriaceous, 
colour dark green, nearly black when dry, nearly naked, often slightly 
crisped ; sori 2-16 to a pinnule, small axillary, the tube more or less 
exserted, the mouth slightly dilated. Hook, Syn. Fil. p, 86. Bedd. 
F S. I. t. 8. 

Common in the moist forests on the western mountains of the 
Madras Presidency. 2,000-4,000 feet elevation, and in Ceylon and 
the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in tropical America and the West Indies, Polynesian 
Islands, New Zealand, Japan, South China, South Africa, Angola, 
Fernando Po, and the Mascareen Islands.) 

TRIBE IV.— DAVALLIEÄ. 

Sori marginal or submarginal, roundish, covered by a reniform 
or suborbicular, squamiform indusium, which is open at the apex, 
fastened broadly at the base, open or free at the sides. 

GENUS XIV.— HUMATA. (Cav.) 

(Ht/matos, humid, in Opposition to Adiantum.) 

Sori intra- or sub-marginal, globose, indusium coriaceous subor- 
bicular or reniform, attached by a broad base, the apex and sides 
free ; fronds articulated upon the rhizome, coriaceous, small usually 
deltoid, more or less dimorphous, the barren ones less cut ; veins 
always free, rhizome creeping, growing on trees or rocks. 

1. Humata heterophylla. {Smith.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 
scaly; frond shortly stalked, 3-6 inches long, 1 inch broad, 
glabrous ; the sterile ones ovate-lanceolate entire or slightly lobed at 
the base, the fertile ones narrower, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid ; sori 
2 -ic to a lobe. Hook. Syn. Fil. 88. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 100. 

Singapore, Penang, and the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Polynesian Islands.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon 



47 



2. Humata ancustata. ( Wall.) Rhizome wide - creeping, 
scaly; fronds subsessile or shortiy sta'kcd, 3-8 inches long, -J-f 
inch broad, linear, slightly and irreguSarly crenate at the margin, 
rarely once forked ; both surfaces naked ; veins parallel, simple or 
forked thickened ; sori in a row atong the edges, indusium small, 
transversely oval. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 88. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 237. 

The Malay Peninsula, Malacca, &c. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 



3. Humata parallf.la. {Wall) Caudex creeping, paleaceous ; 
fronds, 4-8 inches long, 9. rtf^S*-?- ■ 

1 j-2 inches broad, 
süpitate, coriaeeous, 
ovate-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, decply pinnati- 
fid nearly to the rachis ; 
Segments close, paral- 
lel, horizontally patent, 
linear or linear-oblong 
subfalcate entire, the 
lowcrmost pair some- 
times with a solitary 
obtuse lobe at ihe base 
beneath, rarely more ; 
involucres semiorbicu- 
lar copious marginal, 
but all pointing towards 
the apex of the Seg- 
ments in two close 
parallel lines (not point- 
ing towards the mar- 
gins) ; veins thickened sunk. 
I. 99. 

Eirma and the Malay P«iinsula. 

(Also in the Polynesian Islands.) 




HUMATA PARALLKLA. (It'alt.) 

Bedd. F. B. I. 



Hoek. Syn. Fil i 



48 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

4. Humata pedata. (Smith.) Rhizome creeping, scaly ; stipe 
2-4 inches long, fronds 2-8 long, by 1^-4 inches broad, deltoid 
in outline, cut down nearly or quite to the rachis, the lower pair of 
segments or pinnules larger than the others, and more Compound, 
deeply pinnatifid, with the segments crenated, or more or less pin- 
natifid ; sori in rows on the teeth on both sides of the lobes. Smith, 
Tentam Gen. Fil. 15. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 89. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 12. 
H. alpina, Blume, is a smaller, more finely cut variety, which is 
found in the Himalayas as well as Mergui. H. vestita (Bl.), Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 253, has a longer stipe, is more lanceolate in shape, and 
more finely cut, but is said to run into typical " pedata." 

The typical form is found on the western slopes of the Nilgiris, 
and on the Travancore Ghats, at 3,000-4,000 feet elevation ; Sikkim, 
Bhotan, Khasya, Jaintea, 4,000 feet ; Ceylon ; and the Malay 
Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, North Australia, South China, in 
Japan, and $he Mascareen Islands.) 

The variety alpina has been received from the north west 
Himalayas (Dyas), and Mergui, and also inhabits Java, Azores, and 
the Polynesian Islands. 

The variety vestita is from Ceylon, and also occurs in Java. 

GENUS XV.— LEUCOSTEGIA. (Pres/.) 

(From leucosy white ; stegos, a cover.) 

Sori intra- or sub-marginal, indusium as in Humata, but smaller, 
narrower and thinner ; fronds articulated upon the rhizome (except 
in nodosa), generally membranaceous and flaccid, generally 3-4- 
pinnatifid or pinnate, rarely only bipinnatifid ; veins forked, venules 
free ; rhizome long, creeping, growing generally on trees and rocks. 

1. Leucostegia hymenophylla (Parish MS.) Caudex 
creeping, furnished with numerous long wiry roots, stipe slender, 
3-4 inches long; fronds subglabrous, membranaceous, very flaccid 
and transparent, ovate, or deltoid-ovate pinnate ; lower pinnae deeply 
pinnatifid with the lower basal segments much the largest, and again 



50 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

pinnatifid with the segments entire or crenated, the remaining pinnae 
pinnatifid with the segments crenated; sori at the apex of the 
superior veinlets of each segment, indusium as in the genus, veins 
terminating within the margin. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 90. Bedd. F. B. L 
t. 96. 

This very delicate species was discovered near Moulmein, on 
limestone rocks, by the Rev. C. S. Parish. 

Moulmein. 

2. Leucostegia membranulosa. ( Wall) Caudex hispid, with 
very long, slender, subulate, rigid, membranaceous scales; fronds 
9-15 inches long, thin and membranaceous ovate-lanceolate and as 
well as the slender stipe and rachis pubescent-hirsute, bipinnatifid ; 
pinnae lanceolate, their rachis winged ; pinnules lanceolate pinnatifid, 
the segments ovate-lanceolate subfalcate, very acute entire or rarely 
toothed; involucres small, ovate-subrotund acute, very thin and 
membranaceous fixed by the broad base, the rest free. Hook. Syn. 
FiL p. 91. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 98. 

Very like multidentata, but differs in the scales of the rhizome, 
and in the fronds being much less Compound ; in this they are 
pinnate, with the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, in multidentata bipinnate, 
with the pinnoe deeply pinnatifid. 

Nepal, Kumaon, Moharguri Pass, 6,500 feet. 

(Also in Yunan.) 

3. Leucostegia multidentata. {Wall, under Aspidium.) 
Rhizome stout-creeping ; scales ovate-acute ; fronds with the stipe up 
to 2 feet long and 1 foot broad, deltoid, bipinnate, with the pinnules 
deeply pinnatifid, down to a winged rachis, tcxture herbaceous; 
rachises pubescent above, often furnished with a fcw distant large 
ovate scales, rachises and segments beneath, generally glandularly 
pubescent; sori 2-12 to a segment, placed at the base of its teeth, 
on the upper side of the central vein. Wall. Cat. 346. Microlepia 
pteropus. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 313. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 91. 

Himalayas, Nepal and Bhotan, 5,000-8,000 feet ; Khasya, 
4,000-5,000 feet, common. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Si 



4. Leucostegia assamica. (Bedd. under Acrophorus.) Rhizome 

creeping, covered with nuroerous imbricated chafly golden, ovate- 

acute scales ; fronds glabrous, shining, 8-14 inches long (including 

the stipe, which is 2-3 inches), 2-3 inches broad, subcoriaceous 

lanceolate, pinnate with the primary pinnse alternate or opposite, 

pinnatifid almost to the rachis, lower cnes petiolate, upper ones 

decurrent so as to form a regulär wing to the rachis, pinnules 

pinnatifid, segments toothed, each bearing one sorus, veins 

terminating within the margin; 

involucres as in the genus, as 

broad as deep. Bedd. F. B. 

I. t. 94. Hook. Sp. Fil. p. 467. 

Bhotan, Mishmee, and by 
the Dihong. 

5. Leucostegia immersa. 
( Wall.) Rhizome creeping stout, 
fibrillose ; stipe 4-8 inches long, 
strong, erect; fronds 12-18 
inches long, 6-9 inches broad, 
deltoid, tripinnate, glabrous ; 
lowest pinnule lanceolate and 
deltoid, 2-3 inches long, 1 inch 
broad, with broad segments, 
which are obliquely truncate 
at the base below, and roundly 

• 

lobed with the lobes again crenate above ; texture herbaceous ; 
sori large, impressed, clearly visible from the upper side, 1-6 to a 
segment, oblique ; involucre broader than long. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 91. 
Bedd. F. S. I. t 11. 

Madras Presidency on the Western mountains ; very abundant in 
Coorg, growing ori trees. Himalayas, from Mussorrie to Bhotan, 
3,000-6,000 feet Sikkim, Khasya, Parasnath, and the Malay 
Peninsula. 

(Also in Java.) 




N?2+ 



LEUCOSTEGIA ASSAMICA. {Bedd.) 



52 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

6. Leucostegia Hookeri. (Moore, under Acrop/torus.) Rhizorae 
stout ; scales dense, lanccolate, golden ; stipe up to 6 inches long 
slender often scaly at the base ; fronds dehoid up to io inches long, 
3-4 pinnatifid; lower pinnae opposite or alternate, lanceolate or 
deltoid, 1-2 inches broad; pinnules deltoid, ultimate Segments 
ligulate, acute, i-veined, £-1 line broad texture ; membranaceous ; sori 
at ihe base of the ultimate lobes; involucre persistent, membranaceous, 
broader thanlong. Davallia Clarkii, Baker. Syn. Ftl. p. 91. 

Himalayas, lachen, and Sirmur, 8,000-12,000 feet elevation. 
Sundukphoo, near Darjeeling, 11,000 feet. 

Very like Polypodium dareaeforme, Hook., but with acute Seg- 
ments, and differing somewhat in the scales of the rhizome. Indian 
botanists, not having seen this plant, have quoted Hookeri of Moore 
(Clarkii of Baker) as a synonym of dareaeforme, and united the 
two under the name of Leucostegia dareaeformis. Mr. Levinge 
has lately gathered this species at Sundukphoo, but the Kew 
speeimens from Lachen and Sirmur were gathered by Thomson in 
1849. I have examined a great many speeimens of dareaeforme in 
the Kew Herbarium, and can find no trace of an indusium, so I retain 
it in Polypodium ; but it is very likely that there is a fugacious 
indusium, and that it is a Leucostegia nearly allied to this species. 

7. Leucostegia pulchra. {Don. under Davallia.) Rhizome 
wide-creeping, clothed with broad-obtuse, often peltately attached 
scales; stipe 4-6 inches long, naked; fronds 9-15 inches long, 4-8 
inches broad, lanceolate- deltoid, 3-4 pinnatifid, lowest pinnule 1-2 
inches long, 1 inch broad, cut down to a narrowly-winged rachis into 
deeply pinnatifid segments, ultimate lobes narrow lanceolate, not 
distant, not very acute ; texture thin, rather flaeeid ; sori copious, 
usually as broad as the segment at the base of the teeth of which it 
is placed; involucre prominent. Dt,n. Prod. Fl. Aep. 11. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 10 (under Acrophorus). 

Madras Presidency, Western mountains, very common on rocks 
and trees ; Ceylon, central provinces, 3,000-5,000 feet ; Himalayas, 
Nepal, and Bhotan, 2,000-9,000 feet ; Khasya ; Moulmein. 




LEUC0STEGI1 PULCMRV {Doli). 



54 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



8. Leucostegia pseudo-cystopteris. (Kunze.) Very simi- 
lar to pulchra, but the ultimate segments very acute, and the scales 
of the rhizome more spreading. Kunze in Bot Zeit 1850,/. 68. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t 92. 

Himalayas, Dalhousie to Nepal, 4,000-8,000 feet 
Mr. Clarke considers it is a variety only of pulchra. 

9. Leucostegia hymenophylloides. (Blume, under Davallia.) 
Caudex creeping, thick, clothed with long narrow subulate scales ; 
fronds ample, tall, 12-24 inches long, ovate-lanceolate, membrana- 
ceous, 3-4 pinnate or supra-decompound ; primary pinnse petiolate, 
ovate-lanceolate acuminate, secondary petiolate oblong-ovate ; pin- 
nules ovate, deeply pinnatifid ; the segments ovate acute, subfalcate, 
entire or generally (the fertile ones) with a tooth on the inner margin; 
involucres small hemispherical or subreniform, placed near the centre 
of a segment below the sinus of the tooth; veins slender, black. 
Davallia affinis. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 92. Bedd. F.S. I. t 252. 

Travancore Mountains, Ceylon, 3,000-4,000 feet. 
(Also in Java and Polynesia.) 

10. Leucostegia parvula. (Wallieh.) Caudex long, creeping, 
clothed with lax subulate scales; frond very small deltoid-tripin- 
natifid, glabrous, rigid (from the stout costa), segments linear through- 
out, süghtly grooved above when dry, unequally forked and acute at 
the apices ; sori at the sinus of the forks ; involucres suborbicular, 
dilated above, and broader than the segments. Davallia parvula, 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 92. Bedd. F B. I. t 97 (under Acrophorus). 

Placed by Mettenius in Humata. 

Singapore. 

(Also in Borneo and Java.) 

11. Leucostegia nodosa (Presl. under Acrophorus?) Fronds 
tripinnate, membranaceous furfuraceous on both sides of the veins ; 
pinnules sessile (chaffy beneath at their insertions), oblong-lanceolate, 
secondary ones sessile, oblong obtuse, pinnatifid ; segments cuneiform 
obtuse, lowest ones inciso-serrate or at the base again subauriculate 







LBUCOSTBOIA NODOSA. (Pml.) 



56 



Ferns ok British India and Ceylon. 



sori solitary submarginal; rachis nodose above at the Insertion ofthe 
pinnae and ferrugineo-tomentose ; stipe not articulate, slightly rough 
or glabrous, paleaceous below ; rhizome short -creeping. Presl. Tent. 
Pter. t. 3. Hook. Syn. FU. p. 92. Bedd. F. B. I. f. 93. 

Himalayas, from Nepal to Bhotan, 3,000-7,000 feet, abundant 
in Sikkim ; Khasya, 3,000-6,000 feet ; Malacca. 

(Also in Java.) 

This difiers from the other Leucostegias in habit, and in the 
stipe not being articulate, and should be kept dUtinct as a genus 
under its original name of Acrophorus ; it is very like Diacalpc aspi- 
dioides except in the indusium. 

GENUS XVI.— PROSAPTIA. (/>u£) 
(Sori immersed in the margin of the frond.) 
Fronds contiguous, linear-lanceolate, pectinate-pinnatifid ; veins 
siriiple, free ; involucre a marginal 
cyst formed of the substance of 
the frond subcylindric. 

I. PROSAPTIA EmERSONI. 

(/>«/.) Fronds tufted, sessile, 

6-1 2 inches long, 1 inch broad, 

linear-bnceolate, cut more than 

half-way down to the rachis into 

many linear-oblong, orat the lower 

part triangulär lobes ; texture coria- 

ceous ; sori 1-6 round the edge of 

the lobes. Book. Syn. Fil p. 94. 

Bedd. RS. Lt. 20. 

f^jA AW i~-~ H'*iS^ Anamallay Mountains, South 

f\ l/i 3e" f ■'"■''■■"j^£ India, 3,000-4,000 feet; Ceylon; 

^^ Penang. 

(Also in Java, Bomeo, and the 
(rresi.) Philippine Islands.) 
2. Frosaptia contigua. (Swarlz.) Fronds tufted, sessile, or 
nearly so, 12-18 inches long, 1-1J inch broad, linear-lanceolate, cut 




53 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



down nearly or quite to the rachis into numerous linear-acuminatc 
or bluntish slighily-toothed lobes; texture coriaceous ; sori 2-8 to a 
lobe, placed in the teeth on their upper part. Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 130. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 94. Bedd. F. S. Lt. 19. 

Anamallay Mountains and Travancore Hills, on the westsideof 
the Madras Prcsidency, not common; Ceylon, central provinces, 
5,000 feeL 

(Also in Java and the Philippines.) 

GENUS XVII.— DAVALUA. {Smith.) 
(In honour of Davall, a Swiss botanist) 
Fronds pinnate, bipinnate, or deltoid-multifid, firm and glossy ; 
veins forked, venules free ; sori intra- or submarginal ; in volucres ter- 
minal on the veins, attached by the 
base and sides, and forming an 
urceolate tabular cyst impressed in 
the substance of the frond ; rhizome 
creeping or suberect ; stipe articulated 
upon the rhizome. 

1. Davallia triphylla. (Hook.) 

Caudex stout, creeping, covered with 

charTy scales ; fronds coriaceous small 

ternate, pinnas oblong-lanceolate^ ob- 

tuse cuneate at the base, in fertile 

plants more elongated, all of them 

entire, intermediate ones petiolate, 

lateral ones shorter, sessile, oblique 

at the base, veins horizontally patent, 

copious, crowded, parallel, forked, 

thickened, flat (not prominent); invo- 

' ** "' lucres semicylindrical, compressed, 

crowded so as to form an uninterrupted marginal Hne the whole 

length of the pinnse. Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 162, and Syn. Fil. p. 94. 

Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 105. 

Singapore. 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



59 



2. Davallia solida, (Swart%.) Tal!, caudex stout, creeping, 
clwhed with densely imbricated scales, fronds coriaceous trisub- 
quadripinnate, pinnas acuminate ; pinnules trapeziform acuminate, 
pinnatifid, many-veined, terminal ones crenate-serrate coadunate 
into an acuminated point ; involucres linear-oblong, sunk in a tooth 
w segment having a narrow wing on each side or entire. Hook. Sp. 
EL'v 163. Siv. Syn. Fil. pp. 132 and 1^. Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 95. 
'id. F. 3. 1. 1. 104. The width of the pinnules and the amount 
ofcutting differ considerably. 



Davallia ornata {Walt.) is a 
variety with the pinnules very 



KJ.1t. 



«ÄJ 



liirma ; Penang ; and 



; -b^f 



(Also in Java and the 

Polynesian Islands.) 

3. Davallia elegans. 

(•&'■) Rhizome stout, creep- 

iofedothed with woolly fibres ; 

stipe firm, erect, 4-8 inches 

'*g; fronds 1-2 feet long, 

H5 inches broad, deltoid- 
Iripinnatifid ; main rachis 
slightly winged towards the 
apex; pinnules of the lower n°30. 

pinnae 2-3 inches long, 1 inch davallia solida. 

Wide, deltoid'lanceolate, cut down quite to the rachis i 
pait, with oblong-deltoid segments, which are slightly toothed 
and obliquely truncate at the base on the lower side; texture 
coriaceous; venation dose, prominent, irregulär, many spurious 
renules between the veins proper ; sori several to a segment, mar- 
ginal, but the sharp teeth projecting beyond them at the edges; 
involucrehalfcup-shaped. Hosk. Syn. Fil. p. 95. Bedd.F.SI.t.iZ. 
Westem mountains of Madras ; Ceylon, 2,000-3,000 feet 
elevatum ; Malay Feninsula. 




6o Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



(Also in China, Java, Borneo, Tropical Australia, Polynesun 
Islands, Madagascar, Ango'a, Fernando Po, and Johanna Island.) 

4. Davallia epiphylla. (Blume.) Rhizome thick, fibrinöse; 
stipe 4-6 inches long, erect, firm; fronds 12-15 inches long, 6-9 
inches broad, deUoid-ianceo'ate, tripinnatifid ; main rachis hardly at 
all winged ; pinnules of the lowest pinnae lanceolate, 1 \ inch long, 
\ inch broad ; segments narrow, mucronate, sharply toothed ; texture 
coriaceous ; veins not immersed, one or two carried into each tooth ; 
sori small, subraarginal, half cup-shaped, with the sharp mucro of 
the tooth extending beyond them. Ho*k. Syn. Fil. p. 96. Bedd. 
SuppL to Ferns ', t. 350. 

Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in Java. ) 

5. Davallia divaricata (Blume.) Rhizome creeping, clothed 
with long lanceolate-caudate chestnut scales; stipe firm, erect, 
6-1 2 inches long ; fronds 2-3 feet long, tripinnatifid ; lower pinnae 
often 1 2 inches long by 6 inches broad ; segments deltoid, cut down 
to the rachis in the lower part, with linear-oblong, sharply-toothed 
lobes ; texture coriaceous ; veins uniform, not conspicuous ; sori half 
cup-shaped, placed obliquely as regards the central veins in the teeth 
at some distance from the edge ; involucres as long as broad. Hook. 
Syn. Fil. p. 96. D. polyantha (Hook), Bedd. F. B. I. t. 107. 

Sikkim, Mishmee, Khasya; Ma ] ay Peninsula. 
(Also in South China and Java.) 

6. Davallia Griffithiana. (Hook.) Rhizome creeping, stout, 
clothed with long lanceolate-caudate white or yellowish scales ; stipe 
erect, wiry, 4-6 inches long ; fronds 9-1 2 inches long, 4-8 inches broad, 
deltoid 3-4-pinnatifid ; pinnules of the lower pinnae lanceolate-deltoid, 
2-3 inches long, 1 inch or more broad ; lower segments toothed on 
the barren fronds, cut down nearly to the rachis in the fertile ; texture 
coriaceous ; sori large, submarginal or marginal ; involucres cup- 
shaped, very shortly attached on the sides. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 96. 



Ferns of British Inoia and Ceylon. 6i 



Bcdd. F. B. L /. 106. The texture and habit of Davallia, but the 
indusium is nearer that of Leucostegia. 

Bhotan and Mishmee, Khasya and Jaintea, 3,000-5,000 fett. 

(Also in South China.) 

7. Davallia Lorrainei. {Harne.) Rhizome tbick as a quill; 
scales linear- subulate, nearly black, densely grey ciliated ; stipe 
3-4 inches long, naked brownish; fronds £-1 foot long, deltoid, 

• 4-pinnatifid ; pinnae stalked deltoid, lowest largest produced on 
the lower side, thelr rachises winged to base ; pinnules and Segments 
subsessile, crowded deltoid much reduced on lower sidc ; final lobes 
ligulate, i-J lines broad, with soius at base of inner side ; texture 
subcoriaceous ; surfaces naked; barren lobes i-veined; involucre 
subc)lindrical, \ line long. Hanee. Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. vol. v. 
/• 254. Hook. Syn. FJ. p. 469. Bedd. F. B. I. Suppt. p. 4. /. 351. 
Malay Peninsula. 

8. Davallia bullata. {Wall.) Rhizome creeping, stout, 
densely clothed with bair-pointed chestnut scales ; stipe strong, 
erect, 3-4 inches long; fronds 8-12 inches long, 4-8 inches broar«, 
deltoid, 4-pinnatifid ; pinnules of the lower pinnae lanceolate, 2-3 
inches long, 1 inch broad, with deeply inciso-pinnatifid oblong 
rhomboidal segments; texture coriaceous; sori deeply half cup- 
shaped, occupying the greater part of the tooth in which they are 
placed, marginal, with usually a hom on the outside. Hook. Syn. 
Fil. 97. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 17. 

All the Western Ghats of Madras and Bombay Presidencies ; 
Himalayas, Nepal to Bhotan, 2,000-6,000 feet ; Khasya; Ceylon; 
Birma, and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Japan, South China, and the Malay Islands.) 

• 

9. Davallia speciosa. (Meli.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 2 lines 
thick, scales ferruginous dense linear-subulate ; stipe 3-5 inches, 
naked, biown, stramineous; frond deltoid, 4-pinnatifid, i-i£ foot 
long ; lachis winged in upper half, pinnae lanceclate-deltoid, long- 
stalked, lowest largest 3-4 inches broad; pinnules and segments 



62 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



deltoid, with rachises winged to base, cuneate-truncate on lowet 
side, final lobes lanceolate-falcate under i line broad, with sonis on 
upper side at base ; texture subcoriaceous ; surfaces naked ; involucre 
cup-shaped, broader than deep, J line broad, oblique, close to final 
sinuses. Hook. Syn. Fil. 469. Bedd. F. B. I. Suppt. t. 35a. 
Moulmein. 



GENUS XVIII.— MICROLEPIA. (Pres/.) 

(Aficros, small ; lepis, a scale, the small indusium.) 

Fronds pinnate or variously Compound ; texture various ; veins 
simple or pinnately Ibrked ; venules free ; sori intra- or sub marginal ; 
involucre membranaceous, half 
cup-shaped, attached at the sides 
as well as the base ; rhizome 
creeping ; stipe continuous with 
the caudex. 

r. MICROLEPIA HOOKERIANA. 

(Wali.) Stipe a foot and 

more long, pubescent, at length 

glabrous ; rachis hireute-pubes- 

cent ; fronds lanceolate pinnate ; 

pinnre subpetiolate lanceolate from 

a broad hastate base, gradually 

acuminated submembranaceous, 

duplicate-crenated, sparingly hairy 

on the costa and veins beneath ; 

veins parallel, dichotomous ; sori 

approximate, forming a continued 

line at the base of the crenatures 

of the margin; involucres half cup-shaped; stipes and rachis 

pubescent-hirsute. Hook. Syn. FÜ.p. 97. Bedd. F. B.I.t. ioi. 

Sylhet, Upper Assam, Khasya and Mikir Hills. 

(Also in Hong Kong.) 




(»'«*.) 




DAVALLIA BULLATA. (Wall.) 



64 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



2. Microlepia pinnata. (Cav.) Rhizome creeping, fur- 
nished with fibrinöse scales; stipe strong, erect, 6-12 inches long, 
glossy ; fronds 9-15 inches long, 4-8 inches broad, lanceolate- 
pinnate, glabrous ; pinnae slightly toothed, 6 inches long, i inch broad, 
coriaceous, linear-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, obliquely acuminate 
at the base ; sori one to each tooth, small, submarginal ; veins sunk, 
inconspicuous, generally forked; involucres small, half-cup-shaped. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 98. Bedd. F. S. I. /. 14. 

Anamallay Mountains ; Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in Java and Polynesian Islands.) 

3. Microlepia marginalis. (Thunb. ander Folypodium.) Fronds 
broadJy ovate-lanceolate, firm, membranaceous ; pinnae elongate, 
lanceolate, subfalcate, acuminate, pinnatifid-lobate, the acuminated 
apices serrated, pubescent-villous beneath, most so on the costa and 
prominent veins, unequally cuneate at the base, and subpetiolate ; 
lobes acute crenate-dentate ; veins pinnated ; sori solitary in the axils 
of the smaller and upper lobes or serratures, and distant from the 
margin, marginal on the small teeth of the larger lobes ; involucres 
broad half-cup-shaped, densely villous ; rachis and stipe downy, the 
latter at length glabrous ; rhizome creeping, villous ; stipe 1-2 feet 
long, erect, strong; fronds 18-24 inches long, 9-15 inches broad, 
once pinnate. Polyp, marginale, Thunb. FL Japan, p. 337. Micro- 
lepia scabra, Don. Bedd. F. B. I.t. 102. 

Nepal and Kumaon, Khasya, Mikir Hills. 
(Also in Japan and Formosa.) 

Var. ß calvescens. {Hook.) Pinnae narrower and more deeply 
pinnatifid, nearly glabrous beneath, except the strigose midrib. 
Davallia calvescens. Hook. Sp. Fil. I.p. 172, /. 48 B. D. urophylla 
(Wallich), Bedd. F. B. I. t. 103. 

Kumaon. 

4. Microlepia urophylla. {Hook.) Rhizome creeping; stipe 
strong, erect, 2-3 feet long ; fronds bipinnate, tripinnatifid, coriaceous, 
shining above and beneath, but pubescent on the rachiscs bclow; 



66 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

secondary pinnae lanceolate-linear, very finely caudate, cut down 
nearly to the rachis into ovate acuminate, unequal sided toothed 
lobes; sori submarginal, one to each of the lower sinuscs of the 
lobes. Hook, Syn. Fil. p. 99, tiot of Wallich or Bedd. Clarke> F. N. 
I. t. 50. 

Bhotan (allied to M. platyphylla). 

5. Microlepia platyphylla. (Don.) Rhizome creeping, stout, 
scaly; stipes 2-3 feet long, firm erect; frond 3-4 feet long, tri- 
pinnatifid; lower pinnse 12-15 inches long, 6-9 inches broad, 
lanceolate with distant linear-lanceolate pinnules, which are cut 
nearly to the wavy rachis below, into broad, bluntish toothed, oblong- 
deltoid lobes ; texture coriaceous when adult, glabrous and shining 
on both surfaces, but when young more or less membranaceous and 
hairy ; sori 2-12 to a segment, placed one in each tooth, a short 
distance from the edge, about a line across. Don. Fl. Prod. Ncp* 
10. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 99. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 13. 

Madras Presidency, throughout the Western mountains, up to 
nearly 6,000 feet; Ceylon; Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhotan 
3,000-5,500 feet elevation ; Khasya. 

6. Microlepia Kurzii. (Clarke.) Fronds large tripinnatifid ; 
pinnae as in platyphylla, with linear-lanceolate pinnules, which are cut 
down to its rachis (which is not wavy, or only slightly so towards the 
apex) below into triangulär subobtuse or ianceolate-caudate lobes, 
which are bluntly serrate ; texture not so coriaceous as in platy- 
phylla, uniformly pubescent beneath, even when adult ; venation 
much less prominent than in platyphylla ; involucres finely ciliated 
round the margin. Clarkt F. N. I. p. 446. 

Birma. 

This is very like platyphylla, and may turn out to be only a 
variety of it. I have only seen one specimen. 

7. Microlepia majüscula. {Lowe.) Rhizome creeping, tomen- 
tose; stipe 6-12 inches long, erect naked ; fronds up to 3 feet long 
lanceolate-deltoid, tripinnatifid ; lower pinnae 9-1 2 inches long, 3-4 
inches broad, lanceolate; pinnules lanceolate acuminate, cut down 



Ferxs of British India and Ceylon. 67 



nearly or quite to the rachis into blunt slightly crenated oblong lobes, 
rachis and both surfaces slightly hairy, the Upper bright green, shining ; 
texture subcoriaceous ; sori small submarginal, 2-12 to a segment. 
Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 99. Microlepia proxima (Thw.),2tofl/. F. S. L t. 254. 
Ceylon, Rangbodde, 3,500 feet elevation. 

8. Microlepia strigosa. (Sivartz.) Fronds tall, lanceolate, bi- 
pinnate ; stipes elongated ; rachis and veins pubescent-hispid, primary 
pinnae petiolate, lanceolate-acuminate, secondary (or pinnules) mostly 
petiolate, subdimidiate-ovate, obtuse pinnatifid, chiefly on the upper 
edge, lower lobes obovate deep, the rest short, all of them angulate- 
dentate, veins pinnated, furnished with a few long scattered hairs both 
above and beneath (the remaining surface of the frond beneath being 
sometimes furnished with numerous small hairs, or sometimes gla- 
brous as is the Upper surface); involucres hairy, small, half cup-shaped. 
Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 98. Bedd. F. S. I. t 255, 

Tinnevelly and Travancore Mountains, South India ; Ceylon ; 
Himalayas ; and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Japan, South China, Sandwich and Fiji Islands.) 
Mr. Clarke considers this a variety, or rather only a young State 
of speluncae, as he states it develops into this more Compound 
form ; as far as the South Indian and Ceylon forms are concerned, 
this is never more than bipinnate, whereas speluncce is 3-4 pin- 
nate ; it has been for years in cultivation in ferneries, at Ootaca- 
mund, and is quite constant. 

9. Microlepia speluncae. (Linn.) Rhizome creeping; stipes 
strong, 1-1* foot long; fronds up to 6 feet long, rarely more, and 
2 feet broad, ovate to deltoid, 3-4-pinnatifid, more or less 
hairy, strigose or villous, or with few or many long glistening scale- 
like flaccid hairs, rarely sub-glabrous ; texture membranaceous, or 
flaccid, pinnules from oblong or ovate to linear-lanceolate, ultimate 
segments entire or subentire and rhomboid, or irregularly inciso- 
obate or pinnatifid ; sori large 1-5 to the entire segments, more 
copious on the lobed segments ; involucre half cup-shaped, hispid or 
rarely glabrous; veins more or less prominent beneath. Polypodium 
speluncsy Lin. Sp. PI. 1555. 



68 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



The Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards ; Khasya ; Chittagong ; 
Madras, Western mountains ; Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in China, Japan, Malay Islands, Polynesia, and Tropical 
America.) 

Type. Ultimate segments rhomboidal, subentire, or slightly 
crenated. Davallia rhomboidea, Wall. Cat 257. 

Var. ß hirta. Ultimate segments more or less deeply cut 

Rhomboidea (Microlepia polypodioides, Bcdd. F. S. L t 15) 
can easily be picked out in the herbarium : it is very uniform in char- 
acter, and does not run into hirta in cultivation ; it is very common 
throughout India and in Ceylon. 

The variety hirta (Bedd. F. S. I. 256) is a much more variable 
plant, and I refer tothis Wall. Cat. 262 puberula; 263 pilosula ; 264 
virens; 2,218 Roxburghii, and 261 pyramidata. These are all so 
closely allied that it is impossible to keep them up as separate 
varieties, and they besides run one into the other. There are two 
varieties in Southern India and Ceylon : one very hairy and the other 
nearly quite glabrous, but differing in no way beyond the pubescence. 
The supposed species, flaccida {Bedd. F. Sup. t. 353) I now consider 
only a form of hirta, as I cannot distinguish it in the herbarium, it 
is said to be very flaccid, and to have fronds ten and twelve feet long. 
I have seen no forms anything like so large in Southern India or 
Ceylon, yet some Ceylon and South Indian specimens are referred to 
it. Wallich's pyramidata has the pinnules closer together and more 
elongated than any of the other forms, but otherwise it is quite like 
hirta. 

GENUS XIX.— STENOLOMA. (Ftc.) 

(Sfenos, narrow; Iowa, border.) 

Fronds bi-tripinnatifid, ultimate segments cuneiform, growing 
gradually wider from the base to the apex; veins dichotomously 
forked, venules free ; indusium terminal on the segments, forming a 
compressed suborbicular, or cup-shaped pouch, only open at the top ; 
rhizome creeping ; stipes tufted, not articulated upon the rhizome. 




STINOLOMA CHINESHS, [Sw.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



i. Stenoloma chinensis. (Swariz.) Rhizome stout, densely 
fibrinöse; stipes strong, erect, polished, naked, dark bfown, 6-12 
inches long; fronds 12-18 inches long, 6-9 inches broad, ovate, 
4-pinnatifid; lower pinnae ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 inches long, 2-3 
inches broad ; pinnules lanceolate, their segments cut down to the 
rachis below, with toothed cuneate lobes, 1-1J lines across at the 
apex ; texture subcoriaceous, both surfaces naked, the upper 
sharing; sori terminal, usually solitary, often rather broader than 
deep. Swariz Syn. FiL 133 (under Davallia) Davallia tenuifolia, 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 102. Bedd. F. S. I.L 16. 

Madras Presidency, Western mountains, 3,000-6,000 feet: 
Himalayas, Kumaon to Bhotan, up to 1,000-4,000 feet; Khasya; 
Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in China, Japan, Polynesia, and the East African Islands.) 

GENUS XX.— CYSTOPTERIS. (Bernh.) 
(Cysfos, a cyst, in allusion to the inflated indusium.) 

Fronds more or less Compound, membranaceous ; sori globose, 
placed on the back of the veins ; indusium membranaceous, subor- 
bicular inserted by its broad base, under the sorus, which, at the 
beginning it Covers or partially covers like a hood ; veins free. 

1. Cystopteris fragilis. (Benin.) Stipes 2-12 inches long; 
fronds glabrous, weak, up to 1 foot, ovate-lanceolate, tripinnatifid ; 
main rachis slightly winged above; pinnae lanceolate- deltoid ; pin- 
nules oblong-rhomboidal, cut down to a broad central space into 
bluntly or sharply-toothed segments ; sori 2-12 to a pinnule. Hook, 
Syn. FiL 103. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 91. 

North West Himalayas, from Kashmir to Kumaon, 10,000- 
15,000 feet elevation ; Sikkim. 

(Also in most parts of the world, in cold regions.) 

2. Cystopteris setosa. (Bedd.) Caudexerect; stipes 1 foot long, 
sparsely covered with small flaccid subulate light-brown scales ; fronds 
tufted 3-3 i feet long, tripinnate, pinnae 8-10 inches long, lowest 




CVSTOPTBRIS SETOSA. (BedJ.) 



72 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

pair nearly as long as the central ones, gradually decreasing in size 
towards the apex, pinnules pinnatifid to nearly the rachis, but always 
more or less connected by a decurrent wing, very membranaceous 
and flaccid, and furnished on both sides sparsely (as is the rachis and 
costa) with long weak pellucid jointed setae; segments of the pinnules 
generally as broad at the apex as at the base, more or less pinnatifid, 
with the lobes obtusely rounded or variously toothed ; veins forked 
and simple reaching the margin ; sori one to each segment, medial on 
the lower vein ; involucre very membranaceous, small scale-like, ovate, 
roundish ovate, or oblong, from a broad base fornicate, not nearly 
covering the sorus, fi mbriate or entire, fugacious. Bedd. R B. I. /. 
312 ; also /. 262, under Lastrea. 

Moulmein Mountains ; Sikkim 5,000-8000 feet. 

TRIBE V.— LINDSAYEÄ. 

Sori placed in a line, at or very near the edge of the frond, 
covered with an involucre, the inner valve of which is membra- 
naceous, the outer formed of the margin of the frond. 

GENUS XXI.— LINDSAYA. (Dryand.) 

(In honour of Dr. Lindsay, a writer on Ferns.) 

Sori marginal or submarginal, placed to the apex of, and uniting 
two or more veins ; involucre double, opening outwardly, the inner 
valve membranaceous, the outer formed of the more or less changed 
margin of the frond ; veins free ; pinnae unilateral or equilateral. 

§ Pinna unilateral. 

1. Lindsaya cultrata. (Sivartz.) Rhizome wiry, creeping, 
furnished with linear scales, stipes wiry flexuous, 3-6 inches long ; 
fronds 6-12 inches long, about 1 inch broad, simply pinnate, pinnae 
unequal-sided, lower edge nearly straight near the main nerve ; upper 
cdge slightly lobed or nearly entire ; lower pinnae stalked ; texture 
rather coriaceous. Swartz. Syn. FiL 119. Hook. Syn. Fil. 105. 
Bcdd. F. 5. I. /. 23. Lindsaya Lobbiana (Hook.), Bedd. F. B. L 
f. 2S. A variety with rounded pinnse, and a v^^ed rachis. 




UHBSAYA CVLTRATA. (.Sw.) 



74 



Fkkns of British India and Ceylon. 



Vcry common on the western side of the Madras Presidency, up 
to 6,000 feet, called the hay-scented fern, from its scent when drying. 
Ceylon, higher altitudes in the central provinces. Himalayas, Nepal, 
to Mishmee and Chittagong, up to 4,000 feet ; Birma and the Malay 
Peninsula. 

(Also in North Australia, Formosa, Japan, Malay Islands, and 
East African Islands.) 

2. Lindsaya repens. (Thw.) Caudex creeping, scaly; stipts 
short; fronds rigid, membianaceous linear-lanccolate, 10-18 inches 
long, \ inch broad, pinnate attenuated at the base; pinnae very 
numerous, 40 or more pair, half deltoid-ovate obtuse or sub-acute, 

base nearly parallel with the rachis, and with the 
lower margin quite entire, upper margin lobulate- 
crenate, costa parallel with and close to the 
margin ; veins simple or forked, free ; sori short, 
oblong, one near the margin of each lobule. 
7hw. En. PL 388. Bedd. F. S. /. /. 209. 
Odontoloma, Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 93. Lindsaya 
pectinata (Blume), Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 106. 

Ceylon, Singhe-Rajah Forest; Mishmee, 
Khasya, Sikkim-Terai, Dulkajhar 1,000 feet; 
Malay Peninsula. 
Also in the Malay Islands, Polynesia and Mauritius.) 

Var. ß minor. A smaller form, more membranaceous, and more 
deeply pinnatifid; sori much shorter. Ihw. I. c. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 214. 

3. Lindsaya scandens. {Hook.) Rhizome stout, wide-creeping, 
scandent, paleaceous; frond 9-12 inches long, i\-\\ inch broad, 
simply pinnate; pinnae \ inch long, \ inch broad, the lower line 
slightly decurved, the upper rounded, entire, the point broadly 
rounded, placed in a long row close together, but not imbricated ; 
texture pellucid-herbaceous ; costa marginal ; sori in a continuous 
marginal line. Hook. Sp. Fil. i. p. 205, /. 63 B. ; Syn. Fil. p. 106. 
Bedd, F. B. I. t. 298. 

The Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in the Philippine Islands.} 




N°37. 
LINDSAYA SCANDENS. 

{Hook.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 75 

4. Lindsaya orbiculata. (Zam. under Adianfum.) Rhizome 
creeping ; stipes tufted, generally elongated, fronds linear-lanceolate 
and pinnate or deltoid and bipinnate ; pinnules approximate shortly 
petiolate, rather rigid flabellate, and approaching to lunate or sub- 
rhomboid, with the sides unequal, the base obliquely cuneate, some- 
times the upper ones are confluent, the superior margin crenulate or 
soriferous ; no distinct midrib ; sori continuous or interrupted ; in- 
volucres toothed. Hook. Syn. Fil. i. 211. L. flabellulata, Hook. 
Syn. Fil. p. 107. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 216. 

Davallia trichomanoides, Bedd. F. B. L f. 178 (not Blume) an 
abnormally cut variety. D. schizophylla, Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 468. 

Var. jS tenera. Pinnules of thinner texture, and obtusely 
rounded in outline. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 24. This is the only form 
found in the Madras Presidency. 

Western Forests of Madras ; Ceylon ; Khasya, Assam, Jaintea ; 
Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in South China and Australia.) 

5. Lindsaya Lancea. (Z. under Adiantum.) Rhizome creep- 
ing ; stipes strong, up to 12 inches long ; frond up to 15 inches long, 
bipinnate ; pinnae, several pairs erect-patent ; pinnules about 1 inch 
long, by \-\ inch deep, the lower line nearly straight, the upptr 
rounded entire; texture pellucid-herbaceous ; sori in a continuous 
line round the upper margin. Ad'antum Lanceum. L. Lindsaea tra- 
peziformis (Dry.), Hook. Syn. Fil. 107. L. caudata(Hook.), Bedd. F. 
&f. t. 217. Mr. Wall sends from Ceylon a form with numerous 
pinnae, which taper away into a long caudate apex, the lower pinnules 
being obovate from a longish stalle, and much smaller than in the type ; 
the upper pinnules very small and tongue-shaped. 

Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical America, the West Indies, and the Malay 
Islands.) 

6. Lindsaya rigida. (/. Sm.) Rhizome wide-creeping, stipes 
4-6 inches long, rigid, erect, prickly tovvards the base •, (iotyö& wftv 

a hng unbmnched central point, and 1-4 pair of flexuose Vx\äto\ 



7 6 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



branchet, 4-8 inches long; pinnules 3-4 lines broad, 2 lines deep, 
the lowcr edge often falcate, the upper 3-4 times bluntly, not deeply 
lobed, close together, but not imbricate; texture very thick, 
coriaccous ; veins prominent ; sori in a marginal line on the lobes. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 108. Bedd. F. B. I. f. 166. 
Malacca, on Mount Ophir. 

§ § Pinna eguilateral. 

7. Lindsava Walkern. {Hook.) Rhizome creeping, thicker 
than a crow , s quill, ferruginous with scale4ike hairs. Stipes very 
long, often 1 foot, and as well as the rachis dark purple, glossy ; 






fronds lanceolate, pinnatö, 6 inches to 1 
long, pinnae 6-9 pairs, with a terminal one, 
which is sometimes confluent with one or 
both of the upper pair, coriaeeous, sub- 
opposite, remote, lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, equal, costa central, veins 
copious, almost parallel with the costa ; 
sorus marginal, continuous on both sides. 
Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 209. Syn. Fil. 109. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 215. 

Ceylon, Hinidoon Corle in swamps. 

(Also the island of Banca, east of 
Sumatra.) 

J/fc> "i^in^ m\ 8. Lindsaya divergens. {Wall.) Rhi- 

H|o 38 zome creeping; stipes and rachis ebony- 

lindsaya mvERc.ENs. black, glossy; fronds lanceolate-pinnate ; 
(IVall.) pinnaj approximate, crowded, horizontal- 

lanceolate, obtuse, subsemihastate at the base, glaueous beneath, the 
sides equal ; costa central ; veins oblique, once forked, distant, in- 
ternal, obscure ; sorus marginal and continuous on both edges and 
at the apex. Hook. Sp. Fil. i. 210; Hook, et Grev. Ic. Fil. f. 
226. Bedd. F. B. T. t. 250. Vittaria divergens, Herb. Roxb. Wall. 
Ca/, n. 2 191. 
Malaccn. 
(Also in Bornco.) 




Ferxs of British India and Ceylon. 77 



9. Lindsaya lanuginosa. (Wall.) Rhizome creeping, stout, 
clothed with fibrillose scales ; stipes stout, erect, 4-6 inches long ; 
fronds 1 2-24 inches long, 3-4 inches broad, simply pinnate ; pinnse 
1J-2 inches long, \-\ inch broad, linear entire or very slightly 
toothed towards the point, which is acute in the fertile, bluntly 
rounded in the barren frond ; texture coriaceous ; rachis pubescent ; 
sori in a continuous line along both edges. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 110. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 140. 

Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical Australia, Mauritius, and Tropical Africa.) 

10. Lindsaya heterophylla. (Bedd.) Glabrous, fronds, 10-20 
inches high; deltoid-bipinnate, in the lower portion, sometimes tripin- 
nate, simply pinnate at the apex; lower pinnae 4-6 inches long, upper 
ones gradually smaller and less Compound, pinnules numerous, as 
many as 20, very variable in form, subrotund, rhomboidal or lan- 
ceolate, margin entire ; veins simple or forked, all free ; sori con- 
tinuous round the whole margin except at the base, the larger pinnules 
have a distinct midrib. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 206. 

This is more Compound than any of the Indian forms of Schizo- 
loma heterophylla ; but there is a form of that plant from Hong- 
kong in the Kew Herbarium very like this in outline, but with the 
veins anastomosing. I have examined many fronds of this plant, 
and the veins never anastomose, and if it be lumped with Schizoloma- 
heterophylla, it at once does away with that genus or subgenus. I am, 
however, inclined to consider it a distinct species more allied to 
L orbiculata var. tenera than to Schizoloma heterophylla. 

Shevaroy Hills (on the Green hüls), Tinnevelly Mountains. 

GENUS XXIL— SCHIZOLOMA. (Gaud.) 

(Sc/iizo, I cut; loma, margin.) 

As in Lindsaya, but veins more or less anastomosing. 

1. Schizoloma lobata. (Poir.) Rhizome short-creeping ; 
stipes 6-9 inches long, firm, erect; fronds pinnate ; pinnae 1-6 pairs, 
erect-patent, 3-6 inches long; pinnules about \ inch \otv%, \ VcvOa. 




lobata. {Feir.) VAK. mai.ararica. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



79 



broad, recurved, rounded, the upper margin with broad, shallow lobes, 
texture thin pellucid-herbaceous ; veins anastomosing in the upper 
Portion of the pinnules ; sori marginal in the lobes, the inner valve 
of the involucre narrow and membranous, the edge of the frond 
produced beyond it, and scarcely altered. Hook. Syn. FiL ß. in. 
S. recurvata (Wall.), Bedd. F. S. I. t. 27. L. nitens, Blume. 

Malabar and Travancore Mountains, Ceylon. 

(Also in Queensland and the Polynesian Islands.) 

Var. ß malabarica. (Bedd.) Fronds always simply pinnate ; 
ftchis tetragonous ; pinnules erect, not recurved, upper margin more 



deeply lobed ; veins less anastomosing. 
Perhaps a distinct species. 
Malabar and South Canara. 



Bedd. F. B. I. t. 268. 




2. SCHIZOLOMA DAVALLIOIDES. (Bl.) 

Rhizome short-creeping; stipes 6-12 inches 
l°ng, firm, erect ; fronds pinnate, pinnae 
2 ~3 pairs, erect-patent, 4-8 inches long, 
pinnules 4-6 lines long, 2-3 lines broad, 
the lower margin straight or slightly curved, 
^e upper with 4-6 regulär rounded but not 
deep lobes, texture pellucid-herbaceous; 
veins anastomosing at the base of the 
hbes ; sori marginal in the lobes. Hook. 
$yn. FiL ß. in. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 141. 
(Closely allied to lobata.) 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

3. Schizoloma cordata. (Gaud.) Rhizome short-creeping ; stipe 
3~6 inches long, slender, erect, wiry ; barren frond 2-3 inches long, 
i-ii inch broad, cordate-öblong, .quite entire, fertile one 3-6 inches 
kng, linear entire or forked ; texture coriaceous ; sori in a continuous 
Httrgioal line; veins anastomosing. Hook. Sß. i. /. 219, /. 66 A. ; 
ty*. FiL ß. in. Bedd. F. B. L t. 299. 

Malay Peninsula. 



SCHIZOLOMA CORDATA. 

(Gaud.) 



Malaccn. 

(Also in thc Malay Islands.) 

5. SCHIZOLOMA ENSIFOLIA. (Swartz) RhlZO 

>aleaceous ; stipes 6-9 inches long, wiry, flexu 
nches long, 3-4 inches broad, with a linear-lan 
)innatifid apex, simply pinnate below, pinnae hert 
nany pairs, rarely reduced to one, all stalked, 1 J-( 
nch broad, varying firom linear-acuminate to lancc 
>nly a little toothed ; veins copiously anastomosit 
inuous marginal line. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 112. Bi 
Griffithiana (Hook.), Bedd. F. B. I. /. 29 is a simj 

Western mountains of Madras ; Ceylon ; Him 
Vlüneypore and Chittagong up to 4,000 feet ; Birm 

(Also in North Australia, Tropical Africa and i 
Polynesia.) 

6. SCHIZOLOMA HETEROPHYLLA. (Dry.\ Rl 

itipes 4-8 inches long, firm, naked, erect ; frond 
5—6 inches broad. lanc.polntp nr r»ki^~~ j~w~:j 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



TRIBE VI.— PTERIDEÄ. 

Sori marginal, oblong, or linear ; induiium of the same slxaj 
as the sorus, formed of a more or less changed and reflexed portk 
of the frond, opening inwardly. 

GENUS XXIII.— ADIANTUM. 

(Adiantos, dry ; water will not lie on the fronds.) 

Sori marginal, varying in shape from globose to linear, usual 

numerous and distinct, sometimes confluent and continuous ; ind 

sium of the same shape as the sorus, formed of the reflexed marg 

of the fronds, bearitig the capsules on its under side ; veins free. 

. Adiantum Paris}]];. (Hook.) Small, csespitose; no distin 
rf'Ti7n\mTv caudex; roots fe 

üb raus, tomentos 
fronds about i im 
each way, orbicuk 
flabellate, merabi 
neous, pellucid, sl 
i ile ones crenai 
dentate, fertile on 

\\Tu> few * 3-s * lobat ' 

\\.A^ ' sinusesdeepsorife 

ous ; veins orif 

nating from tl 

base, flabellately-c 

vergent, repeatedly dichotomous ; stipes slender, filiform, ebeneou 

black, shining, articulated at the summit. Hook. Sp. Fil. Ü. 237, ar 

Fil. Exot. i. pl. 51 ; Sy». Fil. p. 114. Btdd. F. B. 1. 1. 16. 

Moulmein, on limestone rocks. 



X% 




N?42. 

,NTUM l'ARISHll. {lloat.) 



2. Adiantum lunulatum. {Burrn) Stipes 4-6 inches Ion 
tüftcd, wiry, naked, polished dark cliestnut-brown ; fronds 6-1 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



83 



inches long and 3 inches broad, simply pinnate, often elongated and 

rooting at the apex ; pinna; subdimidiate, the lower edge nearly in a 

Une or oblique with the petiole, the upper edge rounded and like the 

bluntly- rounded sides usually more or less lobed ; petioles of the 

lower ones spreading $-\ inch long, texture herbaceous ; the rachis 

and both surfaces naked ; sori in continuous lines along the edge 

Burm. Fl. In4.fi. 235. Hook. Syn. Fil.fi. 114. Bedd. F. S.I.t.x. 

Throughout Northern India in moist places ; South India, vcry 

getienl on the western side in the plains and lower slopes of the 

Wlls ; Ceylon ; Birma. 

(Also in the tropics of nearly the whole world.) 

Vau. ß Metten n. (Kuhn.) 
Stipes and rachis wingcd, not 
polished, petioles winged, very short, 
othenrise as in lunulatum (type). 
&*», Fi/. Af.fi. 65. Bedd. Ferns 
■%/■ '■ 354- A. pteropus, -R. Br. 

Travancore Mountains, in dense 
^tgreen forests between Cour 
Wnm and Quilon, 1,000-2,000 feet. 
rcthaps a distinct species. 
(Also in Tropical Africa.) 

J. Adiantum caudatum. (L.) ' 
Stipa 2-4 inches long, tufted, wiry, 
s P r eading, darlc ehest nut-brown, 
"»oentose ; fronds 6-1 2 inches long, 

sitn Ply pinnate, often elongated and V * R - mettenii. (Xukm.) 

rooting at the extremity, pinnae J-J inch long, i inch deep, di- 
fidiate, nearly sessile, the lower line straight and horizontal, the 
"Pper rounded, more or less cut, often deeply and repeatedly, the 
Point usually blunt, the lower ones slightly stalked ; texture cori- 
lc »us; the veins prominent; the rachis and both surfaces of the 
tond villose ; sori roundish or transversely oblong on 0\e e&gb cS 
"»lobes. Hook. Syx. J$V. f. n S . Bedd. F. B. I, t. 2. 




N0.43. 



84 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

Throughout India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula, in the 
plains and on lower slopes of the hüls. 

(Also in South China, Tropical Africa, the Malay Islands, Java, 
Mauritius, and Cape Verde Islands.) 

Var. ß Edgeworthii. Pinna? and rachis glabrous; pinnae 
less cut on the upper margin. Adiantum EdgeworthiL Hook. Sp. 
Fil. ii. 14. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 17. 

Nepal, Mooltan, Gurwhal. Perhaps a distinct species. 

Clarke refers this to ihizophorum Wall. Cat. 82, but that plant bas 
the rachis scabrous above, and is one of the forms of typical caudatum. 

Var. y soboliferum. Stipes petioles and rachis winged. 
Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. 13. Bedd. F. B. Lt. 19. 
Birma. 

4. Adiantum capillus veneris. (Z.) Stipes suberect, rather 
slender, 4-9 inches long, polished, blackish, naked ; fronds bipinnate, 
with a short terminal pinna and numerous erect-patent lateral ones 
on each side, the lowest slightly branched again ; segments £-1 inch 
broad, the base cuneate, the outer edge rounded, deeply lobed from 
the circumference in the direction of the centre, and the lobes again 
bluntly crenated, lowest petioles \ inch long, texture pellucid-her- 
baceous, thin ; rachis and both surfaces naked ; sori roundish or 
obreniform, placed in the roundish sinuses of the crenations. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 123. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 4. 

Madras Presidency, west side, common on banks of rivers in the 
plains, and up to 5,000 feet on the mountains; Ceylon; North India, 
in many localities. 

(Also in Europe, Africa, America, and Australia.) 

5. Adiantum ;ETHiopicum (Z.) Stipe 6-9 inches long, rather 
slender, erect, dark chestnutbrown, polished, naked ; fronds up to 
18 inches long, 6-9 inches broad, deltoid in outline, 3-4-pinnatej 
lower pinnules 3-4 inches long, 2-3 inches broad, deltoid ; ultimatc 
segments \-\ inch across, suborbicular, straight or subcuneate or 
rounded at the base, the upper part broadly not deeply lobed ; tex- 
ture thinly pcllucid-herbaceous ; rachis and surfaces naked ; sori in 

several roundish or rransversely oblong patches in rounded hollow« 



86 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



of the outer edge. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 123. Bedd. F. S. L /. 5. 
Ad. emarginatum, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 18. 

Nilgiri and Pulney Mountains at the higher elevations. Ceylon. 

(Also in Australia, New Zealand, America, Africa and the East 
African Islands.) 

6. Adiantüm venustum. (Don.) Fronds 3-4-pinnate ; pinnules 
firm, membranaceous-chartaceous, glabrous, and slightly glaucous 
beneath, shortly petiolulate obovate-cuneate, rarely subrhomboid- 
acuminate, striated, the superior margin rounded, scarcely ever or but 
slightly 2 or 3 lobed, finely den täte serrate, fertile lobes with 2, rarely 
3 notches, each notch bearing a rather large sorus at the bottom ; 
involucres reniforro-cordate, submembranaceous ; stipes and slender 
rachis everywhere ebeneous-glossy, glabrous. Hook. Sp. FiL iL 40. 
A. venustum, Don Prodr. Fl. Nep. 16. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 20. 

N. E. Himalayas, very common, 3,000-10,000 feet elevation. 
(Also in Cabul.) 

7. Adiantüm pedatum. (Z.) Stipes 6-12 inches long, polished, 
dark chestnut-brown, glabrous ; fronds dichotomous, with the main 
divisions flabellately branched; central pinnae 6-9 inches long, i-i£ 
inch broad; pinnules £-£ inch long, \ inch deep, dimidiate, 
broadest on the side nearest the stem, the upper and outer margin 
lobed, sometimes one-third down, the lowest on short slender stalks ; 
texture pellucid-herbaceous ; rachises and surfaces naked ; sori 
roundish or transversely oblong, 1-2 lines broad. Linn. Sp. Fl. 1557. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 125. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 167. 

N. W. Himalayas, from Gurwhal to Sikkim, 6,000-9,000 feet 
elevation. 

(Also in Japan and North America.) 

8. Adiantüm hispidulum. (Swartz.) Stipes up to 15 inches 
long ; strong, erect, polished, dark chestnut-brown, scabrous ; fronds 
dichotomous, with the main divisions flabellately branched ; central 
pinnae 6-9 inches long, $-1 inch broad, dimidiate, sub-rhomboidal, 
rather broader on the side nearest the stem, hispid on both sides, the 

outer edge bluatly rounded or oblique, upper and outer margin 




»niAXTUM vesustou. (Do n ,\ 



88 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



finely toothed, lower ones slightly stalked ; texture subcoriaceous ; 
sori roundish, numerous, contiguous round the upper and outer edge. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 126. Bedd. F. S. L t. 3. 

Common in the Western Hills of the Madras Presidency, 3,000- 
5,000 feet ; Ceylon up to 4,000 feet 

(Also in Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Africa and its Eastern 
Islands.) 

9. Adiantum flabellulatum. (Z.) Scales on the rhizome 
long, linear, lax, chestnut coloured ; fronds flabellate, bipartite- 
pedately divided, tripinnate ; secondary pinnae lanceolate-acuminated ; 
pinnules glabrous, subcoriaceous-chartaceous, obliquely cuneate or 
semi-orbicular-cuneate, superior base truncate, superior margin 2-4 
lobed and serrate-dentate in the sterile one ; lobes soriferous ; involu- 
cres large, the breadth of the lobe, oblong, straight, rarely a little 
curved, hard coriaceous ; stipes elongated ebeneous-scabrous below ; 
the rest, as well as the slender rachis, glossy and glabrous. Hook. Sp. 
Fil. ii. 30. Zinn. Sp. Fil. p. 1558. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 126. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 218. 

Nepal, Assam, Khasya, Sylhet ; Ceylon, in the Ouvah district ; 
he Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the M ilay Islands, South China and Japan. ) 

GENUS XXIV.— CHEILANTHES. {Swartz.) 

(C/ieiloSj lip or margin; antlws y flower; the fructification on the margin). 

Sori terminal, or nearly so, on the veins, at first small. subglobose, 
afterwards more or less confluent; indusium formed of.the changed 
reflexed margin, roundish and distinct, or more or less confluent, but 
not quite continuous ; fronds subcoriaceous in texture, mostly under 
1 2 inches, often under 6 inches long, 3-4-pinnatifid ; veins free. 

1. Cheilanthes fragrans. {Swartz.) Stipes caespitose, wiry, 

t -3 inches long, densely clothed with reddish-brown linear scales ; 

fronds 2-3 inches long, about 1 in:h broad, ovate-acuminate, bi- or 

tripinnatifid ; pinnie opposite, \-\ inch long, }-| inch broad, deltoid, 

cut down to the rachis below into several sinuate-pinnatifid linear- 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 89 



oblong lobes; texture subcoriaceous; rachis polished but slightly 
scaly, both surfaces green and naked ; sori sraall, copious ; involucre 
light brown, membranaceous, toothed. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 1 34 ; Sp. 
Fil. iL 81. Polypodium fragrans (Linn.), Bedd. F. B. I. t. 338. 
Murree, 4,000-5,000 feet ; Mountains of Kashmir ; Kishtwar, 

3i5 °-5> 000 feet. 

(Also in Cabul, and all round the Mediterranean, Canaries, 
Madeira.) 

2. Cheilanthes Szovitzii. (Fisch and Meyer.) Stipes densely 
tufted, erect, wiry, polished, brown, thinly ooated, as is the rachis, 
with spreading woolly hairs and linear scales ; fronds 3-6 inches long, 
i-i£ inch broad, ovate-lanceolate, bipinnate to tripinnate ; pinnae in 
opposite pairs, the lower ones deltoid ; pinnules linear-oblong, con- 
tiguous, cut down to the rachis below into small round bead-like 
Segments, £ inch in diameter, subcoriaceous, above green slightly 
tomentose, below covered with white woolly hairs, which arise frora 
the sori, the margins much incurved ; sori copious, marginal. Fisch 
and Meyer in Bull. Soc. Mose. 1838,/. 241. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 139. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 145. 

Kashmir and Baltistone, 5,000-7,000 feet, common ; Kulu. 
(A*so in Cabul, Asia Minor, Persia, and South Europe.) 

3. Cheilanthes mysorensis. (Wallich.) Roots densely 
caespitose, the fibres very woolly, stipes slightly scaly below, short, 
1-2 inches, and as well as the main rachises, deep glossy-ebeneous, 
rigid ; fronds a span or more long, in outline narrow oblong, acute, 
tapering below by the diminishing of the pinnae, glabrous, membrana- 
ceous but firm, bipinnate ; lower pinnae very small, all of them oblong- 
ovate, sessile, frequently opposite pinnate below, the upper half pin- 
natirld ; pinnules or segments linear-oblong, plane (much incurved if 
dried without pressure), toothed or lobate-pinnatifid, each tooth or 
lobe bearing one or two subconflaent, small, whitish, suborbicular sori. 
Hook. Sp. Fil. \\. p. 94; Syn. Fil. p. 135. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 190. 

South India, common in dry, rocky places in the plains and 
lower slopes of the hüls; Ceylon, at low elevations. 
(Also in China and Japan.) 




cueiiJisTHss *\sot.knsis. V.Woll^ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



91 



4. Cheilanthes fragilis. {Hook,) Caudex none except the 
copious tufted wiry fibres, from which the stipes arise in tufts ; main 
rachis and slightly scaly stipes (3-5 inches long) clothed with a 
greyish glandulose tomentum ; fronds of an opaque bröwnish-green 
colour, submembranaceous, 8-15 inches long, erect, rather stiff but 
fragile, oblong-lanceolate, pinnate with the pinnae pinnatifid ; pinnae 
alternate distant, horizontal up to 2 inches long, pinnatifid nearly to 
the rachis (which is furnished with subulate scales) ; Segments 
crenated ; lobes obtuse and partially 
ciliated at the margin ; veins pinnated, 
simple or forked ; sori approximate 
roundish; involucres ciliated, formed 

of the slightly changed lobes of the 

margin. Hook. FiL Exot. t. 96 ; 

Syn. FiL p. 135. Bedd. F. B. I. 

t. 223. 
Perhaps only a form of No. 3. 
Moulmein, on limestone rocks. 

5. Cheilanthes varians. (Wall, 
undtr Pteris.) Root tufted ; stipes 4-6 
mches long, slender, ebeneous-glossy, 
plane and margined on the upper 
S1( fe, obsoletely setose - paleaceous ; 
* r onds sub - membranaceous, glab- 
rou s, about a span long, long-lanceo- 
kte, the pinnatifid apex acuminated, 

Pmnated above, bipinnate below ; primary pinnae distant, spreading 
** a little curved upwards, sessile, superior ones lanceolate, 
^minate sinuate -pinnatifid at their base, and somewhat auricled 
at the upper base, lower ones deltoid acuminate pinnate at their 
^pinnatifid acuminated (caudate) in the upper half; pinnules 
j^ceolate acuminate or acute pinnatifid below, the lowest 
"tferior pinnae the longest. Hook. Sp. FiL ii. p. 89; Syn. FiL 
1' 136. Bedd. RS././. 18g. 




H'47 



CHEILANTHES VARIANS. (Wall.) 



„.^.*»,.v, .)vniv..-i , llWUVn lliUH.M>"li 

i' li« •■> I-.hl; bv ,) in« lic^ broad, bipinnatc or tripinnai 
»r ncarly so ; pinruu distant, subsessilc, deltoid, lo 
>innules blunt, Upper adnate entire, lower free 1 
obed, texture very thin ; surfaces naked ; dull gree 
►eneath on the young fronds ; involucre narrow. 
>. 245. Cheilanthes Thwaitesii, Mett. Hook. Syi 
Ceylon, Kurunagalla and Kallupahane. 

7. Cheilanthes tenuifolia. (Sw.) Anm 
xeeping, scaly ; stipes elongated, rarely scaly ; frc 
:eous, glabrous, 3-4 inches to a span and more long 
>r more or less deltoid, subtripinnate, ultimate lob 
md secondary divisions the largest, more or less pi 
»lliptic, oblong or oblong-lanceolate subpinnatific 
jroad blunt teeth ; involucres mostly elongated, 1 
iuent, more or less crenated or denticulate, some 
vrinkled ; stipes and rachis purple-black, main rac 
;econdary and tertiary rachises all with a narrow 
Fil ii. /. 82, /. 87^. Syn. Fil.p. 138. Bedd. F. $ 

Madras Presidencv, common in the nlain* am 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 93 

pinnatifid, acuminate, pinnae mostly lanceolate pinnatifid, the one or 
two lowermost pair more or less half deltoid bipinnatifid below; 
involucres brown, scariose, rounded, sometimes confluent, and then 
waved or lobed, the margin entire or toothed and jagged. Hook. Sp. 
FiL \\.p. 77; Syn. Fil.p. 142. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 191 and 192 (bullosa). 

Throughout North India, in the hüls up to 5,000 feet ; Madras 
Presidency, in the plains and up to 8,000 feet on the hüls ; Ceylon ; 
Birma. 

(Also in Tropical America, Java, Philippines, East Africa and its 
Islands, and Arabia.) 

Var. ß Dalhouslb. (Hook.) Pinnae (even when young) 
without hairs, scales or powder underneath ; involucres deeply crenu- 
late toothed or lacerate on the margin. Clarke> F. N. I. p. 459, ana 
t. 51. P. Dalhousiae, Hook. Sp. FiL \i. p. 10; Syn. Fil.p. 137. 

West Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaon, 6,000-9,000 feet, 
Sikkim, Lachen, 10,000 feet. 

Var. y flaccida. Ultimate pinnules very flaccid, and generally 
broader than in the type, the white powder sparse on young fronds, 
altogether absent on mature ones"; stipes and rachis weak and often 
wavy. Cheilanthes Dalhousiae, Bedd z F. S. L t. 192. 

Nilgiris, in woods near Makoorty Peak, 7,000 feet, Anamallays, 
open grassy places on Ponachy Hill, 6,000 feet. 

Var. I chrysophylla. Powder beneath of a bright golden 
colour ; fronds with quite the outline of typical farinosa, but smaller. 
Hook. Fil. Exot. t. 95, fig. 1. CheiL argentea var. chrysophylla, 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 142. 

Khasya, 5,000 feet; Cheilanthes argentea var. sulphurea, Clarke, 
F> N. I.p. 458, is only the young undeveloped frond of this. 

9. Cheilanthes subvillosa. (Hook.) Stipes densely tufted, 
*-4 inches long, polished, naked, bright chestnut coloured, rather 
krittle, clothed with lanceolate acuminate scales below, main rachis 
glabrous beneath, the partial rachises with crisped woolly salmon- 
c oloured hairs beneath; fronds 6-12 inches long, 2-3 vuc\ves \iio^ 



Mr. Chrke says th;it thc involurre is that of ] 
ms this might bc rcfcrrcd. 
N. W. Himalayas, Palur Valley, and Kitghur, n< 

10. Cheilanthes albo-marginata. (Clarke.) 
;s of hair-pointed scales, stipes up to 10 ine 
ger than the frond ; glabrous, reddish-biown, shi: 
ticularly below and when young, with lanceo 
ed scales ; fronds deltoid to deltoid-lanceolate, w 
npletely covered beneath with lanceolate brown s 
lowish or whitish powder, in age glabrous exe 
hises and costa, which are scaly ; lowest pair of pim 
1 with their lower pinnules much more developt 
iers (as in farinosa) ; involucres lacerate on the ma 
N. L p. 456, /. 52. Perhaps only a form of farinc 

N. W. Himalayas, Kashmir, Basaoli, 5,000 fe 
>oo feet ; Simla, 7,000 feet ; Gurwhal, 2,000-9,000 

11. Cheilanthes rufa. (Don.) Stipes tufted, 
ig, densely clothed with rusty brown, woolly torrientu 



|«Ar> 1^%»»*— V... 



1 f » f 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



95 



being preseot, but very sparse ; the difference between the two is 
only a question of the tomentum, and both may well be varieties of 
farinosa. 

Khasya, 4,000 feet, plentiful on limestone; Sikkim, 5,000 feet; 
Gurwhal, 1,000-4,000 feet ; Dalhousie. 

iz. Cheilanthes argentea. (Kunze.) Stipes densely tufted, 
3-6 inches long, thick, dark brown, 
polished, clothed at the very base with 
linear scales ; fronds 3-4 inches long 
by 3 inches broad, triangulär or deltoid, 
iripinnatifid, lowest pinnse much the 
largest but not cut down to the rachis, 
tripinnatifid ; rachis and costa polished 1 
like the stipe, Upper surface naked, 
green,lower covered with white powder ; 
invotucres crenate or fimbriate. Kunze. 
Linnaa, 1850,/. 242. Hook. Syn. Fil 
p. 142. Bedä. F.B. I. t. 143. (The 
lowest pair of pinns is rarely almost 
quitt; free, the decurrent wing on the 
rachis from the next pair being very 
narrow ; the pinnae are generally broad ly 
decurrent, so that the frond is not cut 
down nearly to the rachis.) 

Birma ; Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet, 

{Also in Siberia, Japan, and China.) 




GENUS XXV.— ONYCHIUM. {Kaulf.) 

(Onychion, a Httle nail ; resemblance to the fertÜe segments of 
the frond.) 
Sori placed upon a continuous linear receptacle, which connects 
the apices of several veins ; indusium parallel with the margn ot ftw 
segments, linear, opposite, pressed down over the soü, tive ti^e. 



96 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

nearly or quite reaching the midrib. Closely allied to Rens and 
referred to that genus by Mettenius. 

i. Onychium auratum. (Kauif.) Stipes 6-12 inches long, 
stout, erect, naked, straw-coloured or pale brown; fronds 12-18 
inches long, about 6 inches broad, ovate, 4-pinnatifid ; lower pinnae 
subdeltoid, erect-patent ; pinnules and segments numerous, usually 
deltoid ; ultimate divisions of the sterile frond often obovate-cuneate, 
trifid at the apex, about 1 line long, $-£ line broad when entire, 
coriaceous in texture, fertile segments pod-like, \-i inch long, $ inch 
broad ; rachis and both surfaces naked, the membranous involucres 
and copious sori a rieh golden yellow. Kauif. En. FiL p. 144. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 143. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 30. 

Plains of East Bengal, from Nepal to Assam, up to 4,000 feet ; 
Birma ; (once reeeived from the Paulghaut Hills in Southern India, 
but as it has not been detected since, it was probably from a eultivated 
speeimen). 

(Also in New Guinea and the Malay Islands. ) 

2. Onychium japonicum. (Kunze.) Stipes tufted, 6-12 inches 
long, stout, erect, straw-coloured or pale brown, scaly at the base ; 
fronds subcoriaeeous when mature, shining on both surfaces, 12-18 
inches long, ovate, 4-pinnate, lower pinnae lanceolate-deltoid ; pinnules 
and segments numerous, usually deltoid, the copious Hnear-mucro- 
nate ultimate divisions ii-2 lines long, nearly uniform in the barren 
and fertile segments ; rachis and both surfaces naked ; indusium pale, 
membranaeeous, ripe capsules deep brown. Kunze in Seh. FiL 
Suppl. p. 11. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 143. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 21. 

Himalayas, Gurwhal to Mishmee and Khasya, 3,000-6,000 feet ; 
Birma. 

(Also in Japan and China.) 

Mr. Clarke makes two varieties besides the type : ist. multi- 

sectciy fertile frond, very finely cut, herbaeeous, hardly shining, often 

5-pinnate, ripe capsules straw-coloured, not numerous; involucre 

remaining closed over the ripe capsules. 2nd, intermedia ; fronds lax, 

more coarsely cut; involucres often i inch ; to this 2nd variety he 



98 Ferns of British India and Ceylon* 



refers, Bedd. F. B. I. t 2 1, but it was taken from multisecta ; the two 
varieties, however, differ very slightly, if at all 

GENUS XXVI.— CRYPTOGRAMME. (R.Br.) 
(Kryptos, hidden ; gramme, a line.) 

Sterile and fertile fronds usually diflferent from the same root ; 
sori terminal on the veins, at first separate, subglobose, afterwards 
confluent, the continuous indusium formed of the changed margin 
of the frond, rolled over them tili füll maturity. (DifTers from Peilsea 
rather in the dimorphic fronds than in anything eise.) 

1. Cryptogramme crispa. (R. Br.) Glabrous, tufted, scales 
at base of stipe, lanceolate, acute, pale-brown ; fronds 2-4 inches 
long, iJ-2 inches broad, oblong, 3-4-pinnatifid ; ultimate Segments of 
ihe barren frond obovate-cuneate, deeply pinnatifid, those of the 
fertile frond pod-shaped, i-f inch long ; texture thickly herbaceous, 
both surfaces naked. R. Br. in Richardsoris Appen. to Franklins 
ist Journal, p. 54. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 144. C. Brunoniana (WalL), 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 164. Allosoms crispus, Bernh. 

Himalayas, Kumaon to Kashmir, 10,000-15,000 feet; Sikkim, 
10,000-14,000 feet, head of Lachen Valley. 

(Also in Arctic and Alpine Europe, Asia, and North America.) 

GENUS XXVI L— PELLTE A. (Unk.) 

(Pe/los, dark co^ured, the colour of the fronds.) 

Sori intramarginal, terminal on the veins, at first dot-like or 
decurrent on the veins, but soon running into a line ; involucre or 
indusium formed of the more or less changed edge of the frond, 
quite continuous, sometimes very narrow ; veins free. (Differs from 
Cheilanthes in the continuous indusium.) 

§ Veins dcarly visible; indusium broad. 




CMVPTOai/AMUB CRISPA. {Jf. Br.) 



% 



Ferss of British Ixdia axd Cklos. 

. Pku,.*;a Stflleri. (Gmetim wider Furü.) Rhittmie wir,', 
creeping; stipes scattered, slcnder, 1-3 
.'.';*. inches long, naked, straw-coloured or pak- 

brown, polished, furnished about ibe tase 
with fe w linear pale bnnm scales ; ftonds 
2-4 inches long, 1-2 inches broad, orte 
» *' &7L.' " bi-tripinnatifid, ollen with the lowest pin* 
harren, the upper fertfle ; pinnae lanctolate- 
deltoid, 1-2 inches long, cut down to the 
'" \ ' / £. ■ rachis ; lower pinnule again somedmo 
#. \ ' ,/ ' " ' slightly divided ; texture thioly herbaeeonf 

-Mi \,Jt- r . , or flaeeid ; rachis and both surfaces naked; 

i . \ C'.' 1 ''^ veins visible ; young sori subterminal 011 ÜK 

jpS ve j n5| clustered, not forming a marginal linc 
N™5i tili old; indusium broad, continuous, roeni- 

1-m.i.i.a <.tkmkki. branous. Pellaea gracilis, Hook. Syn. 0- 

[<„••,■!.) p i+5 ciarkt, F. N. I.p. 460. Allosom* 

.;.ilisfki]|.>, /Md. /■: li. /./. 73. 

Himalajas, Baltic, 0,0c** 1 
feet, Kumaon, Champua,io,oo> ,tf 
fect, Kashmir, Pir Punju * 
r 1,000 feet; Karakorutr* 
11,000-13,000 feet. 

(Also in Canada and Nort"* 
United States.) 

2. PEI.LiEA concoloiep 
{I-aitgs and Fisch, under Pteris- 
Sli|>cs 6-9 inches long, naked* 
en.ct, wiry, brownish black, po 
liOicd, slightly scaly towards thesS 
basc . fronds 2-4 inches each way 
deltoid, cut down nearly to th*£ 
rachis into 3-4-pinnaj on eacl*" 
N * 52 - ± side, of vvhich the lowest pair i^ 




Fl.KNS Ol-' 1>KTTISI I INDJA AND CKYI.oN. IUI 

pinnules on the lower side much larger than the others, and 
deeply lobed with linear-oblong segments ; rachis and costa dark 
coloured and polished like the stipe ; texture herbaceous, lateral 
veins once forked ; sori in broad marginal lines. Längs and Fisch. 
Ic. /. 21. Pteris geraniifolia, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 37. Pellsea geranii- 
folia, Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 1 46. 

Western forests of the Madras Presidency, and in Ceylon up to 
4,000 feet, very common. 

(Also in Tropical America, Polynesian Islands, North China, 
Cape Colony, and the Mascareen Islands.) 

3. Peluea Tamburii. (Hook.) Stipes 6-9 inches long, erect, 

naked, chestnut-brown, polished ; fronds about 6 inches each way, 

subcoriaceous, whitened beneath, deltoid, with three principal lobes, 

the terminal one cut down nearly to the rachis into several broad 

opposite lanceolate segments, of which the upper ones are entire and 

the lower ones larger and sinuated ; lateral lobes with the segments 

0r * the upper side nearly entire, but those on the lower side prolonged 

ar ^ciagain deeply lobed, the largest entire divisions about 1 inchdeep, 

* irich broad at the base ; rachis polished ; indusium brownish, con- 

^^tuous, but regularly crenated along the outer edge. Hook. Syn. 

r ~p. 146 ; Sp. Fi/, ii. /. 129A. 
Tambur Valley, East Nepal. 
§§ Veins not perceptib/e ; indusium broad, conspicuous. 

4. Pelijea nitidula. (Wal/, under Pteris.) Caudex short- 
c ping, stout ; stipes 2-5 inches long, very numerous and crowded, 

"^pid, with subulate deciduous chaffy dark brown scales, and as well 

a ^ the rachis (which is downy on one side) ebenepus ; fronds 3-4 or 

T ^ r ely 5 inches long, subdeltoid-oblong acuminate (sterile ones 

oroader), coriaceous, shining beneath, glabrous, pinnate-pinnatifid, 

«^U>w subbipinnate ; pinnse approximate, nearly opposite, broad- 

»^ceolate dimidiate (the inferior half broadest), deeply pinnatifid 

ttearly 10 the rachis, lowest pair again subpinnate and the secondary 

Wb» pinnatifid ; lobes all oblong entire or sinuate, gradualty comvfc% 

to * Sharp point, the lower base decurrent, the \owest mtenoi \o\ä& 



Ferns of British Imha and Cevi. 



the longest ; involucres subintramarginal, continuous or here and 
there intenupted, broad, Hat, membranaceous, brown, close-pressed, 
frequently lobed and crenated and transversely wrinkled. Wall. 
Cat. p. 89. Cheilanthes nitidula, Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. /. 112; Syn. Fil. 
p. 149. Btdd. F. B. I. 1. 222. (The involucrea are sometimes con- 
tinuous as in Pteris, sometimes interrupted and quite like Cheil- 
anthes.) 

Kashmir, 3,000-6,000 feet, frequent and plentiful to Chumba, 
scarce eastwards to Kumaon, 

5. Pelina boivini. (Hook.) Stipcs 4-8 inches long, erect, 
naked, black, poh'shed, very brittle ; fronds 6-9 inches long, 4-6 
inches broad, deltoid to lanceolate, pinnate to tripinnate; pinnas 
erect-patent or spreading gradually smaller upwards ; ultimate pin- 
nules broadly ovate in the more simple forms and linear-lanceolate 
in the more Compound, cordate or rounded at the base, very coria- 
ceous, pale and dull beneath; both surfaces naked; veins sunk in the 
frond ; sori in a continuous line round the segments ; involucre 
membranous, \ a line broad. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 149. Btdd. F. S. 
1. 1. 36 (linder Ptetis). 

Nilgiris, Sispara and on the ghat, 4,000-5,600 feet ; Anamallays, 
4,000 feet, dry rocky places : Travancore and Tinnevelly Mountains ; 
Ceylon. The Nilgiri and Ananiallay plant is the more simple 
form (pinnate or bipinnate), as represented in the figure ; the 
Travancore plant is much larger and more Compound, being tri- 
pinnate. 

(Also in Madagascar and the Mauritius.) 
§5 § Veins usually hidden ; indusium so narrow as fo be soon hidden by 
the sori, 

6. Pell«a falcata. (/&.) Rhizome wide creeping ; stipes 
3-6 inches long, strong, erect, more or lcss pubescent and scaly ; 
fronds 6-18 inches long, 1-2 inches broad, linear- oblong, siraply 
pinnate; pinnse 10-20 on each side, nearly sessile, \-\ inch long, 
i— J inch broad, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, usually mucronate, 

A —> «liehtly falcate, cuneate, or dilated and cordate at the base: 




VKLLMA VOIVIKT. (f/<X/t.) 



104 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



texture coriaceo'is ; rachis densely scaly and tomentose, with surfaces 
nearly naked ; veins not visible ; sori in broad marginal lines, soon 
hiding the narrow involucre. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 151. Bedd. F. S. 
I. t. 22 (under Platyloma). 

Nilgiris, Anamallays, and elsewhere on the Western mountains 
of the Madras Presidency, 2,000-4,000 feet elevation, Malay Penin- 
sula ; Ceylon, Telgamma. 

(Also in Australia and New Zealand.) 

7. Pellaa calomelanos. {Unk.) Glabrous, caudex short, 
thick, very scaly ; fronds caespitose, subcoriaceous, oblong-triangular, 

bipinnate, pinnules all petiolulate, cordate- 

(rarely subhastate-) triangulär, very obtuse, 

entire, sometimes subtrilobate or sinuate 

f ^-^ . .. x at the margin ; the sinus deep and narrow; 

/fi^xj^l^^^ /*]\ veins dichotomously radiated ; sori con- 

■ <aE2 ^^&?!» S^l '.A tinuous ; involucres membranaceous ; stipes 

short, scaly at the base, and as well as the 
slender rachises and petioles black-ebe- 
neous, very glossy. Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. /. 
140. Link. Fil. Hort. Berol. p. 61. Hook. 
Syn. Fil. p. 152. Pteris calomelanos, 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 22. 
N. W. Himalayas, below Almora, 4,000 feet, Tikri in Sirmow, 
5,000-6,000 feet. 

(Also in Africa, from Abyssinia to Cape of Good Hope.) 




N°54. 
PELLitA FALCATA. (/%.) 

Base of frond. 



GENUS XXVIII.— PTERIS. (Linn.) 

(From ptcryx, a wing ; the supposed likeness to wings in the branches 
of the common Pteris aquilina or Bracken.) 

Sori marginal, linear, continuous, occupying a slender filiform 
receptacle in the axis of the indusium ; indusium the same shape as 
the sorus, usually membranous, at first quite covering it, at length 
more or less spreading. 




ITEB1S L0NG1P0UA. (£.) 



106 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

i. Pteris longifolia. (Z.) Stipe 6-12 inches long, stout, 
erect, pale, clothed more or less below with pale brown linear scales ; 
fronds 1-2 feet long, 4-9 inches broad, oblong-lanceolate, attenuated 
below ; pinnae sessile, 20-30 on each side, 3-6 inches long, J-f inch 
broad, linear, entire, truncate or cordate or slightly auricled at the 
base ; texture subcoriaceous ; rachis naked or slightly scaly below or 
throughout; both surfaces naked; veins close and fine, usually once- 
branched ; indusium membranous, yellowish-brown. Zinn. Sp. Fl. 
1531. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 153. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 33. 

Madras Presidency, in many localities ; throughout Bengal in 
the plains and up to 5,000 feet ; Ceylon ; Birma. 

(Also widely distributed all round the world.) 

2. Pteris cretica. (Z.) Stipes 6-12 inches long, erect, wiry, 
naked, straw-coloured, polished ; fronds 6-12 inches long, 4-8 inches 
broad ; lateral pinnae usually in 2-6 opposite sessile pairs, of which 
the upper one is sometimes a little decurrent, 3-6 inches long £-J 
inch broad, the sterile ones generally the broadest, spinulose-serrated, 
the lowest or even 1-4 other pairs often cleft down nearly to the 
base into 2-3 linear pinnules; margins, where barren, spinulose- 
serrate ; rachis and both surfaces naked ; texture coriaceous ; veins 
fine, close, parallel or wide apart in the narrow-segmented forms, 
simple or once-forked; involucre membranous. Zinn. Mant. p. 130. 
Hook, Syn. Fil. p. 154. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 39. 

Madras Presidency, very common from sea-level up to 8,000 feetj 
Bengal Presidency, very general up to 9,000 feet ; Ceylon ; Birma. 

(Also widely distributed in Africa, Tropical Ameiica, South 
Europe, and elsewhere.) 

Var. ß heteromorpha. Pinnae abnormally pinnatifid. Pteris 
heteromorpha, Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 156. Bedd. F. B. L t. 89. This 
is, I think, only a variety of cretica, not a distinct species. 

Birma. 

(Also in the Philippine Islands.) 

3. Pteris pellucida. (Presl.) Stipes 1 foot or more long, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 107 

eTect, naked; fronds 12-18 inches long, ovate-lanceolate, pinnate; 

pinnae acute, sometimes many, sometimes 7, 5, 3, or 1, all simple, 

ot the lowest pair 2-fid, often 1 inch broad or rather more ; margins 

'where barren, entire, undulate, crisped or crenulate ; rachis naked ; 

texture coriaceous, surfaces bright green often glossy ; veins fine 

dose, simple or forked at right angles from the midrib ; indusium 

membranous. PresL Rel. Hank. 55. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 154. Clarke, 

F.N.I.p. 462. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 38. 

Plains and hüls of Bengal up to 3,000 feet elevation, Western 
forests of Madras Presidency ; Birma. 

(Also in Malay Islands, and Guinea Coast.) 

Var. ß stenophylla. Pinnae 3-4 or sometimes 2-1 subdigitate, 
fertile pinnae very long and narrow. Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 130. 
Gurwhal and Nepal, 3,000-4,000 feet. 

4. Pteris Hookeriana. (Agardh.) Stipes 6-12 inches long, 
^ed, erect, pale ; fronds coriaceous, opaque, pinnate or bipinnate, 
9~*a inches long, 6-9 inches broad, with 2-6 pairs of sessile or 
sta Uced alternate or opposite entire pinnae, the largest of which is 
about 6 inches long, i-i\ inch broad, the 2-4 lower pairs more 
0r less pinnatifid; rachis and both surfaces naked; veins about 
1 li**e apart at the base, simple or once-forked, conspicuous above, 
but scarcely visible beneath ; sori slightly intermarginal ; indusium 
nar i-ow. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 155. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 40. 

Ceylon, Adam's Peak, about 2,000 feet elevation, and the Southern 
P r °vinces at low elevations. 

5. Pteris dactylina. {Hook.) Stipes 6-9 inches long, 
Bender, wiry, naked ; fronds digitate, coriaceous, consisting of 3-7 
(usually 5) linear glabrous pinnae, 2-6 inches long by 1J-2 lines 
" rc >ad, the barren margins serrate; veins wide apart, thick and 
^nspicuous, simple or forked ; indusium broad. Hook. Syn. Fil. 
P> 155. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 23. 

Khasya, 4,200 feet elevation ; Sikkim. 

6. Pteris ensiformis. (Burm.) Stipes up to 10 inches long, 



ioS 



Fkrns of British India and Ceylon. 



naked; fronds subcoriaceous, more or less dimorphous, Up to ix 
inches long by 3-6 inches broad, fertile ones with a long terminal 
pinna, and 2-4 pairs of lateral ones which are simple, forked, trifid 
or even more Compound, the lateral lobes being pinnatifid, the Seg- 
ments very narrow, J inch or less broad, entire ; sterile fronds gene- 
rally smaller, more Compound, the lateral pinnse being pinnate, 
sharpty toothed, and much broader than in the fertile ; veins forked 
or simple, diverging at about two-thirds of a right angle from the 
midrib, very close together. Burm. Fl. Ind. p. 230. Hook. Syn. 

Fil.p. 155. Pteris crenata (Sw.), Bidd. 

F. S. 1. 1. 35. 

Malabar, rare; Hills of Vizagapa- 

tam district, common; plains of East 

Jicngal, Bhotan to Chittagong; Ceylon ; 

Birma ; and Mala y Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical Australia, China, 

and Polynesia.) 

Var. ß Grevilleana. Margin of 
Line frond, where barren, with some 
spinulose teeth, lowest pinnse in the 
barren frond often pinnate, the Seg- 
ments or pinnules acute. Clarke, Fl 
N. I. p. 464. This was included under 
cretica in the Kew Herbarium, but Mr - 
Clarke has referred it here on account 
of the venation, and much divided 

lower pinna? ; it has more the habit of cretica, I think, than o( 

ensiformis. 

Sylhet, Mishmee, Khasya, Chittagong Hills. 

7. Pteris Griffithii. {Hook.) A foot and more high, 
slender graceful ; caudex none ; roots of tufted fibres ; frond ovate- 
lanceolate, submembranaceous pinnate, upper pinna; simple, 2 or 3 
of the lower pairs again pinnated simple ; pinnas and pinnules 
exactly linear, \-\\ inch long, obtuse, mostly opposite, everywhere 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



entire sessile, with the base adnate and decurrent, so as to form a 
narrow wing to the rachis ; lowest pinnules of the inferior pintwe 
soraetimes again dividcd, terminal 
pinnule always elongated ; veins 
distant, once-forked, veinlets di- 
varicating; sori continuous, 
volucres sub-intramarginal, m 
branaceous, not reaching lo the 

apex ; stipes slender, longei 

than the fronds, stramineous- 

brown and a little scaly at the 

base. Hook. Sf>. Fi!. Ü. /. 

t. 113A. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 24 
Mishmee. 



8. Pterissemipinnata. (L.) 
Slipes strong, erect, dark brown, 
Polbhed, hispid at the base, and 
"ien furnished with linear scales ; 
"°nds 12-18 inches long, 6-9 
'"ches broad, ovate-lanceolate, 
™c Upper part cutdown nearly to 
™e rachis into numerous close 
"■»tlte linear lobes, the largest 
°f »hich are 1I-3 inches long, 
*~~i inch broad, the lower two- 
"ürds with 6-8 pairs of opposite 
Qistantly placed pinnse, with long 
linear entire points and a broad 




[Jfpot.) 



Wtite wing on the upper side of the rachis, the lower side with several 
hnear pinnules 1-2 incheslong, } inch broad ; texture scarcely coria- 
«ou»; harren segment finely serrated ; rachis and surfaces naked ; 
^ias simple or once-forked, $ inch apart at the base; involucre 
m embranous. Hook Syn. Fil. f. 157. Zinn. Sp. Fl. 1534. Bedd. 
P.S././. 34. 



ho Febns of British India and Ceylon. 

East Bengal, Assam to Chittagong, up to i,ooo feet ; Travancore 
Hills ; Rirma. 

{Also in Malay Islands, China, and Japan.) 

In Indian examples the pinrue are always semipinnate, but 
in Chinese and Japanese forms the upper margin of the pinnse 
is also pinnatifid. 




9. Fteris Dalhousi-e. {Book.) Stipes 
strong, erect, about 1 (bot high, polished, 
naked ; fronds 3-3 feet long, 12-18 inches 
broed, 3-4 pinnatifid ; upper pinnse linear, 
unbranched decurrent down to the next pair, 
lower ones sometimes 1 foot long, deltoid ; 
pinnules with simple or branched linear 
segments, the longe&t undivided ones 6 
inches long, j-f inch broad, those of the 
pinrue with usually about 1 inch bctween 
them; the margins very slightly serrated ; 
texture subcoriaceous ; rachis and surfaces 
naked; veins fine, simple, or once-forked ; 
indusium narrow-membranous. Hook. Syrx- 
FU. p. 157. Bedd. F. B. T. t. 191. 

Penang. 



10. Pteris quadriaurita. {Reh.) Stipe glabrous or scabrid? 
fronds very variable in size and texture, lanceolate or ovate-Ian Ceolat e, 
with 3-11 subopposite pairs of pinna; in the typical form all except 
the lowest pair are narrowly oblong acuminate or caudate, and cul 
down nearly to the rachis into many uniform segments, which are 
obtuse or acute entire or serrated, and the lowest pair bipartite ; but 
in some forms sevcral or nearly all the pinnas are bipartite, and the 
lowest or two lower pairs have several pinna; descending from the 
lower side, and in one form the lowest pair is completely bipinnate 
with five pinnse on each side of the rachis ; veins conspicuous, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. iii 

usually once-forked ; lowest veins reaching the margin above the sinus 
when very deeply cut, at the sinus when less deeply cut ; sori gene- 
rally partial on the segments, rarely continued to the apex. Retz % 
Obs. vi. 38. Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 158. Bedd. F. S. /. /. 31. 

Throughout India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula, from the 
plains up to 8,000 feet, very common. 

(Also all round the world throughout the tropics and a little 
beyond them.) 

The following varieties are tolerably constant even in cultivation : 
Var. ß argentea. Like the type, but with broad white 

bands down the centre of the pinnae. 

Nilgiris and Western mountains of the -Madras Presidency only 

at high altitudes ; much in cultivation even in England. 

Var. y aspericaulis. Rachis and nerves red ; stipe and 
^chis asperous, generally very rigid, coriaceous, andshining. (Often 
called rubro-nerva.) 

Wynaad, Coorg, and elsewhere on the western side of Madras 
**"esidency, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation. 

Var. $ setigera. Rachises and costules setigerous, very 
^^mbranaceous in texture, nearly all the pinnae bipartite, the lowest 
P^ir with sometimes several pinnae descending along the lower side. 
B *dd. F. B. I. t. 202. 

Coorg and Malabar : Moulmein on limestone rocks. 

Var. € ludens. Pinnules very abnormally cut, sometimes 
0T *ly with a waved margin for the greater length, then developing 
n ormal segments, then again narrowing into only the waved margin. 
B<dd. F. S. I. tabs. 41 and 219 (under Otaria.) 

Malabar, Quilon ; Ceylon. 

Mr. Clarke gives the following varieties for Northern India : 
Var. c khasiana. The lowest pinnae with 5 secondary pinnae 



ii2 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



on each side of the rachis (/. e. completely bipinnate), those of the 
upper margin little smaller than those of the lower. 

Khasya, 3,000 feet elevation. 

Mr. Clarke says it graduates into the type. 

Var. i; Blumeana. Lateral pinnae with 50-60 Segments, which 
are 1 inch long by £ inch broad, equally wide throughout or broader 
at apex, not falcate, obtuse, rounded, entire or crenulate at the barren 
apex. A very large fern. Clarke, F. N. I. t. 55. 

Chittagong ; Tenasserim ; JSingapore. 

Much the habit of longipinnula. 

Var. ö subindivisa. (Sp. Clarke.) Small, with only 3 pinnae, 
terminal one 6 inches long, with many segments, lateral pair hardly 
longer than the segments of the terminal pinna, or subobsolete. 

Bhotan, Sikkim bed of the Teesta, 1,000 feet elevation. 

Mr. Clarke has constituted this a species in his work on the 
" Ferns of Northern India," but he now agrees that it is only a 
variety of quadriaurita. Clarke, F. N. 1. 1. 56. 

(Mr. Clarke's variety major has arched veins and is Campteria 
biaurita.) 

11. Pteris Grevilleana. (Wall.) Dimorphie, barren stipe 
shorter, winged towards the apex; barren frond pedately 5-fid, 
scarcely pinnate, margin spinulose-serrate ; fertile frond with 5 
pinnae, the lower pair bipartite, veins exceedingly obscure. Wall. 
Cat. 2,680. Agardh y Recens. Gen. Pter. 23. Clarke, t. 54. 

Sylhet, Cachar, Shapoor. 

Suspiciously like quadriaurita, except that the fronds are 
dimorphic. Mr. Clarke thinks it is more nearly allied to ensiformis. 

12. Pteris longipinnula. {Wall.) Stipes erect, naked, 2-3 
feet ; fronds up to 3 feet long, and 18 inches broad, pinnate ; pinnae 
about s pairs, large, rather distant, deeply pinnatifid, segments entire, 
blunt, falcate, not distant, ii-2j inches long, \-\ inch broad, apex 
usually barren, crenate, or subentire, the lowest pair undivided, or 
rarely bi-partite ; texture subcoriaeeous ; rachis and surfaces naked ; 




ITKKls l'ATENS. {/foel; 



ii4 Fkrns of British India and Ceylon. 

veins once forked ; sori continuous nearly to the apex of the Seg- 
ments. Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 158. Bedd. F. S I. t. 43. 

Sikkim ; Khasya ; Cachar ; Sylhet up to 3,000 fcet elevation ; 
Travancore and Tinnevelly Mountains ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

13. Pteris excelsa. (Gaud.) Fronds ample, 5-6 feet long, 
submembranaceous, light green, pinnate ; pinnae large, remote, 6 
inches to a foot long, numerous, ovate-lanceolate caudate sessile, 

• lower ones long-petiolate, lowest pair of pinnae entire, or sometimes 
bipartite, all deeply pinnatifid nearly to the costa; segments (2-4 
inches long) from a broad base, linear-lanceolate obtuse serrated 
subfalcate, lower base decurrent, veins free, forked at or near the 
middie or 3-4 branched ; very rarely a few veinlets anastomose ; in- 
volucres continuous from the base almost to the apex, rather broad ; 
stipes very stout and flexuose ; rachises bright castaneous glossy. 
Hook. Sp. Fil. iL 183. Gaud. in Frey c. Voy. Bot. p. 388. Bedd. 
FB./. t. 218. 

Kumaon, Gurwhal ; Dalhousie, 4,000-8,000 feet elevation ; 
Sikkim, 8,000-9,000 feet ; Nynee Tal 
(Also in the Sandwich Islands.) 

14. Pteris patens. (Hook.) Caudex erect ; stipes numerous, 
stout, scaly at their base, rachis stout, gkbrous; fronds ample, erect, 
strict, membranaceous, pinnate ; lower pinnae bi-tripartite ; pinnae 
8-16 inches long, strict horizontally patent, numerous approximate, 
elongate oblong, acuminate, rarely subcaudate, sessile or lower ones 
shortly petiolate, deeply (almost to the rachis) pinnatifid ; segments 
horizontal, very uniform, linear, scarcely acuminate, serrulate where 
sterile, the base dilated decurrentiy-confluent on both sides, especially 
at the lower base, sometimes apart ; veins all free, simple or once 
or twice forked ; sori continuous nearly to the apex. Hook. Syn. 
Fil. ii. 177. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 205. Campteria patens, Baker. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 165. (The supposed narrow costal arches are 
only a wing to the rachis.) 

Madras Presidency, Carcoor ghat, Wynaad and Travancore Hills, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 115 



2,000-2,500 feet elevation; Ceylon, Dodawilla, Matele and Moo- 
roowa forests, above 2,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Borneo, Philippines and Society Islands.) 

15. Pteris longipes. (Don.) Fronds membranaceous, furnished 

above with a few subulate scales on the rachis of the pinnae, and with 

hairs on the rachis of the segments, ternately divided, or subpedately 

divided into 5-7 segments, lateral divisions multipinnate; pinnae short, 

petiolate or subsessile lanceolate acuminate, deeply pinnatifid to 

the apex, or with the apex long caudate, segments oblong obtuse 

subtruncate, serrated at the sterile portions of the apex ; sori lateral 

on the segments, never extending to the apex or base ; veins rather 

remote, all forked, basal ones arising from the axil of the costule, 

and extending to the margin much above the sinus. G. Don. Prod. 

FL Nep. 15. Pteris pellucens, Agardh^ Sp. Gen. Pier. 43. Hook. 

Sp. FiL ii. 191. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 32. (South Indian examples 

arealways ternately divided, but those from N. India have often 5, 

rarely 7, pinnae.) 

All the western hüls of the Madras Presidency, 2,000-5,000 feet 
elevation; Ceylon; Birma; Sikkim, Bhotan; and Khasya 1,000-5,000 
feet elevation. 

(Also Guinea coast and Guatemala.) 

\ Stipes distant from a long creeping r/iizomc, indusium double. 
{Genus Pcesia and Ornithopteris of aulhors.) 

16. Pteris aquilina. (Z.) Rhizome stout, creeping Under- 
ground; stipes about 1 foot long, strong, erect, naked ; fronds 2-6 feet 
* on & 1-2 feet broad, subdeltoid in outline, only the uppermost pinnae 
Atopie, the next lanceolate cut down neariy or quite to the rachis 
"to short triangulär or linear pinnules, the lowest long-stalked, 1 foot 
01 more long, with ample lanceolate pinnules which are cut down to 
the rachis into numerous lanceolate segments, which are again fuliy 
pinnate ; largest entire ultimate segments 1 inch long, 2 lines broad ; 
tature thin or subcoriaceous; rachis andsurfaces naked or pubescent ; 
veins close, conspicuous, often twice forked : involucre double, or th^ 



u6 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



inner obsolete. Hock. Syn. Fil. p. 163. Linn. Sp. pl 1533. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 42. 

Throughout India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula on the 
mountains, 2,000-8,000 feet elevation. 

(Also throughout the whole world, except the Arctic zones and 
temperate South America.) 

Var. ß esculenta. Ultimate segments distant, linear and elon- 
gated. Moulmein and the Malay Peninsula southwards. 



GENUS XXIX.— CAMPTERIA. (Fred.) 

(KamptoS) arched ; the lowest veins meeting and forming an arch.) 

As in Pteris, but the lowest veinlets from the base of the vein 
or costule of each segment united with the veinlet from the next 
costule, and forming long arches along the costa of the pinnae ; upper 
veinlets free. 

1. Camptkria bi aurita. (Linn. under Pteris.) Quite similar 
to Pteris quadriaurita, except that the costules of the segments are 
connected by a long arching veinlet ; the pinnae are generally less 
deeply dividcd, and the plant is generally larger and coarser, but 
these two latter differehees cannot be relied on. Zinn. Sp. PI. 1534, 
under Pteris. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 164. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 44. 

Western parts of Madras Presidency up to 6,000 feet; not 
common. Pretty general throughout Northern India from the plains 
up to 6,000 feet. Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Malay Islands, China, tropical Africa, and Australia.) 

2. Campteria Kleiniana. (Pres/.) 4-6 feet high; fronds very 
large, sub-membranaeeous, pedately ovate, pinnate; pinnae sub-sessile 
lanceolate with a long acumination; lowest pair with two large pinnae 
descending from the lower margin of the costa; all the pinnae deeply 
pinnatifid (leaving a broad margin on each side of the costa) ; 
segments falcate oblong, sterile ones broadly crenated, and fertile ones 




&fc. 



c,-. M1TF.RU KLEINIARA. {Prtil.) 



n8 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



crenated at their sterile apices ; basal veins uniting in pairs into an 
arch below the sinus (one generally proceeding from the costa, the 
other from the costule), and bearing 3-4 free veinlets; other veinlets 
forked, terminating in dots within the margin; indusium never reach- 
ing the base or apexof the segments. Klein. Tent* Pter. 147. t 5. 
Pteris geminata, Wall. Cat. 2180. Hook. Syn. FiL 164. C. 
Anamallayensis, Bedd. F. S. I. 1. 45. 

Western mountains of Madras Presidency 2,000-4,500 feet; 
rather rare. United by Hooker and by Clarke with biaurita but 
really quite distinct ; its thin texture and very wavy appearance 
are very unlike any form of biaurita; its margin is, besides, 
always crenated, and the veins never reach the margin, which they 
always do in biaurita. It is one of the most beautiful ferns in the 
Madras forests, and has been for years in cultivation at Ootacamund. 
Wight's specimens from Courtallum are named geminata in the Kew 
Heibarium, and there are no specimens from N. India ; there are 
specimens from Johanna Island ; also from the Isle of Mayotta, 
(collected by Lady Barkly), named by Mr. Baker Campteria maxima. 
Sp. FiL p. 480. 

3. Campteria Wallichiana. (Ag.) Fronds ample, glabrous, sub- 
membranaceous, 3-partite, lateral brancbes compoundly divided, 
terminal one elongated, pinnated; pinnae numcrous, sessile, 4-6 inches 
long, linear-lanceolate acuminate, deeply pinnatifid; segments linear- 
lanceolate obtuse, sterile ones serrulate, all approximate, about \ an 
inch long ; basal veins monarcuate, the rest free and forked, rarely a 
solitary areole at the base of the costule ; stipes very long, 5-6 feet ; 
stout, rieh castaneous, and, as welias the paler-coloured rachises, very 
smooth and glossy. Ag. Sp. Gen. Pter.p. 69. Hook. Sp. FiL ii. 206. 
Syn. FiL p. 165. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 25 and 217. Var. quadripinnata 
( Clarke) is a very Compound form with the pinnce tripinnate; ii is 
probably an abnormal form or monstrosity which would not be constant. 

Himalayas from Chumba to Bhotan 3,000-8,000 feet, abundant ; 
Khasya. 

(Also in the Philippines, Java, and Samoa.) 




nOKVOPTF.MS T.UDESS. (Wall.) 



Ferns of Britjsh India and Ceylon. 

GENUS XXX.— DORYOPTERIS. (J. Smith.) 

(Doryt spear ; pteris, form of the fronds.) 

Fronds small, sub-pedate of sagittate, in texture and colour like 
Pellaea; veins copiously anastomosing, without free included veinlets; 
the rest as in Pteris. * 

i. Doryopteris ludens. (Wall.) Rhizome creeping, furnished 
with linear adpressed brown scales which have white margins ; stipes 
solitary distant, polished, sometimes with a few scales, and often with 
dusky sub-tomentose pubescence at base and apex ; barren frond on 
a stipe 3-4 inches long, triangulär with two slightly defleied basal 
lobes, to hastate with two basal and two large spreading lateral lobes, 
the margin entire; fertile frond, on a stipe often 12 inches long, 
4-6 inches each way, cut down into five linear-lanceolate or 
lanceolate lobes, one crect, two spreading and two deflexed, of which 
all except the last are sometimes again forked ; texture coriaeeous, 
costa polished, veins hidden ; sori continuous all round the margin. 
Wall. Cat. 88. Hook. Syn. Fil. 166. Clarke, F N. I. 470. Lito- 
brochia ludens and pedata, Bedd. F. N. I. t. 26 and 27. 

Chittagong Hills up to 1,000 feet elevation; Orissa,on the Balasore 
Hills ; Birma. (A speeimen in Wight's herbarium of this or an allied 
species is supposed to he from the Dindigul mountains in the Madras" 
Presidency; but it has never been found there of late.) 

(Also in the Philippine islands.) 

GENUS XXXI.— LITOBROCHIA. {Pres!.) 

(Lit/ios, a stone ; brocha, spots ; the areoles of the net-like veins 
resembling pavement.) 

Veins copiously anastomosing with some free included veinlets ; 
otherwise as in Pteris. 

1. Litobrochi/v incisa. (ThunL) Caudex long creeping, 
subterraneous ; stipes and rachis castaneous glossy \ fronds ample, sub- 




iSP : : ' ' ■ 




LIT0BR0C1IIA INCISA. (Thunb.) 



122 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



membranaceous, distant ovate, long stipitate, glaucous beneath, 
tripinnate ; pinnae all sessile, subadnate mostly opposite horizontal ; 
pinnules opposite sessile, lanceolate obtuse, more or less deeply lobed 
and pinnatifid; segments ovate or oblong (sterile ones subsinuate) or 
triangulär, lowest one often remote and forming auricles on the 
rachis, superior ones confluent ; veins all anastomosing, areoles next 
the costa and costules the largest and inost elongated ; involucres 
continuous or in terra pted, membranaceous entire at the edge. 
Thunb. Fr. Fl. Cap. 171. Book. Syn. Fil.p. 172. Litobrochia aurita, 
Hook. Sp. Fü. ii. 231. Bcdd. F. S. I. t. 221. 

Ceylon, central and southern prownces, above 3,000 feet Tra- 
vancore Hills 3,000-4,000 feet. Sispara ghat on the Nilgiris, 4,500 
feet. Sikkim, Bhotan, and Khasya, 3,000-6,500 feet. 

(Also widely distributed in the tropics and sub-tropics of America, 
Africa, Asia, Australia, and Polynesia.) 

2. Litobrochia marginata. (Bory, t/tider Pteris.) Stipes elon- 
gated, stout, and with the rachis sub-castaneous ; fronds arople, 
tripartite, lateral branches pinnate, spreading, long petiolate, sub- 
membranaceous, glabrous ; pinnules 4-6 inches or more long, linear- 
oblong or linear-lanceolate sub-sessile, acuminate, rather deeply 
pinnatifid; segments approximate, linear-oLlong falcate (upwards) 
obtuse or acute, entire or scarctly serrated and only at the apex, 
nearly half an inch long ; sinuses obtuse ; basal veins forming a single 
arc parallel with the costa ; veins forming a series of two or more 
areoles (parallel with the costule), from which proceed free veinlets 
which do not extend to the margin but terminate with a thickened 
apex just within it ; involucres continuous on the lower two-thirds 
of the margin of the pinnules not extcndingto the apex. Bory. Voy. 2. 
p. 192. Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 172. Pteris tripartita, Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. 
225. Litobrochia tripartita, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 220. 

Ceylon, common about Galle and the central provinces ; Madras 
Presidency, much cultivated, and said to befound wild in the Cochin 
forests ; Malacca. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 123 

(Also in West tropical Africa, the East African Islands, Queens- 
land, the Philippines, and Polynesia.) 



GENUS XXXII.— CERATOPTERIS. (Brong.) 
(KeraS) kcratos, a hörn ; ptcris, a fern: the horned fern.) 

Sori placed on two or three distantlyanastomosingveins which run 
down the frond longitudinally, and are parallel both *ith the edge 
and midrib ; veins of the sterile fronds articulated in oblique oblong 
hexagonal areoles. Capsules scattered on the receptacles, sessile, 
subglobose, with a ring which is either compltte or more or less 
partial or obsolete. Indusium formed of the reflexed margin of the 
fronds, those of the two sides meeting against the midrib. A very 
anomalous genus, regarded by some as a distinet order ; it is very 
unlike Pterideae, and should be placed in a distinet tribe. 

1. Ceratopteris thalictroides. (Li//.) Stipes tuftedj thick 
inflated, filled with large aircells; fronds sueculent in texture, the 
barren ones floating or erect, simple or süghtly divided when young, 
bi-tripinnate with narrow linear segments when mature, fertile ones 
bi-tripinnate ; ultimate segments podlike. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 174. 
Btdd. F. S. I. t. 75. Acrostichum thalictroides, Z. Sp. PL 1527. 

Throughout India, Ceylon, and the Maiay Peninsula up to 
3,000 feet elevaüon; common in tanks, ditches, and swampy places, 
or even dry ground during the rains. Mr. J. Smith says it is an 
annual, but I do not think. it is so in eultivation, if kept in water 
or very moist, as I had the same plant growing for some years at 
Ootacamund. 

(Also in the tropics of the whole world.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 125 



GENUS XXXIII.— LOMARIA. (Wil/d.) 
(Loma, fringe or border ; relating to the indusium.) 

Sori linear continuous, parallel with the midrib and occupying 
the whole, or nearly the whole, of the space between it and 
the edge ; indusium membranous, formed of the revolute edge of the 
frond. Fronds dimorphous, usually once or twice pinnatifid or 
pinnate, rarely simple or bi-pinnate; veins free; ring of capsule 
vertical. 

1. Lomaria Patersoni. (Spreng.) Rhizome short-creeping ; 

stipes 2-3 inches long, wiry, erect, rather scaly below ; sterile frond 

sl *Dple, about 1 foot long and 1 inch broad, narrowed at both ends, 

or pinnatifid, 2 feet or more long, cut down nearly to the lachis into 

k"*2 segments on each side, which are often 6-9 inches long and 

ne arly 1 inch broad, and suddenly decurrent at the base ; texture 

coriaceous ; fertile fronds simple and only £ inch broad, or pinnatifid 

Wl *h numerous segments on each side, 6 inches long by ^ inch broad ; 

0r the fronds are sometimes in part sterile, in part fertile ; veins 

P r °*ninent in the young sterile fronds, inconspicuous in maturc 

lroi *ds, forked, thickened at the apex close to the margin; sori 

c °vering the whole space between midrib and margin. Spr. Sys. 

Ve & iv. 62. Hook. Syn. FiL 174. L. elongata (Blume), Bedd. F S. 

1 *< 28, 28A. 

Nilgiris and Anamaliays 5,000-8,000 feet eievation. Ceylon, 
4»ooo feet and upwards. Nilgiris examples have the fertile fronds 
älways pinnatifid as far as I have observed, and the sterile ones 
generally so. From Ceylon I have examples with the sterile and 
fertile both quite simple. 

(Also in the Philippines, Fiji, New Zealand, S. Australia, and 
Tasmania.) 




U»1AUA fATM».'«!- HM 



Ferns of British India and Ceylox. 127 



GENUS XXXIV.— PLAGIOGYRIA. (Kunze.) 

(Plagtos, oblique ; gyros, a circle ; the oblique ring of the capsule.) 

As in Lomaria, except that the capsules have an oblique ring, 
and the base of the stipe is suddenly dilatei, fleshy, triquetrous, and 
furnished with large spongy glands. 

1. Plagiogyria adnata. (Blume.) Caudex stout short; stipes 

caspitose, elongated, brown, triquetrous ; a span to 1 \ foot long ; 

slender, naked at the base, dilated and subcarnose, furnished with 

orbicular spongy glands; fronds a foot and more long, ovate-lanceolate, 

chartaeeous-membranaeeous, sterile ones pinnatifid almost to the 

rachis, below pinnated, but all the pinnse united bya narrow wing; 

segnients mostlyopposite d'Stant lanceolate, much acuminated, more or 

tess falcate, the inferior base round, superior base extended upwards, 

the margins entire or obscurely toothed, the apex strongly seirated ; 

fcrtile fronds pinnated; pinnae alternate distant linear sessile, rather 

°otuse; sori covering the whole under side between the costa and the 

frrown membranaeeous very distinet involucre. Bl. En. Fil. Jav. p. 

2o 5 Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 19. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 51. 

Khasya, 4,000-5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Japan and Java ) Mr. Clarke thinks it possible that this 
Ä Hot the same as Blume's Java plant, as the only example of that is 
a I>ortion of a fertile frond. 

2. Plagiogyria glauca. (Bl.) Caudex stout erect ; stipes eion- 
ß^ed, subcompressed tetragonous with two furrows in front, the base 
Quated triquetrous on the anterior face bearing spongy depressed 
glands, fronds ovate-oblong 1-2 feet long, pinnated ; sterile pinnae 
äumerous, 3-5 inches long, chartaeeous, horizontally spreading, 
sessile, or very nearly so, lanceolate, acuTiinated at the base, trun- 
cated beneath, having a gland as much attached to the rachis as to 
the very short petiole ; the margins finely dentate-serrulate, rather 



<s 






•;ä 



"jyj 



k 
f 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 129 



niore strongly at the apex, white and almost powdery beneath, greea 

above with a tinge of red ; veins copious, compact, simple and forked; 

ultimate short pinnae confluent into a pinnatifid and lobed caudate 

a pex, fenile pinnae narrow-linear obtuse erect-patent on very short 

petioles, which sometimes bear a gland beneath ; sori and involucres 

a s in other Plagiogyriae. BL En. FiL I. p. 204. Lomaria (Plagiogyria) 

glauca, Hook. Sp. FiL iii. 22. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 90. 

Khasya, 4,060-5,000 feet elevation. (Probably only a variety of 
Pycnophylla.) 

(Also in Java.) 

3. Plagiogyria pycnophylla. (Kunze.) Caudex stout, erect, 
v ery woody, and having many wiry roots ; fronds fascicled ; stipes sub- 
quadrangular 2-furrowed in front (as is the rachis), at the base dilated 
fleshy, triquetrous, bearing spongy glands; fronds 1-2 and more feet 
* 0n g, sterile ones, sub-chartaceous opaque, brown when dry, oblong- 
0y ate pinnated for its whole length, except that the small terminal 
0n es are confluent into a lobed (or pinnatifid) and finely acuminate 
an d serrated apex, pinnae horizontally patent sessile or very nearly 
*^ numerous, approximate, narrow oblong-lanceolate very finely 
a "&ost caudately acuminate, the base very obtuse and truncate 
(neither dilated nor contracted), at the base beneath furnished with 
°ne or two prominent glands (sometimes wanting) ; the margin very 
niiniuely serrulate, the caudate apex strongly serrated ; veins nume- 
^s, closely placed, simple and forked ; fertile fronds narrower pin- 
^^1 ; pinnae linear obtuse on very short petioles with a gland on 
* e under side ; involucre at first vaulted, conspicuous, membrana- 
ce ous, brown, at length forced back by the capsules. Kze. in Bot. 
hü. iv.p. 143. Book. Sp. FiL iii. 21. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 52. 

Nepal and Bhotan, 6,000-11,000 feet; very common at 7,000- 
$,000 feet. Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet ; Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in Java.) 

4. Plagiogyria euphlebia. (Kunze!) Caudex stout woody 
lgated ; stipes 1 foot or more long, naked erect, triquetrous below, 

10 



130 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



fronds ovate-lanceolate, 1-2 feet long, 6-12 inches broad ; pinnse 
1 inch or more apart at the base, all stalked except towards the apex, 
erect-patent, linear, 4-6 inches long, J- J inch broad, narrowed at the 
base on both sides, and at the apex, where it is toothed ; texture sub- 
coriaceous ; veins prominent ; fertile fronds similar, but the pinnae 
more distant and narrowly linear ; rachis erect naked. Kze. in Bot. 
Zeit. 1848,/. 521. Hook. Syn. Fil p. 183. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 165. 

Nepal, Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet 

(Also in Japan and N. Australia.) 



TRIBE VII.— BLECHNEÄ. 

Sori linear or oblong dorsal, parallel with the midrib and edge 
of the segments, not close to the latter ; indusium the same shape as 
the sorus, superior, opening towards the midrib. 

GENUS XXXV.— BLECHNUM. (Z.) 

(One of the Greek names for a fern.) 

Sori linear, continuous, or nearly so, parallel with and usually 
contiguous to the midrib ; indusium membranous, distinct from the 
edge of the frond ; fronds uniform or only slightly dimorphous, 
generally pinnate or pinnatifid ; veins free. 

1. Blechnum cartilagixeum. {Swartz!) Caudex oblique, 
densely clothed at the crown with blackish fibrillose scales ; stipes 
strong erect scaly and muricated in the lower part; fronds ovatc- 
oblong, 1-2 feet long, 6-9 inches broad, pinnatifid and pinnate 
towards the base ; pinnas numerous erect-patent linear, 4-6 inches 
long, \-\ inch broad, narrowed gradually upwards, margin ser- 
rulate ; the lowest pinnae linear distant, narrower than those above, 
but not reduced to mere auricles. Sw. Syn. Fil. 114 and 312. 
ClarAe, F. iV. / /. 473. Hook. Syn. Fil. 184. 

Mishmee. — Mr. Clarke refers Griffith's solitary specimen to this 
species, which is Australian. Hooker referred it to nitidum, an 




BLICHNUM ORIENTALE. (£.) 



132 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

American plant.- The two species appear to me so very closely 
allied as to be "distinguished only with difficulty, if at all; the 
rachis is slightly puberulous in both. The figure /. 49, Ferns Brit. 
Ind., given to represent the Mishmee plant, is a copy of Hooker's 
figure of the American species. 

2. Blechnum serrulatum. (Rieh.) Caudex elongated stout 
ascending; stipes 6-12 inches long, strong, erect, smooth, nearly 
naked ; fronds oblong acuminate, 1-2 feet long, 6-9 inches broad, 
with 12-24 pairs of quite distinet articulated linear-oblong pinnae 
on each side, the largest of which are 4-5 inches long, J-f inch 
broad, narrowed gradually towards the point and downwards to a 
narrow base ; the margin finely incised ; texture coriaeeous ; rachis 
rigid naked ; veins very fine and close, not conspieuous ; feitile 
pinnae narrower; sori in a continuous line close to the midrib. 
Rieh, in Act. Soc. Nat. Rar. i. 114. Hook Syn. Fil. 186. 

Malacca. 

(Also in tropical America, Australia, Borneo, and New 
Caledonia.) 

3. Blechnum Orientale. (Zinn.) Caudex stout erect, 
clothed at the crown with fibrillose dark brown scales ; stipes 4-8 
inches long, strong, erect, scaly below ; fronds 1-5 feet long, 6-36 
inches broad, ovate, with very numerous nearly contiguous linear 
pinnae on each side, which are about J inch broad, narrowed to a long^ 
point, the bases quite distinet, the upper ones decurrent, a few o£ 
the lowest mere auricles ; texture subcoriaeeous ; rachis and both» 
surfaces naked; veins fine and close ; sori in a long continuous lin^= 
close to the midrib. Lin. Sp. PL 1535. Hook. Syn. Fil. 186. BedtTZ- 
F. S. I. t. 29. 

Throughout India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula, up to 
6,000 feet in the south, and 4,000 feet on the Himalayas. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, China, Polynesia and Australia.) 

4. Blechnum findlaysonianum. (Wall.) Caudex very 
small ; stipes short ; frond ample, 2-4 feet, ovate-lanceolate, sub- 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 133 

coriaceous, pinnated; pinnae erect-patent, rather distant, 6-1 2-14 
inches long, i-i£ wide, oblong or elongate-oblong, sessile, obliquely 
cuneate at the base, entire, upper ones much decurrent, but (except 
the two upper ones) not coadunate ; the apex suddenly and sharply 
»cuminated ; several of the lowest pairs abortive, reduced to small 
Iiard scales; the surface glossy; veins obscure, compact, parallel ; sori 
dose to the costa continuous, narrow-linear ; involucres also very 
iiarrow and indistinct. Wall. Cat. n. 2172. Hook. Sp. Fil iii. 53, 
sind Syn. Fil. p. 187. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 249. 

Penang and the Malay Peninsula. (Perkaps only a very broad- 
Itavedform of Orientale!) 



GENUS XXXVL— BLECHNIDIUM. (Moore.) 

(Resemblance to Blech num.) 

Like Blechnum, but the veins anastomosing and forming large 
^ched areoles. 

1. Blechnidium melanopus. (Hook, under Blechnum.) Stipes 

b feck erect, 6 inches long, naked ; fronds broadly falcate-lanceolate, 

ßlossy, sub-coriaceous, pinnate ; pinnae very approximate from a rather 

br &ad adnate base, linear-oblong falcate, somewhat acute, the margin 

en tire, narrowly revolute, uppermost ones gradually confluent into a 

^^eolate elongated lobe, the lowest 3-4 pair suddenly diminished, 

Short, very obtuse, sub-auriculatc at the superior base ; veins internal 

^Uculated, forming large angled areoles next the costa, narrower 

oMique ones often extending to the margin ; ultimate veinlets free 

^d clavate at their apex just within the margin ; sori quite close to 

the costa, continuous, not reaching to the apex of the pinnae, lower 

half of the rachis beneath black. Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 64. Syn. Fil. 

/ 186. Bedd. F. B. I. f. 50. 

Rhasya Hills, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 135 



GENUS XXXVIL— WOODWARDIA. (Smith.) 

(In honour of T. J. Woodward, an English Botanist.) 

Sori linear or linear-oblong, sunk in cavities of the frond, placed 
in single rows parallel with and contiguous to the midribs of the 
pinnae and pinnules ; indusium sub-coriaceous, the same shape as 
the sorus, closing over the cavity like a lid ; veins forming a series of 
costal arches ; the rest free or anastomosing ; fronds ample and bi- 
pinnatifid. 

1. Woodwardia radicans. (Smith.) Stipes elongate, with 

large lanceolate acuminate paleaceous scales at the base ; fronds 

ample, pinnate, subcoriaceous ; pinnce distant, often a foot or more 

long, petiolate, deeply pinnatifid broad-lanceolate acuminate; 

hciniae ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, subfalcate, spinulose-serrate to- 

w ards the apex ; veins reticulate towards the main costa (of the 

Pmnae), a single series of areoles outside of the sori thence free to 

"te margin ; sori parallel with and near to the costule, short oblong, 

Sü nk in the cavity of the sorus, which has an elevated margin ; in- 

v °Iucre vaulted coriaceous ; rachis here and there producing large 

scaly germinating gemmae at the base of some of the pinnas. 

*"'VA, Act. Taur. v. p. 4-12. Hook. Sß. EL iii. 66. Syn. Fil. 138. 

**<&. F. B. I. t. 88. 

Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhotan, 3,000-8,000 feet elevation ; 
COt **mon in Khasya, 4,000-5,000 feet. 

(Also in Java, S. Europe, Macaronesia, California and Mexico.) 



GENUS XXXVIII.— DOODIA. (tf. Br.) 

(In honour of Samuel Doody, a British cryptogamist.) 

Sori oblong or sub-lunulate, in one or more series, arranged 
^^^^^sversely with the veins forming areoles which are superficial, not 
^^/^V; involucres membranaceous, of the same form as the sori, 
^^ing towards the costa and lying parallel with it \ veins umfo>\m,>\5eÄ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 137 



ower ones arcuately anastomosing, forming elongated costal areoles 
one or more series), the margiml venules free ; fronds pinnate or 
)innatifid ; segments or pinnae sharply serrated, rhizome sub-globose. 

1. Doodia dives. {Kunze.) Rhizome obliquely ascending, 
»leaceous, rootlets clothed with black fibre ; stipes angled brown, 
rery paleaceous near the base ; fronds coriaceous, glabrous ovate- 
)blong, long caudate at the apex, pinnate at the base, with some of 
he lower pinnae auricled, pinnatifid above ; pinnae and segments 
[>atently divergent, oblong, margins pungently serrated; pinnae or 
segments of the fertile fronds often distant ; sori in one or two series 
on each side of the costa of the pinnae and segments and also on 
the wings of the rachis, lunate, often more or less confluent. Kze. in 
Schk. Fi/. Supp/.\\. p. 12. /. 185. Hook. Sp. Fi/, iii. 73. Syn. 
Fd. 189. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 222. 

Ceylon, Hackgalla and the central provinces above 4,000 feet 
elevation. 

(Also in Java.) 

TRIBE VIIL— ASPLENIEÄ. 

Sori attached to the veins, oblique with regard to the costa or 
*sionally sub-parallel with it, linear or oblong or horseshoe- 
>ed ; indusium the same shape as the sorus, when single opening 

rds the midrib, sometimes double. 

GENUS XXXIX.— THAMNOPTERIS. (Pres/.) 

(Taamnos, a thicket ; pferis> fern.) 

ri unilateral linear; indusium linear, straight, single, free 
\y ; veins forked ; venules parallel ; their apices combined by 

erse continuous marginal vein ; fronds undivided, simple, 

mceolate to broad-lanceolate. 

hamnopteris Nidus. (Linn.) Fronds very variable in 
l breadth, lanceolate acute or acuminate at the apex, taper- 




XmIM 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 139 



ing gradually into a short stem, the edge entire, the raidrib rounded 
on the back ; texture coriaceous ; veins fine and parallel, half a line 
apart ; sori reaching about half-way towards the margin. Lin. Sp. 
J*l. 1537. Hook. Syn. Fil. 190. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 197. 

North India ; the Malay Peninsula ; Ceylon. 

(Also pretty general throughout tropical Asia, Mauritius, 
Madagascar, &c.) 

Typical Nidus has the fronds up to 6 feet long and 5-6 inches 
wide, and has not been found in the Madras Presidency. 

Var. ß mus^folia. (Afett.) Fronds up to 6 feet long and 
1 foot broad ; sori extending nearly to the margin. Afett. Asp. p. 85 . 
Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 78. 

Malacca, Singapore. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

Var. y phyllitidis. (Don.) Fronds up to 2 feet long and 
2 > rarely 3 inches broad. Don. Prod. Nep. 7. Hook. Sp. FI. iii. 80. 
B 'dd.F. S. I. t. 123. 

Western forests of the Madras Presidency, very common ; 
** J *nalayas ; Khasya ; Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in Java Luzon, and Samar.) 

Theabovehave been considered three different species by many 
^^.nists, they are now generally all united under Nidus ; there 
fPp^ars to be no real difference except as to size, and it is doubtful 
" *his is constant, or that the supposed varieties do not run into 
^H other. 

2. Thamnopteris Grevillei. (Wall) Fronds 12-18 inches 

* otl g by 2-3 broad, lanceolate-spathulate, narrowed to an acute apex 

HUi suddenly below to a broad wing to the stipe, which grows very 

B^dually narrower downwards, the margin entire ; texture coriaceous ; 

töidrib keeled below ; veins nearly horizontal, those in the body of 

the frond about \ line apart ; sori on most of them extending within 

a short distance of the edge. Wall. Cat. 1036. Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 80. 

Bedd. K B. I. t. 66. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



141 



Birma and Mishmee. 

The spathulate fronds with the winged stipe give this fern a very 
different appearance to any form of Nidus. 

3. Thamnopteris Simonsiana. {Hook.) Fronds 12-18 inches 
long, i-i-l- inch broad, tapering above into an acuminated point, and 
very gradually below into a short stem, the margin neafly entire; 
midrib only rounded and prominent below; texture coriaceous; 
veins erect-patent, about -J- line apart ; sori copious, reaching from the 
midrib to within a short distance of the edge. Hook, Syn. Fit. 191. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 247. 

Khasya and Jaintea hüls up to 4,000 feet ; Chittagong; Madras 
Presidency, on the hüls west of Vizagapatam, 3,000 fect. 

Mr. Clarke is in error in saying that it isfound in Malabar ; ht 
vnites it with Nidus> tut it woutd Jiardly be safe to do so unless it bt 
Proved to vary in cultivation. 

GENUS XL.— ASPLENIUM. (Linn.) 

(<4, privative; spien, spieen ; in allusion to its medical properties.) 

Sori dorsal or sub-marginal, linear or oblong ; indusium simüai 

ltl shape, straight, Single, plane or tumid, bursting along the outei 

ec *ge ; veins free. 

* Fronds quite entire. 

1. Asplenium ensiforme. {Wallich.) Stipes tufted 1-3 inches 
*"*& firm» erect, scaly below ; fronds 8-20 inches long, ;}— ^ inc ^ 
brc> ^id, much acuminated; margin entire or nearly so, the lowei 
P^*"^ of frond very gradually narrowed ; texture coriaceous ; veim 
ln ***}ersed, inconspicuous, erect-patent, usually once forked; sor: 
" r ^*^d, reaching nearly to the midrib and margin. Wall. Cat. 200 
H***>k. Syn. Fil.fi. 191. Bedd. F S. I. t. 125. A. stenophyllum, Bedd 
F - -£. /. /. 147. 

Himalayas; Gurwhal to Bhotan, 4,000-9,000 feet elevation 

Ceylon ; Birma ; Western forests of Madras Presidency. The Soutr 

UUlian, -Ceylon, and Birma plant has fronds generally about l 

v^ches long and nearly 1 inch wide. Some Himalayan examples 

teve very long and very narrow fronds, but they cannot be separatec 



usua 'ly oncc forkcd; 
ihe wayiothemaigin. 




W 6 7l 
AWtlKiUM ENSIFOKMH 



»i reaching from i 
Hvok.Syn. Fi/. lgz 
Sikkim, b 
feet elevation 
Khasya, 4,00t 
Mergui and Ta 
bereis als 
"fern front ftt, 
«v/4 /#/r, «*■£> 
»Ajftf 6-9 i«rf„ ( 

** Fronds 

3- ASPLENIT 

Caudex short, < 
rooting, squamos 
•is is Ihe very > 
long) stipe, and 
heneath; f, on ds 
span Io„ gj cha.ta 
pale rusiy Hreen 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 143 

cxtcnding to west frontier of Kashmir, and tastward to Sikkim, 
where it is rare. 



(Also in Abyssinia.) 



» » * Fronds pinnate. 



4. ASPLEN1UM VIRIDE. 

{Hudson.) Stipes densely 

tufted ; often brown or 

blackish, 2-4 inches long, 

naked ; fronds 4-6 inches 

long, l inch broad with 12- 

20 sub-sessile pinnae on 

each side, which are ovate 

or elliptic, the upper edge 

nairowed suddenly at the 

tue, the lower obliquely 

tnincate, the outer part 

deeply crenated ; texture 

'•erbaeeous ; rachis naked 

fifeen ; veins sub-flabellate ; 

80 ri copious Hnear-oblong 

ob 'ique. Huds. Fl. Ang. 

4 S3. Hook. Syn. Fil. 195. 

■&**&. F.B.I.C4. 

Kashmir, 12,000- 
3 , *3oo feet ; Gulmurg, 
**ail, Kumaon. 

(Also in Europe, Asia, 
*i N. America in Arctic 
"^^*4 Alpine regions.) 




(mm 






S- Asplenium Trichomanes. (Lt'itn.) Stipes densely tufted, 
inches long, naked glossy brown or black ; fronds 6-12 inches 
l Si about i inch broad, with 15-30 opposite pairs of sessile 
*"*2ontal pinnse, which are J-jJ inch broad, ii-2 lines deep, the 
S« sliglitly crenate, the two sides unequal, the upper one the 



v ., . •^.■v."j im ricv.it i< >n. 

(Also in all loiir quark-rs of the woild, 

6. ASPLENIUM NORMALE. (Don.) 

tufted, wiry, dark purple, polished ; fronds 1 
broa.d, with very numerous close placed pini 
are \-i inch long, \ inch broad, deflexed ; 
incised-crenate, the upper side auricled an 
the base, the lower truncate in a straight line 
rachis glossy ; veins mostly once forked ; sori 
in direction, some at right angles with the 
them, or in one row, or only 1-2 to each 
Ncp.p.i* Bo.k. Syn. Fd. p. 197. Asplen 
Bedd. F. S. I. t. 133. 

Madras Presidency, in the forests of 
3,000-6,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon, abovc 
Himalayas from Nepal to Bhotan, 4, 000-8, o< 
5,000 feet. Mr. Clarke siys some forms a 
Trichomanes, others to monanthemum, a 
layan examples are much more variable than 

(Also in Canton.) 

Var. ß. Pinnne more numerous anH r 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 145 

nurnerous, approximate, horizontal sessile, oblong obtuse, upper half, 

obscurely serrated, cuneate at the base, superior base truncated sub- 

aariculate, infeiior margin cut off as it were by a straight line ; 

terminal pinna elongated, pinnatifid below ; costa and veins sunk, 

obsolete ; sori 2-6, oblong oblique, occupying thc disc of the frond 

between the middle and the apex ; involucre firm, membranaceous ; 

rachis ebony-black, terete, rigid, sparsely setose. Hook, Sp. FiL iii. 

H3- Syn. FiL p. 198. Bedd. F B. I. t. 288. 

Penang. 

8. Asplenium SEPTENTRIONALE. (Lin. utider Acrostichum). Small 
^udex creeping, densely radiculose scarcely paleaceous ; stipes 
n utderous, tufted, 3-6 inches high, erect, flexuose, green brown at the 
"^e ; fronds 1-2 inches long, coriaceous, glabrous, pinnated ; pinnae 
«~~* inchlong; long-petioled, linear or linear-lanceolate, subungui- 

Cu late, often very acute or acuminate, rarely solitary, generally 2-3, 
^ernate entire or forked; lateral Segments small subulate, rarely 
^iniated (2-3 acuminate segments) ; veins forked parallel ; sori very 
f^g ; involucres also much elongated, attached near the margin. 
^*>ok. Sp. FiL iii. 174. Syn. FiL p. 198. Bedd. F B. I. /. 60. 
r Ostichum septentrionale, Linn. Sp. FL 1524. Acropteris, Link. 
Northern India, Kashmir, 9,000-12,000 feet elevation; Gur- 
rl *al 8,000 feet. 

(Also in Arctic and Alpine Europe, Asia, and America.) 

9. Asplenium longissimum. {Blume.) Rhizomc short-creep* 
vtv ß ; stipes tufted 3-12 inches long, strong erect, blackish, nearly 

^^ed ; fronds 2-8 feet long, linear or lanceolate elongate, proliferous 
^4 rooting at the apex ; pinnae horizontal, very nurnerous, 2-4^ 
inches long \-§ inch broad, acuminate, the twö sides nearly equal, 
*tih a distinct central midrib, the edge slightly toothed, the base 
0D both sides often auricled ; texture herbaceous ; rachis dark- 
coloured strong, slightly scaly ; veins forked oblique ; sori nurnerous 
in toro regulär rows on each side the midribs, and reaching nearly to 
the edge. Blum*, En. Plant. Jav. FiL 178. Hook. Syn. FiL i<^. 

ir 



wiih a long acuminalion, ' 3 -\ inch bi 
truncate-cuneatc, ofien a Utile unequal, th< 
colour pale green ; texture coriaceous 
simple, or once forked ; sori very rt 
reac 




FhUNS OF BRITISH INÜIA AND CEYLON. I47 



bihd ; fronds about 10 inches long by 2 inches broad. ßedd. 
F. S. I. t. 127. 

Anamallays ; banks of Toracadu and elsewhere. I believe this 
to be only a form of Wightianum, though Mr. Baker is inclined to 
regard it as a distinct species. 

11. Asplenium tenerum. (Forst) Stipes tufted, firm, erect, 
greyish, naked, 4-1 1 inches long; fronds 8-15 inches long, 3-4 
inches broad, oblong-lanceolate ; pinnae numerous on each side, 
stalked, horizontal, £-§ inch broad, more or less bluntly rounded at 
the apex, the edge rather deeply crenat- 

ed all round, the two sides unequal, / > - 

the upper one narrowed, almost at a ^7; •?*$#>» 

xight angle, sometimes auricled, the ■•&/ * o^SSf : £ : % '*» 

lower one obliquely truncate ; texture \ f,/ ('s^Ä-^ 

^erbaceous; rachis compressed ; veins \/ v ^qJ><£'' 

a H simple except the lowest superior & ^<jj>^ 

pne, which is always forked except jp 

In the uppermost pinnae ; sori nume- %; 

r °iis, regulär, parallel, not reaching the 

m *rgin or midrib. Forst. Frod. /. 80. fy\ ^S^^ t> 

'**o&k. Syn. Fi/, p. 201. Asp. elonga- ' A! 1,r ■"'■ "' 

tu m (Sw.), Bedd. F. S. I. t. 224. 

Ceylon ; at Oodawella and Matale 

*^st, not common. Mr. Wall sends 

a specinun with vwst of the pinncc 

P l ****atifid in their lower half tiearly 

t0 *ht rachis. Singapore, Penang. asilemum Venerum. 

(Also in the Philippines, Borneo, (Forst.) 

J av a, Marianne Islands,Taheiti, and New Gu ; nca.) 

12. Asplenium lunulatum. (Sii>.) Stipes tufted, 2-4 inches 
^g, firm, nearly naked, grey or ebeneous; fronds 8-18 inches long, 

l ^3 inches broad, narrowly lanceolate-oblong, with many horizontal 
pianae on each side, which are l~l inch broad, bluntish or acute 
^ the apex, more or less deeply crenate throughout, the two 
sUes unequal, the upper one at the ba.se narrowed suddenly at about 




.-.'^~-"^ 



.-. ■*, 




luiig, rounded aL thc apex, lowcr ones oftc 
plenium camptorachis, A's?. Asplenium bi 
5. z ;. i 3s . 




Ferns of British Iniua and Ceylon*. 14«^ 



rally proliferous at the apex ; pinnae distant, alternate, 15-20 pair, 
stalked, ligulate-lanceolate acuminate, 3-5 inches long, i-i|inch broad, 
crenate, broadly rounded on the upper, cuneate-truncate on the lower 
side at the base ; lowest rather reduced ; texture firm ; surfaces naked, 
ciark green ; veins erect-patent, fine distant, forked ; sori regulär, 
parallel, 3-4 lines long, scarcely produced more than half-way to the 
roargin ; indusium firm, broad, Kze. in Litt. xxiv. /. 259. Hook. Syn. 
Jnl. 484. Asp. persicifolium (Hook.), Bedd. F. S. I. t. 127. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys at the higher elevation ; Ceylon at Newera 
Xlya, &c, above 5,000 feet elevation. 

14. Asplhnium hirtum. {Kaulf.) Stipes tufted, 2-4 inches 
long, strong, erect, brownish, deciduously scaly; fronds 12-24 
inches long ; pinnae very numerous, horizontal, 1-3 inches long, 
■*— § inch broad ; the apex rounded or acute ; the margin broadly 
**ot deeply toothed, the base on the upper side conspicuously auricled, 
°* the lower side rather suddenly but obliquely narrowed ; texture 

c oriaceous ; rachis dark-coloured, strong, more or less fibrinöse ; 

v ^ins oblique, inconspicuous ; sori in two regulär rows which do not 

re ach the margin. Kaulf. En. Fil. 169. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 205. 

•^«A/. F. B. I. t. 194. 

Sikkim at Lingtam near Darjeeling ; Moulmein. 
(Also in the Mascareen Islands, Hong Kong, Philippines, and 
^°lomon Islands.) 

15. Asplenium auritum. (Sw.) Stipes tufted, 4-8 inches 
0lri S» ßnn, erect, grey, naked; fronds 3-12 inches long; pinnae 
Io ^ao distinctly stalked, horizontal, 2-3 inches long, the apex acute 
° r blunt, either deeply pinnatifid or pinnate throughout, or only 
s **arply toothed or variously lobed, especially on the upper side 
^°Wards the base ; texture very coriaceous : rachis firm, erect, naked ; 

v fciris close, oblique, inconspicuous ; sori in two broad rather oblique 
NWs. Sw. Syn. Fil. 78. Hook. Syn. Fil 208. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 137. 

South India, rare; Conoor, on rocks 5,600 feet elevation; 
Anamallays, bed of the Toracadu river, 4,000 feet 

(Also throughout Tropical America and the West Indies, and 
in the Mascareen Islands.) 



....„ .n'i/\, ine innren 
uj »per luse and soiiKtimus Ixiih the np] 
aurirled, giving the pinna a hastate sh, 
obliquely truncate ; texture coriaeeous ; 
the stipes ; midrib rather indistinet ; veins 
oblique. Hanee, in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. v 
208. Asp. Beddomei, Afett, in Linnaa, 
Bedd. F. S. /. t 141. 

Madras Presidency, on the Anamall 
4,000 feet elevation ; Sikkim, Jaintea hüls 
allied to the next species, and probably onl 

(Also in China ) 

17. ASPLENIUM FALCATUM. (Zam.) 

long, erect, greyish, glabrous, or more or lesi 
to 2 feet long or more, 4-8 inches broad ; p 
alternate, sub-opposite or opposite, laneeol 
inch broad, the edges serrated or lobed, wi 
two sides unequal, and the lower one at the 
texture coriaeeous ; rachis glabrous or fibrill 
sori in long irregulär lines reaching nearly to 1 
306. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 208. Bedd. F. S. I. 
Madras Presidencv. \Ve****- ~ — 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 151 



Localities much the same as falcatum. Mr. Clarke says not 
in Ceylon, but I have gathered many specimens there. 

19. Asplenium caudatum. {Forst.) As in falcatum, but the 
sori generally confined to two parallel rows close to the midrib, or 
with a few other shcrt oblique sori. Forst. Prod. p. 80. Hook. Syn. 
Fil.p. 209. Aspl. contiguum, Bedd. FS. L t. 140. Frobably only 
a variety of falcatum. 

S. India, on the Western mountains ; Ceylon ; Malay Pcninsula. 
(Also in Australia, Africa, and Brazil.) 

20. Asplenium Gardneri. (Baker.) Rhizome short, creep- 
ing ; stipes grey, 2-6 inches with a few scattered small scales ; fronds 
lanceolate, \-\ foot long, 3-5 inches broad, often gemmiparous ; 
rachis not winged ; pinnas 8-10 pair, distinct, ascending, lanceolate, 
short-stalked, acute, central ones 2-3 inches long \-^ inch broad, 
toothed, square on the upper side, cuneate on the lower side at the base; 
veins erect-patent, forked, moderately close ; sori regulär, parallel, 
i~"i inch long. Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 485. Bedd. Suppl. Ferns. t. 355. 

Closely allicd to macrophyllum, and probably only a variety of 

**- I have specimens from North India (not gemmiparous ) y which I 

^ *ot know whether to refer to this or to macrophyllum. My Ceylon 

*P* c *nuns are all gemmiparous, and the texture is generally thinner 

an< * the veins further apart. 

Ceylon ; Khasya Mountains, Umwai, 3,000 feet elevation. 

31. Asplenium paradoxum. (Blume.) Stipe firm, erect, grey, 

l ßhtly scaly ; fronds 1-2 feet long, with a large oblong-rhomboidal 

errr *inal pinna, and 8-1 2 lateral ones on each side, the lowest of 

w ***ch are 5-6 inches long, i-i£ inches broad, the apex acuminate 

at *d slightly toothed, the two sides unequal, the Upper one narrowed 

SVu Menly almost at a right angle, the lower obliqutly cuneate ; 

texture coriaceous ; rachis firm, erect, compressed, rather scaly ; 

x ^U\s obscure, very oblique, usually once forked ; sori reaching nearly 

"OiD the midrib to the margin. BL Fil.Jav. 179. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 

2 W). AspL zamioides, Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. /. 114. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 193. 

Penang. The comprtssed rachis and short broader almost entire 



152 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



piniiK give this a very different look to Gardneri or macrophylluin. 
I have only scen two or three specimens and do not know how far it 
varies, but should not be surprised if it tumed out to be only a 
variety of macrophyllum. , 

{Also in Java and Sumatra.) 

22. Asplenium formosum. (IVilld.) Stipes tufted, very 
Short, naked, polished, dark brown ; fronds i2-i6incheslong; pinnie 
20-31 pair (lower ones generally reduced), sessile, horizontal, i 
inch long, by 1J-2 lincs deep, the upper edge deeply cut, the 

apex rather obtuse, the 
lower edge truncate in a 
straight line, so that about 
half the lower side is cut 
away ; texture herbaceous ; 
veins obscuie, simple or 
forked ; sori linear-oblong, 
short, oblique, confined to the 
lower side, or 1-4 on each side 
of the midrib. W/M. Sp. PI. 
v. 329. Hook. Syn FU. p. 
210. Btdd.F. S. Lt. 136. 

South India, abundant in 

moist woods at the higher ele- 

vations onthe Nilgiris, Pulneys 

asplenium paradoxem. (Blume.) and Anamallays ; Ceylon,rare. 

(Also in Tropica! America, the West Indies, and Africa, Angola, 

and Congo.) 

23. Asplenium unilaterale. (Lam.) Stipes scattered slendcr, 
naked, dark brown, polished or grey, and opaque, 4-8 inchcs long; 
fronds 6-15 inches long, lanceolate-oblong ; pinnas 10-30 pairs 
sub-sessilc horizontal 1-3 inches long, by J-i inch broad, in shape 
almost dimidiate, two-thirds of the lower side being entirely cut away, 
the apcx acute or bluntish, all except the truncate part incised, the 
upper half of the base narrowed nearly nt a right angle ; texture 
thinly-hcrbaceous j rachis usually polished like the stem, orgreen and 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 153 



opaque ; veins once or twice forked ; sori not reaching either midrib 
or margin, often quite allantodioid in South Indian examples. 
Lam. Enc. ii. 305. Hook, Syn. Fil. p. 210, under resectum. Bcdd. 
F. S. L t. 132, under resectum. 

Madras Presidency, in all the Western forests up to 5,000 feet ; 
Himalayas from Chumba to Bhotan 1,000-5,000 feet ; common 
eastward of Ne pal ; Chittagong; Ceylon; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Irlands, Polynesia, Japan and Tropical 
Africa.) 

Var. ß rivale. (Bedd.) Pinnae 30-40 pairs, close set and 
much smaller than in the type, being only \ inch broad, less cut 
and almost a parallelogram in shape ; sori confined to the apex ; in 
habit resembling normale, var. ß. 

Pulney Hills and Anamallays, only in beds of rivers. 

Var. y. udum. (Atkinson.) Pinnae very transparent and mem- 
branaceous, smaller than in the type, very oblique, and the cutting 
often fimbriate. (Bedd. Supp. Ferns. t. 357, as var. decurrens.) 

Himalayas ; Dalhousie, 5,500 feet elevation, and other localities, 
Pendant from dripping rocks. 

Var. I delicatulum. {Parish.) Fronds and pinnae, much 
smaller than in the type, the latter less obliquely cut away on the 
*ower side, and the main vein further from the margin. Bedd. Supp. 
<**. t. 358. 

Tenasserim, on trees, 3,000 feet elevation. I have only seen 
one specimen sent by Mr. Parish. 

24. Asplenium heterocarpum. {Wall.) Stipes scattered, 
«nn, erect chestnutcoloured, polished ; fronds up to 2 feet, of which 
tne stipe is 6-8 inches, membranaceous, glabrous, linear in outline, 
Pirnas numerous (40 or more), dimidiate, nearly the whole of the 

lower margin being cut away, about 1 inch long by £ inch broad ; 

u Pl*r margin and apex deeply cut, the segments being again bifid ; 

lower margin entire ; sori confined to the segments and directed up- 

*ards. Wall. Cat 218. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 210. Bedd. F. S. Lt. 131. 
Madras Presidency, not uncommon in the Western forests, 

4,000-7,000 feet elevation ; Himalayas from Nepal to Bhotan^ 



i54 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



4,000-8,000 feet ; Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet ; Malay Peninsula ; 
Ceylon, central provinces, above 3,000 feet. 
(Also in south-east China and Borneo.) 

25. Asplenium laciniatum. {Don.) Stipes and rachis with 
lanceolate or linear scales ; fronds linear, up to nearly 2 feet long ; 
pincse numerous, alternate or subopposite, linear-oblong or half 
ovate, very much cut away, and uncqual at the base, slightly pin- 
natifid, with the segments serrated, or more or less deeply pinnatifid 
nearly to the rachis and the segments distant ; texture subcoriaceous; 
veins very oblique ; sori copious. Don. Prod. Fl. Nep. p. 8. Hook. 
Syn. Fil. p. 211. Bcdd. F. S. I. t. 145. Aspl. planicaule 
(Wallich), Hook. Syn. Fil. 211. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 139. 

The typical laciniatum of North India Las the pinnae ekngateci 
and much narrowcd towards the apex, and deeply cut into distarVt- 
segments ; typical planicaule of S. India has very short, half ovate 
pinnae, scarcely at all cut ; there are however many connecting link-S 
and it is impossible, I think, to separate ihem even as Consta x - 
varie ies. Var. depauperatum (Clarke) is also found in S. Indi-- 
but is, I believe, only a starved form. 

Madras Presidency, all the Western mountains, 3,000-8,0^= 
feet; Himala>as, Gurwhal to Bhotan ; Khasya ; Ceylon. 

(Also in Japan.) 

Var. crinigerum. (Bcdd.) Pinnae all more deeply and fin. ^ 
cut than any typical laciniatum ; stipe very short (£ inch), and v^^~ 
scaly ; rachis densely scaly ; pinnae with long hair-like scales on *- 
ner\es btneath. 

South India, cn the Balarangam Mountains (Mysore), and — 
Myhendra Mountains near Ganjam, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation. 

26. Asplenium pumilum. (Sk>.) Stipes tufted, 3-4 inches lc^ ^ 
crect, glal rous or sparingly pubescent ; fronds 2-6 inches e3-^ 
way deltoid, the Upper part sinuated only, the lower cut \r*~ 
distinct pinnae, of which the lowest pair is much the largest and oft 
pinnatifid nearly to the midrib ; texture herbaceous ; sori very obliq" 
the lower ores sometimes |-i inch long. Sw. Fl. Ind. Ccc. iii. 161 

(West Indies and Central America.) 




ASPLENKM ItETEKOCARFUM, (H'afl.l 



i$6 Ferns Of British India and Ceylon. 



Var. hymenophylloides. {Fee.) Fronds smaller, pubescent 
or ciliate on both surfaces ; texture exceedingly thin, with prominent 
venation ; pinnae obtuse. Fee, *jth. Mem. 54. /. 15. / 1. C/arke, 
N. India, p. 482. 

Mt. Aboo, Rajaputana, 4,000 feet elevation. 

(Also ia Abyssinia.) 

* * * * Fronds bi-quadripinnate. 

27. Asplenium Ruta-muraria. {Linn) Stipes tufted, 2-4 
inches long, slender, wiry, naked, ebeneous towards the base ; fronds 
1-2 inches long, about 1 inch broad, glabrous, deltoid, cut down to 
the rachis into a few pinnae on each side, the iower ones again cut 
down into spathulate cuneate pinnules, which are serrated round the 
outer edge ; texture coriaceous ; rachis firm, green, naked ; veins 
flabellate ; sori copious ; margin of indusium fimbriate. Linn. Sp. 
PI. 1541. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 213. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 61. 

Kashmir. 

(Also in Europe, North Africa, Thibet, Siberia, and the United 
States.) 

28. Asplenium pekinense. (Hance.) Stipes tufted, 1-3 
inches long, with a few linear scales near the base; fronds 2-6 
inches long, narrowly oblong, shining, glabrous, with several lanceo- 
late-deltoid pinnoe on each side, which are cut down to a compressed 
rachis into several ovate rhomboidal pinnules on each side, which 
are again pinnatifid (hence it is bipinnate sub-tripinnate), ultimate 
segments linear- cuneate, sharply forked or toothed at the apex, entire 
below ; sori 2-6 to a pinnule, ultimately confluent ; involucre entire. 
Hance in Seem. Journ. Bot. v. 262. Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 213. C/arke y 
F. N. I. t. 56./ 2. 

Kashmir ; Jhelum Valley, 2,000-2,500 feet elevation. 
(Also in China and Japan.) 

29. Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum. {Linn.) Stipes tufted, 
6-9 inches long, nearly glabrous, polished ; fronds bi-tripinnate, 
deltoid to lanceolate, 6-12 inches long, 4-6 inches broad at th^ 
base ; pinnse numerous, the lower ones deltoid, their lower pinnule^ 
again stalked and completely pinnate and lanceolate deltoid ir» 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 157 



shape, the ultimate segments ovate or oblong, acutely serrate, texture 
coriaceous ; veins obscure, oblique ; sori copious, involucre with an 
entire margin. Linn. Sp. PL 1541. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 214. Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 62. 

Kashmir, 5,000-8,000 feet, extendingto Dalhousie and Chumba. 

(Also in Europe, North Asia, North Africa, South Africa and 
its Islands, and Sandwich Islands.) 

30. Asplenium furcatum. (T/iunb.) Stipes tufted, 4-8 
inches long, clothed with deciduous woolly hairs, as is the rachis ; 
fronds coriaceous, 6-18 inches long, 4-6 inches broad ; pinnas 12-20 
psir, lanceolate-deltoid, l-i inch broad, cut down throughout nearly to 
the rachis irito linear-cuneate pinnules, which are sharply serrated, on 
the outer edge; veins flabellate, deeply channelled; sori linear. Thunb. 
Prod. FL F. 172. Hook. Syn. FiL ff. 215. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 144. 

"South India, common on the higher Western mountains, 
Ootakamund, &c. ; Ceylon, 5,000-7,000 feet. 

(Also in Tropical America, Polynesian Islands, Australia, Cape 
Colony, Abyssinia, Mascareen Islands, and Canaries.) 

31. Asplenium affine. (Swartz.} Stipes 6-12 inches long, 
"**ni, erect, grey, nearly naked; fronds 12-18 inches long, 6-12 

•"ich es broad ; pinnae numerous on each side, the lower ones 

an Ceolate-rhomboidal, cut down to the rachis into numerous distinct 

. r ^°*nboidal pinnules, 4-6 inches long, 1^-2 inches broad, which are 

no i^cd or deeply lobed ; texture subcoriaceous ; rachis firm, 

^*^^d ; veins subflabellate ; sori copious, linear. Sw. in Schr.Jour. 

'**<^>o. 11. 56. Hook. Syn. FiL 215. Asp. spathulinum (J. Sm.), Bedd. 

r ~ -^S\ /. /. 226 (probably takenfrom a specimen of furcatum and not 

***** affine as represented at Keiv.) 

Ceylon. 

(Also in Mascareen Islands, Philippines, Borneo, Fiji, and 
wich Islands.) 

32. Asplenium nitidum. (Swartz.) Stipes 1 foot long, firm, 
^^t, greyish, naked ; fronds 2-3 feet long, 1 foot broad ; pinnae 

^^erous, lanceolate-deltoid, the lowest 6-9 inches long, 2-3 inches 
~ " cut down to the rachis into numerous stalked subdeltoid 




15S Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

pinnules, which are again cut down to the rachis into broad flabellate 
cuneate segments, serrated round the outer edge; texture subcori- 
aceous ; rachis firm, grey, nalced ; veins channelled, flabellate ; sori 
short, radiant. Sic. Syn. FiL p. 280. Hook. Syn FiLp. 215. Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 148, 149. Aspl. laserpitiifolium, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 225. 

Sikkim, Bhotan, Assam ; Khasya, Cachar, 1,000-4,000 feet 
eljvation ; Ceylon ; Madras Presidency in the Western forests ; Malay 
Peninsula. 

(Also in Malay Islands and S. Africa.) 

33. Asplenium fontanum. (Bern/i.) Stipes tufted, 2-4 
inches long, wiry, slender, glabrous; fronds 3-6 inches long, 1-1J 
inches broad, oblong-lanceolate ; pinnae numerous, the lower ones 
reduced, often somewhat remote, pinnate, pinnatifid or only toothed ; 
texture herbaceous, rachis and surfaces bright green ; veins oblique ; sori 
copiou*, covering nearly the whole segment. Bernh. in Schrad. Aeu. 
Jour. 1 //. ii. 26. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 216. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 146. 

Himalayas, from Kashmir to Gurwhal, 5,000-9,000 feet. 
(Also in Europe.) 

Var. ft exiguum. Frondsless divided and more narrow, and 
an ebeneous rachis. Asp. exiguum, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 146. 
Nilgiris, Kulhatty ; Himalayas. 

34. Asplenium varians. {Hook and Grw.) Stipes tufted, 
1-3 inches long, slender, naked, greenish ; fronds 4-6 inches long, 
1 inch broad, oblong-lanceolate; pinnae 8-12 pair, the lower ones 
subdeltoid \-\ inch long, {-£ inch broad, cut down to the rachis 
into a few cuneate flabella*e pinnules, the lowest two lines across, 
sharply toothed on the outer edge ; texture thin, herbaceous ; rachis, 
slender, naked, green ; veins, one carried into each tooth ; sori 
copious. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 216. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 129. 

South India, common on the Nilgiris and the mountains on 
the west side, 3,000 feet upwards ; Himalayas, 6,000-10,000 feet,, 
rarer eastwards ; Ceylon, 3,000 feet and upwards. 

A form found at Kulhatty on t/ie Niigiris, quite runs into the* 
European lanceolatum. AnotJier form on t/ie Tinnevelly hüls west oj*+ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 159 



Courtallum has s/wrt deltoid fronds fully 2 inches across at the base y 
and broader pinnules. 

(Also in South Africa, North China and Japan.) 

35. Asplenium bulbiferum. (Forst.) Stipes tufted, 6-12 

inches long, firm, erect, scaly near the base, sometimes hairy through- 

out ; fr jnds 1-4 feet long, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 pinnate ; 

pinnae many pair, horizontal, often proliferous from the upper 

surface, the largest eight inches long, and two inches broad, cut down 

to a compressed winged rachis, into many lanceolate-deltoid pinnules 

which are cut into slightly toothed linear oblong flaccid segments ; 

texture herbaceous ; veins firm, pinnate ; sori oblong, largc, often 

Alling the whole segment. Forst. Fi. Ins. Aust. Prod. 80. Hook. 

Syn. Fil.p. 218. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 65, as bullatum (Wall.) 

Nepal, Sikkim, Bhotan, Khasya, 2,000-6,000 feet ; Penang. 
(Also in Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, New Caledonia, 
Natal, and the East African Islands.) 

36. Asplenium tenuifolium. (Don.) Stipes tufted, 3-6 
inches long, slender, glabrous, or with a few hairs ; fronds green, 

^**n]y herbaceous, up to 20 inches long, lanceolate, 3-4 pinnate ; 
P lr *T%2ß many pair, the Iower ones 3 inches long by £ inch 
~°<£*d, lower pinnule subdeltoid, cut down to a narrowly winged 
^*°ijLis into spathulate segments, quarter inch or less broad, sharply 
* on the outer edge ; veins solitary ; sori 1-2 to a segment. Don. 
- Fl. Nep, 8. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 220. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 130. 
South India, higher ranges of the Nilgiris, Pulneys, and 
imallays; Ceylon atNewera Elya ; Himalayas, Nepal to Bhotan 
^0-9,000 feet; Khasya, 4,000-5,500 feet; Birma. 
f - * * * * * Ultimate division of the frond y narroic, linear ; sori 

**^*3r or linear-oblong, marginal or submarginal. Darea of aitthors. 

j 37. Asplenium rut^efolium. (Kunze.) Stipes tufted, 6-9 

1 ^Vies long, compressed, greenish, glabrous; fronds 6-15 inches 
1^. <^i narrowly oblong, glabrous, bipinnate, the rachis often pro- 
1^ ^ed, naked, and rooting at the apex ; pinnae 12-20 pair, the 
t*-^^^ ^st sub-deltoid, two inches or more long, cut down to the rachis 
lany erect-patent distant pinnules on each side, the lowest on 




& 



Flrns of I^kitisii India and Ceylo: 



lc* 



the upper side agian cut into erect-patent linear seginent 
on the under side suppressed ; texture coriaceous ; rachis 
sori linear marginal. Kze. in Linncca^x. 521. Hook. 
222. Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 138. 

South India, on the Tinnevelly Mountains; Ceylon, i 
forest ; Himalayas, Bhotan, and Mishmee ; Khasya. 

(Also in South Africa, Japan and Fiji.) 

38. Asplenium Belangeri. (Kze.) Caudex 
e rect ; stipes densely tufted, 4 inches to a span long, 
u pwards, greenish ; fronds 1-1 \ feet long, narrow-oblor 
a l*xiost forming a parallelogram), acuminated only al 
s Püringly stellate-squamulose beneath, here and there 
put> cnar taceous, pale green, bipinnate, priraary pinn: 
ln ^hes long, horizontally patent, singularly uniform ii 
er *|£th, linear obtuse, ncarly sessilc, again pinnated (or 
Si **cl to be deeply pinnatifid), pinnules or Segments 2- 
Ir| oar-clavate, or subspathulate, obtuse, straight, or a 1 
rrent, with the rachis simple monosorous, or the lov 
is bifid or subpinnatifid; veins solitary central; 
spicuous, occupying nearly the length of the pinnul 
lr * Vr c* 1 ,ucres of the same colour and texture almost of the 
-**is compressed, partial ones distinctly wingcd. Heoi 
O - Syn. Fil.p. 223. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 287. 
The Malay Pcninsula. 
(Also in Java, Sumatra, and Borneo.) 

GENUS XLL— ATHYRIUM. (Roth.) 
(Derivation unknown.) 

As in Asplenium, but the involucres, or at least ma 

\ or less curved, often horseshoe-shaped, rarely quit 
—sstrea. 

1. Athyrium spinulosum. (Max.) Stipes 6-12 
^ered, firm, erect, straw-coloured, furnished more 
- brown ianceolate scales ; fronds 6-1 2 inches, deltoic 

3-pinnate; pinnse 9-12 pairs, lowest the largest, 

12 




-sssrssscs»- (*-»«•> 



Ferns ov British India and Ceylon. 163 



b>road, ovate-lanceolate ; pinnules lanceolate, cut down to the rachis 

on each side into 6-9 oblong rhomboidal segments two lines long, 

one line broad, which are sharply toothed or crenated; texture 

lierbaceous ; rachis naked or nearly so; sori 2-10 to a segment ; 

indusium slightly curved, or horseshoe-shaped, very small and thin. 

Cystopteris, Max. FL Amur. 340. Baker in Hook. Syn. Fil. 225, 

under Asplenium. Athyrium subtriargulare (Hook), Bedd. F. B. I. 

/. 242. The supposed species, or variety , subtriangulare, does not 

dijfer front jpinulosum y except that the teeth are less spinulose ; it 

cannot, I think, be considered even a variety. 

Sikkim 10,000-12,000 feet; Lachen, Samding, Yeumtong. 
(Also in Manchuria, Amurland and Korea.) 

2. Athyrium Atkinsoni. (Bedd.) Stipes 6-12 inches long, 

erectjStraw-coloured, furnished towards the base with a fewlong narrow 

pale-coloured scales; fronds 10-12 inches long, triangulär, 10-12 

inches broad at basal pinnae, gradually narrowing upwards, tripinnate, 

w^th the tertiary pinnae deeply pinnatifid ; pinnae 7-8 pairs, the lowest 

n^uch the largest, about three inches broad ; texture herbaceous, 

n 3iced, secondary pinnae with the rachis winged, but the pinnules 

(tertiary pinnae) often distinctly petioled, at least in tbe lower porlion 

°^ the pinnae, pinnatifid *-§ down, the segments being more or less 

cre *iated; sori one to each segment on the basal vein, linear, curved 

or a lrnost reniform; never double ; veins terminating just within the 

mar gin. Bedd. Fern. Sup.p. n, /. 359. 

Sikkim at high levels. 

(Clarke's variety Andersoni is Athyrium fimbriatum, rar. 
5 P^oer pteroides.) 

3. Athyrium Hohenackerianum. {Kze.) Stipes tufted, 2-4 

ltl ^hes long, clothed throughout rather closely with linear-subulate 

8Ca ^es; fronds 6-18 inches long, 1^-3 inches broad, ovate-lanceo- 

^*> pinnae in numerous pairs, lanceolate, 1-2 J inches long, cut 

flearly or quite to the rachis into ovate or oblong serrated pinnules ; 
texture herbaceous ; rachis naked upwards, scaly below ; sori copious ; 
involucre conspicuous, linear-oblong, curved or horseshoe-shaped. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 225. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 157. 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 



Madras Presidency in the We Stent Forests, frotn the plains np 
(o 4,000 feet ; Ceylon, Scinde. 

4. Athyrium falcatum. (Bedd.) Stipes 1-9 inches long with 
many linear golden scales at the base ; fronds 6-14 inches long, with 
the rachis above dilated or winged, linear-lanceolate, narrowed at 
both ends, pinnae 15-20 on each side, sessile, altemate, i-i^inch 
long, by \~\ inch broad, falcate-ovate, deflexed, obtuse or acumi- 
nate, generally with a large obtuse auricle at both the superior and 
inferior base, above pinnatifid 
almost half down to the costa ; 
segments obtuse, crenated ; sori 
numerous on each side cf the 
costa, at length confluent and 
covering the whole or nearly the 
whole of the under surface. 
Bedd. F. S. I. f. 151. Asplenium 
drepanophyllum, Baker, Sylt. 
Fil. 226. 

South India, Anamallay 
Hills, dry grassy places 5,000 
feet. Myhenda Hill near Ber- 
hampore, 4,500 feet; Mahable- 
shawer ; Farasnath 4,006 feet. 




(Bedd.) 



Athyrium thelypte- 
s. {Michx.) Stipes 6-8 
inches or more, furnished at the base with large lanceolate thin light 
co loured scales ; fronds generally about 3 feet long and 8 inches broad, . 
lanceolale, gradually narrowed towards the base ; pinme numerous, « 
erect-patent, i'-i inch broad, cut three-quarters of the way to the s; 
rachis or more into oblong blunt crenated segments; sori in close — 
regulär rows, short, oblong ; indusium persistent. Michx. Fl. Bor. — 
Am. 11, 265. Hook. Syn. Fil. />. 226. A. allantodioides, Brdd.J* 
F. B. I. t. 221, not F. B. J. t. 68, which is a form of DiplaziunW 
sorzogonense. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 165 



Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhotan, common in many places. 
(Also in North America, Canada, Amur land.) 

6. Athyrium macrocarpum. {Blume.) Stipes 6-9 inches 

long, firm, erect, straw coloured, scaly below ; fronds up to three feet 

long, generally lanceolate in outline ; pinnae 20-30 pair, very variable 

in size and cutting, sometimes less than one inch long, and only 

pinnatifid, usually about four inches, and sometimes 9-10 inches 

long, again pinnate, with the pinnules deeply pinnatifid, and as large 

or rnuch larger than the whole pinnae in the less Compound forms ; 

texture herbaceous, shining, striate beneath the lowest lobe on the 

upper side often larger ; margin toothed ; involucres very large, often 

reniform (as in Lastrea), but always mixed with some that are linear 

(asplenioid), and horseshoe-shaped, margin more or less fimbriate. 

Aspidium macrocarpum, BLEn.Fil.Jav.1b2. Asplenium, Hook. 

Syn. Fi/, p. 227. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 152 and 153. A. squarrosum, 

%//. Cat. 356. 

South India, very common on the Western Mountains, above 
J»ooo feet ; Ceylon ; Himalayas, Gurwhal and Bhotan 2,000-9,000 
feet ; Khasya ; Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

Clarke's variety, Atkinsoni, is one of the simplest forms, and is 
Ver y common on the Nilgiris, mixed with the more Compound ex- 
ani r>les and connected by intermediate forms. Beddome's macro- 
Car F>um, var. /3, F. S. I. /. 153, is at first sight very distinct looking, 
n ^ is often collected as a Lastrea ; it is, however, only a State in 
* 11 ^^hthe fructification is less and the lamina of the frond more 
ev "oloped than usual. 

(Also in Malay Islands, China and Japan.) 

Var. ß. i-PiNNATA. (Clarke.) Fronds linear; pinnae short, slightly 
^ ^**stte, in shape much like some forms of the Polystichum auricu- 

Khasya, 3,000-4,000 feet. I have only seen this in Mr. Clarke's 
]^**^ction, and it looks distinct from any of the simpler forms of 
rocarpum from Southern India, the pinnae being much less cut. 



166 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



7. Athyrium nigripes. (Mett.) Caudex stout, often 2-3 
inches out of ground ; stipes tufted* firm, round, glabrous; fronds 
8-30 inches long, quite deltoid, with the lowest pinnae largest, 
to oblong, lanceolate, herbaceous, not plicate-striate beneath ; pinnae 
about 8 inches long, by 2^ broad, (but variable in size) pinnules 
often decply pinnatifid to only a winged rachis ; segmeots crenate 
or serrate, not spinulose; sori linear-oblong, only slightly curved 
in two oblique rows towards the midrib of the pinna ; involucres 
persistent. Mett. Farng. Aspl. 195. Hook. Syn. FiL 227, not 
Bedd. F. S. I. t. 157, which is selenopteris. 

Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhotan, 3,000-11,000 feet eleva- 
tion, very common about Darjeeling ; Khasya 2,000-6,000 feet. 
Not in Southern India or Ceylon, the former plant being selenopteris, 
(Kunze), the latter gymnogrammoides. 

Var. ß Clarkei. (Bedd.) Fronds linear-lanceolate, up to 
3 feet long, and 3-4, rarely 6 inches, broad, gradually narrowed 
at both ends, generally rooting from a bud on the upper side of the 
rachis ; rachis of pinnae, costa, and veins, sometimes furnished with a 
few weak set«. Athyrium Clarkei, Bedd. Sup. Ferns, t. 360. 

Nepal, Sikkim, common at Surail near Darjeeling, 6,000 feet ; 
Kulhoit Valley, 6,000-7,000 feet. I feel quite certain now that this 
is only an elongated variety of nigripes, and Mr. Clarke agrees. 

(Mr. Clarke's nigripes, var. dissecta, appears to be typical 
nigripes rather more cut than usual.) 

8. Athyrium selenopteris. (Kunze.) Caudex stout, erect;^ 
stipes tufted, often 10 inches long, stramineous; fronds 10-20 inche^^ 
long, lanceolate, somewhat attenuated towards the base, never deltoid _ 
pinnae 2-6 inches long, rather distant; texture rather flaccid, pinnatifi* _* 
to a winged rachis in the smaller forms, or almost quite pinnate in tV— rr 
larger forms, the wing of the rachis being almost obsolete, the pi- — . 
nules deeply pinnatifid, but with a somewhat decurrent base, "t I 
ultimate segments more or less crenated, or even serrated ; sori oblo 
or curved. Kunze, Mett. Farngatt. Asp. 196. Asp. nigripes, v~ — 
selenopteris, Clarke, F. N. Lp. 491. Athyrium aspidioides, H0^z? 
Syn. FiL p. 228. (in pari) asfar as the Niigiri speci mens are concerf*'*?* 



i68 Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



ttol tht Madagascar plant of Schlecht. Athyrium pectinatum, Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 155 {not Wall) Athy. nigripes, Bedd. F. S. I. I. 157. 

Madras Presidency, Western Mountains, Nilgiris, common at 
6,000-8,000 feet. Puloeys, Tinnevelly Mountains; Ceylon at 
Newera Elya, and Maturatte, &c. 

9. Athyrium gymnogrammoides. (A7.) Fronds large, 5-6 
feet long, bi-tripinnate, primary pinnae 12-16 inches long, oblong- 
lanceolate, secondary pinnae up to 4I inches long, by i£ inch broad, 
either deeply pinnatifid to a winged rachis, or pinnate, the wing being 
obsolete ; ultimate segtnent oblong, lobed one-third of the way down ; 
sori near the midrib. Mett. Aspl. p. 193, /. 6,fig. 13-14. Bedd. 
F. S. f. t. 156. Tkiv. En. Pl.Zey.p.^. 

Ceylon, central provinces 5,000-6,000 feet, nearly aliied to 
selenopteris. Mr. Baker includes this under nigripes, but it is not 
very near the Himalayan plant. 

Var. ß erythrorachis. {Bedd.) The naked stipes and 
rachis deeply channelled, bright purple; fronds deltoid, much 
smaller than the type, 6-10 inches long, without the stipe, lowest 
pinnae 3-4 inches" long, the partial rachis channelled and winged 
on the Upper side, the pinnules petiolate, 4 inch long, auricled at 
the superior base and somewhat pinnatifid at the inferior base, 
crenate or subentire above, veins pinnate and forked terminating 
within the margin ; sori asplenioid (never double), a few more or 
less curved. Bedd. Sitp. Fems, /. 12. Athy. nigripes, Thw. En. 
PI. Zcy. p. 3S4. 

Ceylon, about Newera Elya. 

This is probably a distinct species, it is included in the Kew 
bündle of nigripes, but is nearer to the Nilgiri selenopteris, some 
specimens of which are also in the Kew packet of nigripes, whilst 
others exactly similar are placed with the South African aspidioides. 
Mr. Thwaites has also referred it to nigripes, but he may not have 
seen the Himalayan plant. 

10. Athyrium Filix-fcemina. (Beruh.) Fronds 1-4 feet, lan- 
ceolate, narrowed at both ends, membranaceous, green, bi-pinnate ; 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 169 



xachis soft, appearing triangulär or furrowed when dry; primary 
pinnae narrow linear-oblong, hardly narrowed at the base ; secondary 
pinnae £-1 inch, oblong, patent at right angles to the rachis of the 
primary pinnae, sessile or decurrent, serrate or pinnatifid ; margin 
bluntly or acutely toothed ; involucres in two rows on the secondary 
pinnae, short, oblong, subpersistent. Bernh. in Schrad. Neu. Jour, i. 
J>t. it. 26. Clarke. F. N. I. p. 491. 

I follow Mr. Clarke here, as he has an intimate knowledge of 
tWs fern and its varieties in a growing State, he says that there are 
tw o main typesof the Himalayan Filix-foemina, viz. : — ist, with a suc- 
culent rachis, appearing triangulär or grooved when dry, green, 
i'Jvolucre subpersistent; 2nd, with a firm rachis, appearing round 
ln the dried specimens, often red ; involucre less persistent, often 
fu ga.cious. 

Var. 1. dentigera. (Wall.) Cutting nearly as in the 

^'"opean type (not nearly so fine as in pectinata), gieen, rachis 

^^^ulent, grooved when dry ; involucre subquadrate, or horseshoe- 

^^£>ed, smaller and less persistent than in the European type. 

' °l}T>odiüm dentigerum, Wall. Cat. 334.) 

Himalayas 6,000-1 1,000 feer, from Kashmir to Bhotan, common 
0r *^ Nepal westwards. 



Var. 2. pectinata. (Wall.) Very finely cut, tri])innate, 

^^nnatifid, bright green ; rachis slender, but scarcely succulent or 

^ °<^ed when dry; involucre subquadrate, or short oblong, little 

Or *^eshoe-shaped, subpersistent. Wall. Cat. 231. Clarke^ F. N. I. 

* 57. Bedd. F. S. L /. 154, s mall form. 

Himalayas, Sikkim to Gurwhal 2,000-5,000 feet elevation ; 
ar ^snath 4,000-5,000 feet ; Mountains of the Godavery and Cen- 
^* India ; Mahableshwar ; Scinde ; Mount Aboo. 

Var. 3. attenuata. (Clarke.) i-pinnate ; base of the stipes 
wrv^eiy clothed with broad lanceolate scales ; rachis succulent when 
to^i grooved or triangulär ; fronds small, very narrow, much tapering 
at both ends ; pinnae patent, very close together, deeply regularly 
pinnatifid into oblong serrated segments, scarcely a quarter inch long ; 



<*■ 



170 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



involucre small, subquadrate, hirdly ever horseshoe-shaped, not 
very fugacious. Clarke, F. N. I. t. SQ.fig. i. 

Kashmir, 10,000-12,000 feet, north of themain valley ; appears 
to be only a stunted form of dentigera. 

Var. 4. retusa. (Clarke.) 1-2-pinnate, rachis firm, round 
when dry ; fronds red, never very large ; involucre small, fugacious ; 
sori, scattered, round. Cystopteris retusa, Decne injacq* Vcy. 176, 
/. 177. Clarke, F. N. I. t. 59-2. 

Himalayas 10,000-15,000 feet, from Kashmir to Bhotan. 

Var. 5. flabellulata. {Clarke.) 2-pinnate; rachis firm, round 
when dry, fronds red, 1-3 feet ; secondary pinnse deeply pinnatifid ; 
scgments laciniate; involucre small, fugacious; sori scattered, round. 
Clarke, F. N. I. t. 60. 

Sikkim, 13,000 feet; Yakla, Jongri, scarcely distinet from 
dentigera. 

Var. 6. polyspora. (Clarke.) 2-pinnate, or sub-3-pinnate; 
rachis firm, round when dry; fronds red, 1-3 feet; involucre large, 
approximate, very persistent, often reniform ; sori large, often ulti- 
mately thickly covering the whole of the pinnules. Clarke, F. N, /. 
/. 6i.fig. 1. 

N. W. Himalayas, 6,000-10,000 feet ; Kumaon to Chumba. 

Very distinet from the other varieties, and apprbaching 
oxyphyllum. 

Var. 7. parasnathknsis. (Clarke.) i-pinnate, sub-2-pinnate; 
rachis triangulär when dry ; fronds reddish, 1$ foot, narrow-oblong, 
scarcely attenuated at the base; primary pinnje i£ inch, broadest at 
the base ; secondary pinnre |-J inch, acutely toothed, scarcely 
pinnatifid ; involucre short, oblong, in two oblique rows, very 
persistent. Clarke, F. N. I. t. Gi.fig. 2. 

Parasnath 4,000 feet elevation ; probably only a small stunted 
form of retusa. 

11. Athyrium oxyphyllum. (Hook.) Stipes vrith roany 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 171 

reddish linear-lanceolate scales at the base ; fronds up to 3 feet, 
oblong-lanceolate, generally 2 -pinnate, or in some forms only pinnate ; 
slightly narrowed, never attenuated at the base, coriaceous, rigid, 
sornewhat shining, striated when dry ; primary pinna: often falcate, 
sometimes only pinnatifid half-way to the rachis, iJ-2 inches long, 
generally much larger ; 2-4I inches long, and pinnate, the pinnules 
Wore or less hastate from one or both of the basal lobes being en- 
«'ged or auricled, sub-entire to pinnatifid, and often sharply 
^rrated, particulaily at the apex ; indusium small, fugacious or 
»anting. Hook. Syn. Fil. 228. Bald. F. B. I. t. 67. 
The exin voluc rate variety, call cd 



'%■■ 



Theexinvolucratevanety,called V 

^ulhaitenseby Clarke, is eberneum. 
fall.) It only differs in the absence 
°* the involucre ; the i-pinnate 
or ni with short pirmjelooks different y 
?* first sight, but gradually runs M 
int ° the larger and more Compound " '■-•.. 
f °nns, 



Bh. 



Himalayas, from Gurwhal to 
°tan, 4,000—1 1,000 feet ; Khasya 
* ,0 °0-i 1,000 feet. I do not feel 
CCr *ain that ihe Khasya speeimen 



ca -"ed stramineum J. Sm. really be- ,. A 1/ > fvfi^' 
lon gs here. thouzh it is so sorted in .-t& X l l/r/A 



) 



, § s herej though it is so sorted in 

e Kew bundles; it is very Hke ■"' •«•« 

^•"e of the NÜgiris forms of Athy- athymum urevisorum. (Wall.) 
nxi m selenopteris. 

11. Athvrium brevisorum. '(Wall.) Stipes ij foot and more 
'° n g stramir.eous-brown below, glossy ; fronds rj-2 feet long, ovate- 
^ceolate, membranaeeous, bi-tripinnate ; primary pinnce long-petio- 
■"* remote erect-patent, a foot and more long, broad-lanceohte, 
•üiniinate ; secondary pinna; 5-6 inches long, lanceolate, nearly 
«säle, pinnated; pinnules nnmerous, approximate, oblong-lanceolate, 
much acuminate, horizonlally patent, 1-1J inch long, coirsely 
serrated, raiely subpinnatifid, the serratures very acute, tkooKt. 



172 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



mucronate, lowest pionules more distant on shprt petiolules, inter- 
mediate ones more approximate, the lower base decurrent, upper 
ones confluent ; veins pinnated ; veinlets forked once or more ; sori 
generally in two rows, oblique near the costule in the pinnules that 
are pinnati6d, extending to the lobes, smali, short-linear, straight or 
lunate ; involucres slightly convex, jagged at the margin ; main rachis 
stramineous, glossy, flexuose. • Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 229. Wall. n. 220, 
(not Afett.) Bedd. F. B. I. t. 241. 

Mishmee; Taongdong Mountains near Ava. The figure is 
taken from the Ava specialen collected by Wallich, which w 
bipinnate, the Mishmee specimen is tripinnate. 

13. Athyrium fimbriatum. (Wall, under Aspidium.) Stipes 
stout, darkish brown, glossy, 1 foot and more long, copiously palea- 
ceous, most so towards the base, with large glossy, tawny, lanceolate- 
subulate scales, fronds ample, 2-3 feet long, ovate or subdeltoid 
acuminate firm-coriaceous, 3-4-pinnate ; primary pinnae petiolate ( 
are the secondary and tertiary ones), 6-12 inches long, distant fron: 
a broad base, lanceolate, much acuminate ; secondary ones als 
distant, of the same shape, but not acuminate, 1-1J inches lor* 
numerous ; uhimate pinnules ovate-lanceolate, \ inch long, superi 
basal one the largest, acute, all pinnatifid with acute lobes, auricl 
at the superior base, terminal ones subconfluent ; sori 2-5 on e 
pinnule, broad-oblong, or in age almost globose, very promin 
and copious ; involucrc brown, membranaceous, broad, gener 
crescent-shaped or subreniform, fimbriated, extremely convex, 
forced back by sori ; rachises all pale brown, glossy, more or L 
flexuose. Wall. Cat. 339. Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 234. Syn. 
p. 229. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 295. 

Himalayas, from East Kashmir to Bhotan, 5,000-12,000 feet- 

Var. ß foliosa. (Wall.) Rachis ofcen very red and wav< 
glandulär in the axis of the pinna?, ultimate segments broader tb 
in the type ; sori small. Wall. Cat. 359. Clarke, F. N. I. t. 6 

fiS- 2. 

Sikkim and Nepal at high levels. 





174 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Var. y. sphceropteroides. (Clarke.) Involucre small, eaiiy 
disappearing ; sori both lateral and tenninal on the veins, becoming 
soon globose, often appeariog elevated from the frond. Clark^ 
F. N. I. /. 62, fig. 1. Asplenium Atkinsoni, var. Andersoni, 
Clarke, F. N. I. /. 57. 

Throughout the Himalayas, 9,000-13,000 feet. 

GENUS XLII.— DIPLAZIUM. {Swarts.) 

(Diplazo to be double ; the double indusia or involucres.) 

As in Asplenium, but some of the sori double, /'.*., on each side 
of the vein, each furnished with a linear indusium, the one opening 
interiorly, the other exteriorly. 

f. Dii'lazium lanceum. (Thunb.) Caudex long-repent, 
rooting sparingly, scaly, stipes distant 4 inches to a span long 
slendcr, thickened at the base, and paleaceous with black scales^ 
fronds chartaceous, firm, opaque, longer than the stipes, rarely a 
inch wide, lanceolate, attenuated, and acuminated at each extremity 
entire, sometimes a little repand ; costa slender, prominent beneathm. 
veins horizontal, fascicled, the superior, and sometimes the inferio 
branch only fcrt'le ; sori linear, distant, remote from the costa, oft 
diplazioid. Thunb. FL Jap. 333. Hook. Sp. FiL iii. 235. BetT^ 
F. S. I. /. 227. 

Ceylon, Matale East and Saffragram 2,000-3,000 feet, dies 
in dry weather. Assam and N. E. Bengal 500-5,000 feet, extendi 
to Chittagong and East Nepal. 

(Also in China, Formosa, and Japan.) 

2. Diplazium subserratum. (Bf.) Caudex creeping, el 
gated ; fronds membranaceous, ij feet long, i-ii inch wi 
glabrous and satiny, tlongite-oblong, lanceohte, sharply acumin» 
modcrately attenuated below, obtuse or acute at the base, towa.r< 
the middlc sinuate-crenate, coarsely dentate-serrated nearer t 
apex ; costa slender, firm, prominent beneath ; veins fasciclec 





Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 175 

horizontal or neatly so, one to three of the exterior branches sorif- 
crous ; soti distant, often curved ; involucres often diplazioid, narrow- 
linear, occupying about two-thirds of the space between the costa 
and margin; stipes 1-3 inches long, slender, terete. Bl. En.p. 174. 
Hook. Sp. Fü. iii. 236. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 289. 

Penang. 

(Also in Java.) 

3. Diplazium zeylanicuu. (Hook.) Caudex terete, repent, 

subterraneous, nalced, black ; stipes remote, solitary, 4 inches to a 

span long, paleaceous with 

'u dark subulate-lanceo- 

laie scales ; fronds herba- 

ceous, a spart to a foot long, 

'—* inches broad, lanceolate 

ac Uininate, deeply pinnati- 

"d in the middle, pinnate 

at the basc, serrated only 

to *'ards the apex, lobes 

* n *l pinnae horizontal, ob- 

°**g, obtuse; veins pin- 

a *ed, entire or forlted ; 

*^ r » linear ; involucres 

*'h the superior basal 

m^^ principally diplazioid. 

2T "*. Sp. m. iii. 237. 

' S ***LF. S. /. t. 22%. 
v Ceylon, forests of 

***bagamwa and Kot- 




**x. 



s *^» 



4. Diplazium pallidum. (Bl.) Stipes a foot or more long, 



tnineous, deciduously scaly at the base ; fronds U-2 feet lo„ K , 
. a te acuminate, subcoriaceous, often pale whiiish-grecn when dry 



»i„ 



rjated, pinnse numerous, approximate, mostly petiolate, horizontal, 
~~$ inches long, \-$ of an inch broad, from a somewhat rounded 



i 7 6 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



or obliqucly cunealed basc, lincar-oblong, acurninate, falcate, sharp'y 
and subspinulosely setrated, terminal one petiolate and similar to the 
rest, or larger and broad and pinnatifid at the base from being 
formed of dwarfed and confluent pinnx, very coarsely serrated 
towards thefinely acuminated apex ; veins very patent, immersed, 
gcnerally twice dichotomous, the lowest superior branch (arising from 
near the costa) bearing the linear sorus along its whole length, rarely 
diplazioid, and only from 1-3 at the superior and mo&tly truncated 
\ but not auricled base ; involucres 

narrow, finn, membranaeeous. 

Bl. En. Fil.Jar. 176. Hook. Sfi. 

Fit. üi. 138. Bedd. F. B. /. t. 196. 
ßirma and the Malay Penin- 

(Also in the Malay Islands and 
the Philippines.) 

5. DlPLAZIUM PORRECTUM. 

( Wall.) Caudcxerect orascending; 
stipes tufted, 6-13 inches long; 
) fromls 8-10 inches to ij foot long 
^& deltoid-oblong, pinnate; pinnse 
horizontal, numerous, 4-6 inches 
long, petiolate or sessile, and con- 
fluent at the acuminated pinnatifid 
apex, from a broad truncated and 

auricled or generally quite hastate 

V base (naving a distmet auncle above 

and below), linear-lanceolate, obtuse or acurninate, lower ones moie 
or less deeply pinnatifid, intermediate ones obtusely dentale, 
uppermost ones entire at the margins ; veins patent, pinnated in 
the auricles, the rest once or twice forked ; sori linear, elongated, 
confined to the superior or basal veinlet, and extending its whole 
length, or on the two outcr ones, mostly diplazioid; involucres 
membranaeeous when young. Wall. Ca/. 204. Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 
350. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 245. 




N"65 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



i77 



The Malay Peninsula, Penang, &c. 
(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

6. Diplazium bantamense. (B/.) Rhizome creeping ; stipes 

6-12 inches long, with lanceolate caducous scales; fronds up to 

i\ foot long, simply pinnate; pinna? generally 3-5 on each side, 

altern ate or subopposite, with one terminal one, subcoriaceous, 

glabrous, generally shaiply serrated towards the apex, otherwise 

nearly entire, 6-9 inches long, by 1-2 broad, somewhat narrowed 

at the base; apex acuminate or 

often caudate ; veris pinnate ; 

sori slender, irregulär, Start irg 

from near the midrib and ex- 

tending nearly tu the margin, er 

«Uy half-way towards it. Bl. Eh. 

■&■ Jav. FU. 190-191. Hook- 

Syn. FU. p. 231. D. fraxinifo- 

J'Uin (Wall), Bald. F. B. 1. 1. 59. 

Madras Presidency, on the 

Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills. 

K Oa*ya Hills, 4,000 feetelevation ; 

C*char 500 feetelevation; Malay 

Peninsula. 

(Also in Ma'ay Islands and 
Southern China.) 

7. Diplazium sylvaticum. 
v"*tf<) Caudex deeunibent ; 
»ipes 1 foot long, firen, erect, 
wV-ed except at the base, where furnished with scales; fronds 1-3 feet 
lo^g, simply pinnate, ovate-'anceolate in outline; pinnas numerous, 
about 6 inches long by 1 inch broad, the apex acuminate or caudate, 
the margin nearly entire or slightly waved or serr.it ed, particularly to, 
«rds ihe apex, but not to more than one line deep (at least in the 
type) ; base truneale or narrowed ; textnre thin, herbaeeous ; veins 
piuate, ßne ; sori long, linear. Fresl. Rd. Hank. 1-42, unier Asple- 
ru'ura. Hook, Sy.i. FU. 232. Bedd. F, S, /. 1Ö1, a small i£ccimtn. 




;/•'/.) 




178 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

Madras Presidency, throughout the Western forests up 
4,500 feet. Ceylon, central provinces; Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in Mauritius, Fernando Po, Java, and Borneo.) 

Var. ß Prescottianum. {Wall.) Pinnae narrower than 
type, more deeply serrated or cut, and more or less lobed towar*"""^ 5- 
the base. Wall. Ca/. 235. Hook. Sp. Fil. iii. 251. Bedd.F.B. 
/. 243. 

Singapore and Penang (perhips a distinct species). 

8. Diplazium speciosum. {Meli.) Stipes tufted, 1 foot 
more long, firm, erect, straw-coloured or brownish, nearly nak 
fronds 1-2 feet long, 8-12 inches broad, with 10-20 pairsof pin 
below the pinnatifid apex, the lower ones often stalked, 4-6 inch*- 
long, about i inch broad, the apex much acuminated, the edge 
the lobes reaching down half to two-thirds of the way to the rach*- 
generally falcate acute, obscurely crenate ; texture herbaceous 
firm ; rachis erect, naked ; veins pinnate in the lobes ; sori slend 
reaching nearly to the edge ; rachis 4-sided with sharp angles. 
acuminatum, Wall. Mett. {non H. and A.). Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 2 
Bedd. F. B. I. I. 290. 

The Malay Peninsula; Tinnevelly Mountains. Mr. Cla**"** 
considers it a form öf sylvaticum. 

9. Diplazium pinnatifido-pinnatum. {Hook.) Stipes 6 — * 
inches long, firm, erect, naked; fronds 9-12 inches long, 6-9 ine!"* 1 
broad, pinnate, with a pinnatifid apex ; pinnae 3-4 only oneach si^ 
3-4 inches long, 1 inch broad, the apex acute, the margin shsz~V 
serrated ; base c ineate ; texture coriaeeous, drying a dull blaclci 
colour ; veins obscure, pinnate ; sori irregulär, beginning at mid* 7 
not reaching the margin. Hook. Syn. Fil. 231. Bedd. F. B* 

t 244. 

Mishmee ; Mr. Clarke has united it with the Philippine Lob' 
anum, of which there is only one authentic speeimen at Kew, w 
though this does not represent the whole frond, it has numerc 
pinnae of a lighter colour and more prominent venation ; it appf 
to me to be quite a different plant. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



179 



10. Diplazium LONGirOLiUM. (Don.) Caudex erect, small, 
^erasely clothed with the bases of old stipes, paleaceous, stipes tufted 
5 — <> inches long, fronds broad-lanceolate, acurainate, membranaceous, 
a &p>an to 14 inches long, pinnated, pinnatifid at the apex, pinnje, on 
s *e«ider petioles, 1J-3 inches long, very patent, broad-lanceolate, 
*"i*3«3ate, sharply acuminated, truncated and auricled at the superior 
**ase, inferior base excised, the margin more or less deeply lobed, 
lohes as well as the auricles spinulosely serrate ; costa slender, flex- 
°ose, vein-like; veins in oblique 
fasciclcs corresponding to each 
»obe, dichotomous lowest supe- 
nor branch only soriferous; sori 
mostly asplenioid, linear, neither 
attaining ihe costa nor the mar- 
gin. Don.Prod.Fl.N<p.i,under 
Asplenium. Diplazium lobulosum, 
&*dd. F. B. I. (. 247. Hook. 
Sp- Fi/, t. 141. Syn. Fil. 234. 
Mr. Clarke has placed this in 
Asplentum, but t here are diplazioid 
uidusia on my specimens, and on 
^toe of thoseat Kew. Asplenium 
•»Peäforme (Roxb.),Baid. F. S.I. 
'■ J 34, is not at all allied here, as 
»«ggested by Mr. Clarke. 

Nepal and Kumaon, 6,000- 
W feet. ' 

11. Diplazium tomentosum. (Hook.) Caudex i-z inches, 
^ sending down wiry black roots ; stipes 6-0 inches long, firm, 
Kl *t; f ro nds deltoid-lanceolate, 6-12 inches long, 3-4 inches 
tooad at base and gradually narrowing upwards; pinna: numerous, 
fc bwest pair deflexed, the others horizontal, g-| inch broad, 
»wow-oblong, soraewhat felcate, usually auricled at base 0.1 the 
»pperiide,pinnatifidhalfortwo-thirdsdowntothemidribinthelarger 
frood), subenüre in the smaller ones j segments fa'cale, J inch broad ; 




LONUIKOLIUM. {!)CI1.) 



(Also in the .M;:Lv lM.nui>.) 

12. Dll'I.AZIUM JAI'ONICUM. {T/llUlb 

suberect ; stipes up to 1 8 inches long, pub 
herbaceous, 8-18 inches long, 6-8 inches 
late pinnate ; rachises and costa more or 
hairs mixed with small scales, or almost qu 
on each side, below the pinnatifid apex, j 
the lower ones quite opposite, some of the 
ones sessile 01 decurrent, all pinnatifid eitl 
or quite down to a winged rachis ; segme 
toothed rounded or falcate apex, or rathei 
pinnate in the lobes; veinlets simple or 
hairy or with minute crisped scales ; sori 
the midrib and rot quite reaching themarg 
Diphzium Thwaitesii (A. Br.), Hook, Syn. 
291. D. lasiopteris (Mett.), Hook. Syn. 1 
(. 160. Diplazium decussatum (Wall.), 
D. polyrhizon, Baker, Syn. Fi!. 490. 

I have followed Mr. Clarke in redi 
japonicum ; the typical lasiopteris of South 
more hairy and generally lanceolate in shaD 



■> 

•m 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 181 



the rhizome creeping, though it is generally erect ; in lasiopteris and 

Thwaitesü it is wide creeping. I have seen nothing like Mr. Clarke's 

variety chattagramica, with bipinnate fronds, the secondary pinnae 

petioled and the rachis not winged, and can hardly fancy it belongs 

here, the specimen could not be found at Kew, but from the figure 

in Clarke's Review, it appears to be one of the numerous forms of 

latifolium and perhaps the same as the one he calls succulentum. 

Mr. Clarke is quite wrong in referring Schkuhrii Thwaites here, he 

did so on a specimen of my decurrens, wrongly named Schkuhrii, 

but decurrens (which is Thwaites's polypodioides var. ß c. p. 3332, 

a nd Moore's dilatatum, var. /3 minor), can have no place here. 

Madras Presidency, on the Western ghats, the supposed 
ksiopteris at Ootacamund, 7,000 feet, and Poombary on the Pulneys, 
7»ooo feet ; decussatum on the Tinnevelly Hills and Jeypore Hills, 
West of Vizagapatam, 3,000-4,000 feet. Ceylon, central provinces; 
n. W. Himalayas; Nepal; Nynee 'Talj Kangra; Kumaon; Khasya, 
3»ooo feet ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Japan, China, and Polynesia.) 

13. Diplazium Schkuhrii. (T/ncaites.) Caudex erect ; scales 

dense, small, lanceolate, dark-brown ; stipes 9-18 inches long, 

naked ; fronds deltoid-lanceolate, up to 2 feet long, bipinnate below, 

bipinnatifid above ; pinnae altemate, lower ones distant, 6-8 inches 

long, by 1 j-2 inches broad ; rachis winged ; pinnules distant, sessile 

» l SUlate-oblong, all very regulär in shape, f-J- inch long, f-j- inch 

" r °ad, pinnatifid about -J down into rounded lobes ; texture rather 

"^1 surfaces glabrous, bright-green ; veinlets simple or pinnated in 

the bbes; sori linear, generally reaching from the midrib to the 

swus between the lobes, double or single. ' In younger plants or 

smaller specimens, the fronds are often pinnate only, i.e., the 

pnmary pinnae only pinnatifid half to two-thirds to the rachis. 

Thv. En. PI. Zey. p. 385. {Not Mett. or J. Sm. which is otily a 

^rw^sylvaticum.) Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 491. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 230. 

Ceylon ; central provinces. 

14. Diplazium sorzooonense. {Pres!.) Stipes tufted, scaly 



182 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



below ; fronds up to 16 inches long, pinnate, with numerous pion 
pinnae sessile, about 6 inches long, by ij broad, cut down v^*y 
regularly throughout two-thirds to the rachis into oblong blunt subö* 1 * 
tire lobes, which are of equal breadth, ( J inch) throughout to the a] 
texture firm ; rachis slightly scaly ; veinlets simple, each occuj 
in its entire length from costule to apex by a sorus. Hook. Syn. 
p. 236 (in pari.) Bedd. F. B. I. t. 246. 

Malacca and Penang ; differs from the North India plant in lts 
longer lobes with quite parallel edges, its simple veins, and its \otig eT 
sori. The figure quoted above is from the Malay plant (tho**£ h 
supposed at the time to be from North India), and there is anotl* er 
specimen of the same in the Kew Herbarium, labelled Khasy » 
Griffith, but it is probable that Griffith obtained it from Malacca. 

15. Diplazium Stoliczkje. (Bedd.) Stipe and rachis g^' 
brous or subglabrous ; fronds i-i£ feet long, by 10 inches bro*** 1 » 
pinnate ; pinnae numerous, the lowest pair slightly the largest, a** ü 
only a few of the upper ones gradually diminishing, the lower z-^3 
pairs opposite or subopposite, the rest alternate ; texture subco*"*** 
ceous; pinnae very shortly petioled, 5-6 inches long, i-i| in* 1 
broad, gradually tapering towards the apex, cut down £ to £ of t * 1 
way to the rachis, into oblong, rounded pinnules, which are iU^ 
than i inch broad, and very regularly crenated ; main veins sligh ** : 
wavy ; veinlets simple or forked towards their apex or below xX 1 ^ 



centre, all very conspieuous ; sori 3-7 to each pinnule or segri 

(on the lower veins only), extending from the main vein \ of the ^ y 

to the margin. Bedd, F. B. I. p. 13 and t. 361. 

North India (Dr. Jerdon), probably Khasya. This is not in t^ 
Kew Herbarium, and had not been seen by Mr. Clarke when * 
wrote his Review. 

Var. ß hirsutipes. Differs from the type by the stipes anC^ 
often the rachis being very fibrillose, in the pinnae being narrowed, an<f 
the lower ones generally more or less reduced, and in the pinnules 
being much less incised. Diplazium sorzogonense, Hook. Syn. 



184 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Fil. 236 (in pari). Diplazium Stoliczkae, Clarkc, F. N. L /. 5 
Diplazium thelypteroides, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 68. 

Himalayas ; Nepal to Bhotan, 7,000-10,000 feet; veryabunöl-- "M 
about Darjeeling. This and the type may run into each other, bu.*^ ** 
yet only one specimen of the type is known; they both look y*^" 7 ? 
different to the Malay sorzogonense, and differ by the lobes b^i *TB 
more serrated, the veinlets being often forked, the sori never reaX^ A- 
ing the margin and being confined to the 3-4 lower veinlets. 

16. Diplazium asperum. (BL) Caudex erect, often quite a 
large trunk, (like Alsophila) stipcs main and partial rachises prickty 
andscaly; fronds large, rather coriaceous, bipinnate with the f>i*+ 
nules pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, pinnules quite at right angl^s 
with the rachis, sessile or subsessile, 3-5 inches long, about 1 in*^ 
broad, segments very regulär, forming an oblong parallelogram, or 
slightly falcate, obtuse, crenate, or serrate, often rather sharply > 
veinlets numerous, 8-12 in each segment, generally simple, rar^ty 
forked, all or nearly all generally soriferous ; sori touching the costa 
but not the margin, generally only one of the lower ones dout>^ e 
BL En. 195. Diplaz. polypodioides, Hook. Syn. Fil. 238 (in pcr^r 
Diplaz. polypodioides, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 163. Diplaz. sikkimen se ' 
Clarke, F. N. Lp. 500, /. 65,^.1, scarcely differs, and is certai* 1 **' 
nearer to this than polypodioides. 

Madras Presidcncy ; throughout the Western forests, from ri ° 
clevation up to 3,000 feet, often quite a tree lern ; Cuddapa fores*" ' 
Sikkim, banks of the Teesta, 500 feet. 

(Also in Java.) 



17. Diplazium polypodioides. (Afett.) Caudex erect, sto*-* ' 
dcnsely clothed at the crown with long brown fibrillose scales, 1 ii" 1 *"" 
long; stipes dcnsely tufted, stout, green, 1 foot or more lo«**^ ? 
fronds 3-4 feet long, and 2 feet widc, bipinnate, with 8-9 prim**" . 
pinnae on each sidc below the simple ones, the lower ones gener£* 
distant, secondary pinna: 2-4 inches long, cut down nearly to * 
rachis in the typical form, but sometimes only J down ; segmc? 
short oblong, crenate or serrate, or subentire; veinlets about * 
generally forked, sometimes simple ; texture herbaeeous ; surfa^ 





pomoiriF.s. {Afett.) 



186 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



glabrous or nearly so ; sori in two oblique, rows in the Segments ; 
indusium linear, commencing at the midrib, but generaliy falling 
well short of the margin, lower ones generaliy double. Afett. Hort. 
Fi/. Lips. 78. Hook. Syn. FiL 238 (excluding asperum (BL), which 
differs in iis more coriaceous texture, much more regulär segments, 
numerous veinlets, and its prickles.) Bedd. F. B. L t. 293. Asplenium 
marginatum, Wa/L CaL 391, type sheet. 

Madras Presidency, in the Western forests up to 6,000 feet 
elevation. North India, throughout the Himalayas and Khasya 
hüls ; Ceylon ; the Malay Peninsula. Clarke's variety " vestita " has 
the rachises more or less villous or subtomentose, but does not 
otherwise recede from the type, he says it is confined to the cen- 
tral Himalayas. His variety " sublatifolia " runs into " latifolia," 
and rather belongs to that species, if the two are really distinct, which 
is very doubtful, his variety "erTusior" is D. umbrosum, var. 
multicaudata. 

(Also in Australia.) 

Var. ß decurrens. (Bedd.) Pinnae more deltoid in form 
with the secondary pinnae few and distant, and more or less decurrent 
011 the rachis, only cut down a third or half-way to the rachis ; veinlets 
in the segments few, only 3-4 ; sori curved, generaliy occupying the 
whole length of the veinlets, and extending to the margin. Diplazium 
decurrens, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 229. Diplaz. polypodioides, var. fi 9 
Thw. En. PL Zey. p. 385. c. p. 3332. Diplaz. dilatatum, var. ß 
minor, Moore, Index Fi/. 327, in part only. 

A very distinct looking fern, and I believe a good species, but I 
now prefer to follow Mr. Thwaites (who alone can have seen it 
growing), and consider it a variety of polypodioides. Sir W. Hooker, 
Sp. Fi/, t. 258, has mentioned it under polypodioides as perhaps 
distinct spec'es. Mr. Baker has included it under maximum (Don. 
which is otherwise, as far as the Kew bündle is concerned, one 
the large forms of latifolium, and Mr. Claike in his Review ^/* 
named it Dipl. Schkuhrii, but this was owing to his having receiv^^ , 
specimen of it so labelled (evidently by mistake), from Mr. Thwa«]^^ 

Ceylon ; Ambagamwa. 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 187 

18. Diplazium latifomum. (Don.) Like polypodioides, 
only the secondary pinnae are generally much less cut down, and 
often much broader, they are sometimes almost entire, or with only 
shallow serratures, when the fern has quite the appearance of 
" sylvaticum," only bipinnate instead of simpty pinnate ; other forms 
have the secondary pinnae 2 inches (or even more) broad at the 
base, cut down a third or half-way to the rachis ; segnients alwa) s 
moreor less crenateor serrate; veinlets simple or forked, rather dis- 
tant, their number depending on the size of the Segments (never so 
numerous as in asperum, except when the segments are double 
the size of those of that plant) ; sori narrow, often occup) ing the 
whole length of the veinlet, and reaching the margin ; indusium some- 
times obsolete or early caducous. Don. Frod. FL Nep. 8. Hook. 
Syn. Fi/. 239. Dip. dilatatum, Hook. Sp. Fi/, vi. 258. Bedd. F. S. I. 

162, aform running nearer to polypodioides. Dip. maximum, Hook. 
Syn. Fi/. 232, in pari. 

Madras Presidency, in aU the Western forests. North 

India, throughout the Himalayas and Khasya Hills. Ceylon; 

Malay Peninsu'a ; from very low altitudes up to 9,000 feet 

elevation. 

(Also in Austrah'a, China and the Philippines.) 

If we only included here species with very broad secondary 

pinnae, not cut more than half-way down to the rachis, this 

plant would be very distinct from " polypodioides," but I fear this is 

n °t possible, and in all large herbaria, I find specimens that it is 

ver X difficult to say which species they should be referred to. 

™Plazium torrentium and succulentum of Clarke cannot be made 

In *° distinct species, unless we also make many more, but they 

telong to types which, though generally referred here, must, from the 

öee Per cutting of their secondary pinnae, go into " polypodioides," if 

fte two are to be kept distinct ; no figures and 110 description could 

öa ble any one to distinguish some of these forms as species, the 

™y difference often being the extent of the cutting of the secondary 

pin **ae. D. decurrens unless a distinct species (which view its 

e **ation I think Supports), should rather be referred here thatv 



I 1 k.i 1 1 1 



IQ. ] )lPI.A/ll M TKAVANldkllTM. {J 

with trunk-like caudex, secondary pinn; 
lanceolate, somewhat attenuated at the base 
caudate, quite pinnate towards the base, tl 
petioled, the upper ones gradually becoming s( 
the pinnae terminating with a long broad pii 
the upper 8 inches or so is only very shallow 
pinnules smaller than the adjoining ones, ne> 
long, by about 1 inch broad, lanceolate in sha 
towards the apex ; veins numerous, prominer 
prominent central costa ; texture subcoriac 
and striated ; sori commencing a littlc distanc 
not nearly reaching the margin. 

Travancore Hills ; Athraymally forests, a 

20. DlPLAZIUM UMBROSUM. (/. Smi 

Stipes 1 foot or more long, stfong, erect, cl< 
scales, and sometimes muricate ; fronds 3-5 
broad ; primary pinnae ovate-lanceolate to delt 
inches long ; secondary pinnae very various, soi 
pinnatifid (in the simpler forms), to quite pin 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



189 



into the other even in their restricted areas, and that others are 
geographica! varieties which would not be constant in cultivation, and 
secondly, because I think any attempt to separate them into species 
would only add to the present confusion, it being a task that should 
only be undertaken after a cultivation of all the different forms. 

Mr. Clarke has proposed the subgenus Pseud.-Allantodia 
for the species with allantodioid sori and free veins, but I am afraid 
these allantodioid scri are not constant or to be depended on, 
Austräte, from the Nilgiris, has the sori often quite allantodioid as 
figured by me, tab. 158, /". S. I. ; but I havc specimens where all 
the sori are perfectly diplazioid ; again, 1 
have specimens of Asplenium resectum, 
from two different localities, with nearly all 
the sori allantodioid. 




Vau. australe. {R. Br.) Stipes 
°*ien muricate; fronds 3-pinnatifid, often 
'aiher flaccid in texture, ultimate segments 
t * r <>ad and blunt, sori sometimes quite al- 1 
'»ntodioid, at other times quite asplenioid australk. [Je. Br.) 
°£ diplazioid; rhizome creeping or ercct. Athyrium ai'strale, Bcdd. 
^ -S. /. /. 158. Dip'az. bellum, Clarke, F. N. I. p. 496. Diplaz. 
"^ulticaudatum, var. tristis, Clarke, l. c. />. 512. 

Sikkim, Bhotan ; Khasya ; Nilgiris and other mountain furests, 
SiOoo-7,ooo feet, in South India ; Birma. 

(Also in Australia and Tropica 1 Africa.) 

Var. procerum. (Wall) Rhizome creeping ; stipes muricate ; 

r °«ds very large, moderately firm in texture, primary pinna: up to 

^*rly 2 feet long, secondary pinnas 5-5?, inches, again pinnated 

Il h the ptnnules about 1 inch long, and pinna tifid about half-way to, 

*r* e nchis ; segments oblong, crenate ; veinlets in the segments once 

****^*dj sori mostly in two rows, near and parallel to the midrib, 

J*t other very short sori are scattered on the segments ; indusium 

all flniodioid. Wall. Cat. 2203. Hook. Syn. -Fit. 489. Dipl. pro- 

^*Um, Clarke, 495. 




Fronds 
ceous, i 
i>iri^ziu»i umbrosum 'he ten 

VAR. MUL'MCAUIlATirv 1 Ul II 1 

utAuiMiuM. (Weil.) verv sn 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



GENUS XLIIL— ANISOGONIUM. (Prest.) 

(Front anisos, unequal ; genta, an angle ; the angles of the venation.) 

As in Diplazium, but the veins anastomosing. 

i. Anisoconium cordifolium. (Mett.) Stipes 6-1 2 inches 

Ion,;, firm, erect, scaly below ; fronds 8-12 inches long, 3-4 inches 

broad, entire, caudale at the base, the point acuminate or subdeltoid, 

»ith a large terminal and 1 or 2 pairs ofsmallerbut similar spreading 

lateral pinnse ; texture coriaceous ; veins in close groups of about 

4, anastomosing copiously in the onter half of the frond ; sori reach- 

ing from the midrib to the edge. 

Mili. FU. Hort. Lips.p. 74, /. 1 2. f. 6. 

HM.Syn.Fil. 243- Bedd.F.B.I. 

'■ 331 (the simple form.) 

Malacca and Malay Feninsula. 
(Also in Philippines and Malay 
Gianda.) 

, ANISOGONIUM L1NEOLATUM. 




\"*ett^ Stipe 6-9 inches long, firn _ 
er ect,grey, scaly below; fronds occa- 
S1 *>»ia.lly simple, usuallywitha terminal 
" lt *na and 3-6 pairs of lateral ones, 
"""icljare 6-1 a inches long, 2 inches , 
* r **»ore broad, entire, often suddenly 
u *ninate ; texture coriaceous ; 
^^^isnaked ; veins4-8 to a Cluster, ... """ 
V^ting slightly towards the edge. ASIbtx * 0NI MC0 " ,,IK0ULM - <■ ' ' 
****t. I. f. p. 74. tob. 1 1. /. 5. Hook. Syn. Fil 243 Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 330. 

Malacca and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Philippines and Malay Islands.) 

3. ANISOGONIUM HETEROPHLEBIUM. {Mttl. MSS.) Stipes I 

|°°t long, grey, scaly throughout; fronds 12-18 inches long, 8-9 
c ^es broad, with 6-8 opposite pairs of pinn» below the pinnatifid 

_P«X; the lowest 2 inches or more apart, 3-4 inches long, i-ij 
^hes broad, the edge undulated, the point acute, the base cordate 




S3 w 



irlxht 



midril 
I diffen 

unite 

midrib, with linesof sori oftcn on all thc latc 
ffa>t&A.p.4$. Jfouk.Syn. Fil. idi. Ä-« F 



N15OG0N1UM 11ETEKOPH 



(JA-« 



[üirt ; VL'ins in groiy« uf 2 - 3 on a sidc 

half-way across to the edge ; sori often ± 

f. »45. Bedd. F. B. I. zz* (Calüpteris) 

Ceylon, Matale East and Oodawella 

GENUS XLIV.—HEMIDIC 
{Hemi, half ; diktyon, net ; outer porti 
As in Asplenium, but veins anastomc 
the margin of the frond. 



(Linn. 

1-3 in. 
chaffy ; 
one ir 
pinnati 
lobes 
inch k 
a roun 
texture 
surfacp 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



(Also in Afghanistan, Western Asia, Europe, and North-west 
Africa.) 

j. Hemidictyum Finlaysonianum. (Hook.) St ipes 6-9 inches 

' 0n gi gree^i subcompressed, nearly nalted ; fronds usually i foot 

long (often much more), 6-8 inches broad, occasionally simple and 

«iure, generally pinnate wilh 2-6 opposite pairs of lateral pinns, the 

Wer ones 4-8 inches long, ij-z inches broad, the apex very 

*ai rabiate, the base narrowed into 

töstinct petiole, the margin entire or 

Tegularly lobed ; texture leathery ; 

►eins subflabellate, very oblique, anas- 

( or*»osing süghtly towards the margin, 

sorüetimes bounded by an irregulär 

"'f-Ä-^rnärgjnal line; sori often i$-2 

"k^J-ms long, rooting buds are often 

Prcx^uced from the midribs of the 

pir*.«iae near the apex. Hook. Syn. Fil. 

*4S- Bedd. F. B. I. t. 12. 

North and East Bengal, with 
As^-^m, up to 3,000 feet, very com- 
m **"», especially in Khasya ; Malay " 
Pcca-insula. 




(£■***). 



V 



GENUS XLV.— ALLANTODIA. { Wall.) 
(Allantos, a sausage ; form of indusium.) 
Sori dorsal, linear-oblong, attached to the primary veins ; indu- 
S1U *** the same shape as the sorus and quite enclosing it, bursting in 
311 Viregular line down to the centre, or rarely asplenioid ; veins 
"^^lomosing and forming several elongated areoles, smaller towards 
"^ margin, with free marginal clavate veinlets; fronds pinnate, 
ver V membranaceous, (the character of the indusium is not to be 
I£ *^d on, similar sausage-shaped indusia being found in species 
* l tue Asplenium and Diplazium.) 

1. Allantodia jayanica. (Bl. ander Asplenium.) Fronds 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 197 



m 2 feet long, 1 foot broad, pinnae 4-8 inches long, i-if 
li broad, oblong, entire or slightly crenulate, particularly at the 
<late apex, veins forked near the midrib, 2-3 of hexagonal areoles 
occupying the outer half of the space between midrib and margin ; 
confined to the anterior vein of the first fork or areole. BL En, 
• Jav. Fil. 175. Allant. Brunoniana (Wall.), Hook^Syn. Fil. 
P- 346. Bcdd. F. S. L 159. 

Nepal and Bhotan, 4,000-7,000 feet elevation ; Khasya, Mikir 
Hills ; Ceylon. 

(Also in Java and Samoa.) 



GENUS XLVL— ACTINIOPTERIS. {Link) 

(Actin, rays ; ßteris, a fern.) 

Sori linear, elongated, submarginal ; indusium the same shape as 
e s orus, folded over it, placed one on each side of the narrow seg- 
e **ts of the frond opening towards the midrib : a single species like 
a ^iniature palm. 



~ . i. Actiniopteris dichotoma. (Forsk, under Acrostichum .) 

x Pes densely tufted, 2-6 inches long; fronds like fans, 1-1} inch 

•. e P> composed of numerous dichotomous segments which are rush- 

^ in textufe, not more than \ line broad, the veins few and sub- 

^ ^Uel with the indistinct midrib, the segments of the fertile frond 

n ger than those of the barren one. Acrostichum dichotomum, 

J^"^. Fl. /Egypt. Arab. 184. Actiniopteris radiata, Hook. Syn. 

il *p. 246. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 124. 

Throughout India, especially the Peninsula in dry rocky places 
*°w 3,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon. 
(Also in North Africa, - Mascareen Islands, Persia, Cabul.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 199 



TRIBE IX.— ASPIDIEÄ. 

Sori dorsal, subglobose, rarely elliptical ; indusium superior, 
Slrr ^ilar in shape to the sorus, fixed either by the centre or a sinus. 

GENUS XLVII.- -DIDYMOCHLiENA. (Desv.) 

(Didymos^ double ; c/i/ana, a cloak ; — the double indusium.) 

Sori elliptical, terminal on a veinler, but distinctly intramarginal; 
1 ndnsium elliptical, marginate at the base, attached longitudinally tothe 
im^^r receptacle, free all round the edge; veins subflabellate, free, their 
a Pices clavate ; fronds bipinnate, pinnules articulate with the rachis. 

1. DidymochLjEna lunulata. (Desv.) Caudex erect, sub- 
ar ^orescent ; fronds densely tufted, 4-6 feet long, bipinnate ; pinnules 
* ~~~ * inch broad, dimidiate, subquadrangular, entire or slightly sinuated ; 
e xt\are subcoriaceous ; veinlets forked or pinnate, their apices 
naa ^ked with white dots; sori 2-6 to a pinnule. Desv. in Man, 
S°c Zinn. \lp. 282. Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 248. Bedd. F. B.I. t. 15. 

Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical America ; East African Islands ; Malay 
Is *ands; Fiji.) 

GENUS XLVIIL— MESOCHL.ENA. (R. Br.) 

(Jfesos, middle ; chlcena^ cloak, attachment of the indusium.) 

Sori and indusium of Didymochlsena, but habit and venation of 
^ e phrodium, />., the lower pair of veinlets anastomose, the others 
^fc> parallel ; fronds bipinnatifid. 

1. Mesochl>ena polycarpa. (Bl. under Aspidium.) Caudex 
We ^t; stipes tufted, short; fronds 2-3 feet long, 12-18 inches 
" T °ad, pinnate; pinnae close, very numerous, spreading, dwindling 
down below to mere auricles, the largest 6-9 inches long, \ inch 
broad, cut down half-way or more to the rachis into linear -oblong 
lobes ; rachis and lower surface villose ; veins very close, pinnated, 



i K iü 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



*"*w<^lve or more on each side in a lobe ; sori small, closc, ultimately 
c o*~»fluent. Aspidium polycarpum, Bl. En. Fil. Jav. 156. Didy- 
IX *<=»*shUena Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 248. Mesochlasna polycarpa, BedJ. 
**~- -&. 1. 1. 344. Nephrodium javanicum, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. /. 67. 

In the Syn. Filiatm this genus hasbeen joined with Didymoch- 
*°&*~»a; but, as Mr. Smith has pointed out, it is really a Nephrodium 
^''h the indusium elongated. 
Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

GENUS XLIX.— POLYSTICHUM. {Roth.) 
(Pofys, many ; stichos, ordcr.) 
Sori subgtobose, dorsal or teiminal on the veinlets ; indusium 
_^~* z *Äcular, fixed by the centre ; veins all free; texture generally 
aeeous and teeth generally awned. 

I. POLYSTICHUM SEM ICO R- 

~"t)M. (Sui.) Stipes scattered, 

3 inches long, fibrillose at the 

& ; fronds 2-3 feet long sim- 

f ^*" pinnate ; pinnae 4-6 inches 

J-J inch broad, nearly 

, acuminate, cordate or 

^ <a *»«ate at the base ; texture 

*"^aceous or somewhat firm ; 

*■»>«$ naked and rachis nearly 

i. veins pinnate, the lower ones 

l . ^'ig short of the margin ; sori 

» V 1 * _ 3 rows on each side, the 

% ^d one the most constant 

\ m *l regulär, close to the midrib. 

\ SW- Syn. Fil. p. 45. Hook. Syn. 

| i 1 ^. 249. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 35. p 

■ . Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

I (Also in the Malay Islands, Philippinen, and Tropica! America.) 



!<=»**« 




ICORDATUM. (Äo.) 



Ferns of British India akd Ceylon. 203 



2. Polystichum Lonchitis. {Linn. under Polypodium.) Caudex 

short, stout oblique, densely paleaceous; stipes shoit pa'eaceous, 

bwer portion of the rachis with ferruginous large scales ; fronds 6-18 

inches long, densely tufted, erect n'gid, linear or lanceolate, tapering 

at "both ends, pinnated ; pinnae numerous, approx»mate from a broad 

nearly sess ; le obliquely truncated base, ovate or lanceolate, falcate 

acute spinulose-serrate, the superior base truncated and auriculate ; 

***** confined to upper portion of the frond in two or more series 

u pon the pinnae ; indusium denticulate on the margin. Hook, Sp. 

F*J» iv. 8. Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 43. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 250. Bedd. 

&> B. 1. t. 128. Polypodium Ix>nchitis, Linn. Sp.pl. 1548, 

North West Himalaya, Kashmir, Sonamurg 1 1,000 feet elevation. 
(Also in Arctic and Alpine Europe, Asia, and North America.) 

3. Polystichum lachenense. {Hook.) Rhizome veryscaly; 

stipes very numerous, thick, densely tufted, scaly, 2-4 inches long ; 

fronds narrow-linear, 4-8 inches long by \-i inch broad, pinnate, the 

Wer pinnae remote but hardly reduced in size ; pinnae 2-3 inches 

broad, deltoid-ovate, subcoriaceous, lobed more or less or subentire, 

the apex b'unt, the margins spinosely serrated or crenate-serrate ; 

sori 6-12 to a pinna, often covering the whole under side ; indusium 

incised. Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 250. Clarke, F. N. I. p. 506. Bedd. 

F.B.I.t. 32. 

Sikkim, 13,000-16,000 feet, Lachen, Tungu, Samding, 7,000- 
15,000 feet; Kashmir, Palgram, 13,000 feet. 

4. Polystichum Atkinsoni. {Bedd.) Rhizome small, scaly ; 
stipes 2-3 inches long, thin, stramineous, and wiih the rachis 
furnished with a few chaffy scales; fronds 1-3 inches long, | inch 
broad, pinnate, the lower pinnae not reduced; pinnae ovate, very 
coriaceous, spinosely-serrated, the superior base often with anauricle; 
sori 1-3 to a pinna, generally on the upper half only. Bedd. 
F. B. I. Suppl. t. 362. 

Sikkim, Yakla Pass 10,000 feet; Lachen 10,000 feet; Bhotan. 

5. Polystichum auriculatum. {Linn. under Polypodium.) 
Stipes tufted, 4-6 inches long, scaly below, or throughout ; fronds 



. u.-iuiii oiicn (jimc 

//<'(>/:. AV;/. /•/'/. 251. 

Throughout India and Ceylon. 
(Also in Formosa.) 

Type. Pinnae submembranaceou 
inches long, serrate ; upper base Square, 
auricled, lower base much cut away ; inv 
raliy altogether absent. Hook. Sp. Fil. \ 
t. 120. Polypodium harpophyllum (Ze 

Nilgiris, Pulneys and other Wester 
at the higher elevations. 

VAR. ß MARGINATUM. (Wall.) 

shining, scaly below, ovate-oblong, closel) 
lobed; indusium conspicuous, sometime 

366. Don. Prod. Fl. Nep. 3. Bedd. Su 
F.N. I. 507. 

North India ; Kunawur to Bhotan, 7 

Var. y ccespitosum. (Wall.) I 
margin scarcely spinulose or serrate, 1 
scarcely coriaceous ; indusium conspicu» 

367. P. coespitosum, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 3 
Prod. Fl. Nep. 3. Clarke, l. c. 507. 

Khasya, 3,000-4,500 feet elevntinn 




POLYSTICKOM AURICULATUU. (Zm>'-1 



2o6 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

6. Polystichum ilicifolium. (Den.) Stipes densely tuft» 
2-4 inches long, clothed with large scales throughout ; fronds In** 
or lanceolate, not attenuated at the base, very coriaceous, P» 1111 *"^ 
pinnse either small simple triangulär or sub rhomboidal, or 1OJ 1 
largetandagalnpinnate, naked onbothsidesandshining.anglesspi* 1 
lose-mucronate ; rachis fibrinöse ; sori mostly in two rows, usually larft ' 
indusium pul täte ; veins immersed. Don. Prod. Fl. Nep. 3» B 90 
Syn. Fil. 251. Polystichum Stimulans (Km.), Bedd. F.B. /■ '■ 3^ 



Himalajas, from Chumbra to Sikkim, 
elevation. 



fe* 



Tne smaller forms with simple pinrue are very d ist inet, but _ 



Urger ones with the pinnre again pinnated, quite graduate 



ijc*o 



P. aculeatum, var. rufo-barbatum liH 
becomes quite indistinguishable ß^ 
forms of that fern, and is probably <* 
a variety of it. 

;. Polystichum Thomsosi. (J/&* 

Stipes tufted, 1-4 inches long, fibrill«^; 

fronds pinnate linear up to 

long, subcoriaeeous, not gradually a.*^ 

uated at the base, both surfaces mor^^ 

less fibrillose ; pinnae cut down almo^*" 

the racliis, bristly serrate, very unequ^-* 

the base, the lower margin being cut ■/** '' 

ilicifolium. the upper with the basal lobe mucr» 

Iß«.) larged ; veins pinnate or forked 

segments; sori terminal on a veinlet; indusium peltate, bluf 

crenated or subentire. Hook, Syn. Fil. p. 251, and and Cent. Fef"' 

t. 35, inpartonly. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 12G. 

Himalayas j from Balti to Sikkim, 7,000-13,000 feet elevation- 

Very near the smaller forms of Prescottianum, but the stipe ** 

fibrillose, not scaly. Hssker's plate is taken from speeimenso' , 

both species, and it is very probable that they are only varietie 

of the same plant. . 







»«fr 



Ffrns of British Ixdia and Cfvlon. 20; 



Var. ß. gracilis. Fronds smaller, (3-5 inches long with 
the stipe by £-f inch broad), margin of pinnaecrenate, with a sudden 
acumination (not bristly serrate), involucre reniform. Clarke, F. N. I. 
*• 508. Lastrea gracilis (Moore), Bedd. F. B. L t. 198. Lastrea 
sparsa, var. gracilis, Hook. Syn. Fil. 498. 

Sikkim; 11,500 feet elevation. A very doubtful species, which 
Mr. Clarke considers only a variety of Thomsoni, so I place it here 
Pending further material. Mr. Clarke says that the involucre is 
Polystichoid. 

8. Polystichum aculeatum. (Sw.) Stipes tufted, 6-12 
Hielies long, scaly and fibrillose below or throughout ; fronds large, 
° v *3.te-lanceolate, bipinnate, coriaceous, not attenuated at the base 
(or only slightly so in some forms) ; pinnae numerous close lanceolate, 
P***nu!es oblong, unequal at the base, lower margin excised, upper 
8 er *erally more or less auricled, margins bristly or spinulose ; texture 
^ore or less coriaceous, under surface generally fibrillose; veins 
P^nate or forked in the segments of the pinnules ; sori towards the 
a P^X or at the apex of the lower veinlets. Sw. Schrad. yourn. ii. 
37« Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 252. 

Throughout the Indian region on the mountains. 

(Also throughout the whole world.) 

Var. ß lobatum. {Eng. bot. t. 1563.) Fronds narrowly 
^*ceolate ; pinnae hardly pinnate, the lower secondary pinna sessile, 
01 «lecurrent. Clarke, F. N. L.p. 509. 

Throughout the Himalayas. 

Var. y. rufo-barbatum. ( Wall. Cat. 369.) Fronds bipinnate, 

Vet y coriaceous, usually reddish ; stipes densely clothed with large 

tcd scales ; rachis with red fibrillae ; pinnules naked and fibrillose 

toaeath, in cuttinglike ilicifolium. P. aculeatum, Bedd. F. S. L. t. 

l *i. Polyst. brachypterum, Kunze, No. 906. 

Nilgiris and Western mountains of South India; Himalayas, 
from Kashmir to Bhotan. 

Var. 8. angulare. (Presl. Newm. 173.) Lax and of thinner 




POLYSTICH «M ACULEATUM, VAR, RVFO-BAKBATUM, {IVall.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 209 

^— m . __ . ■■ ■ ■■ M — ~ ~ 1 ~ ■ 

ture, pinnules smaller, more numerous, orbicular, rhomboid, 
stly auriculate, the serraturcs setiferous rather than spinulose. 
a& F. S. 1. 1. 121. 
Nilgiris and Western mountains of South India. 

Var. Z semifertile. Base of the frond fertile, upper one- 
*d barren. (Clar&e, /. c.) 
Sikkim. 

Var. ij biaristatum. (Bl. En. PL Jav. Fil. 164.) Pin- 
es large, oblong-falcate, sparingly serrate or spinulose ; sori 
erally round the margin. 

Khasya ; Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

,Var. setosum. (Wall. Cat. 371.) Lower surface of frond 
"i very long fibrillae; rachis with very large scales as well as 
illae, pinnules sraall, quite entire, except the spinulose apex or with 
r inconspicuous crenatures to represent the usual lobes ; sori 
^al on the lower veinlet of the forked or pinnate vein of the 
^ient (or what would correspond to the segment where the 
nule is entire). 

Himalayas, from Kumaon to Sikkim, 5,000-8,000 feet elevation. 
**ell marked form, considered a distinct species by some botanists. 

Var. i anomalum. (Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 27.) Segments blunt 
slightly mucronate ; sori often, but not always, on the upper 
Face of the fronds. Polystichum anomalum, Bedd. F. S. I. 

Ceylon ; Horton plains and Happootalee, 5,000-6,000 feet 
Nation. 

Var. r travancoricum. (Bedd.) Pinnae rather distant, 
^er pair generally deflexed ; pinnules prominently petioled, either 
foentire, large broad deltoid, with the lobing blunt not mucronate, 
' elongated up to 3 inches long, and pinnatifid or completely pinnate 
:xcept an indistinct wing to the rachis), the pinnules distant and 
;ain bluntly lobed, 3-4 pair below the pinnatifid apex ; rachis and 
pe scaly and fibrillose, under surfaces fibrinöse. 

15 



i 



210 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Travancore and Tinnevelly mountains, 4,000-5,000 feet den- 
tion. A riistinct variety, but cvidontly a form of aculeatum, themore 
cntire pinnules are nearest in shape and cutting to those of 
anomalum and biaristatum ; the same frond will ofcen have some 
pinnas with thc pinnules short and only slightly lobed, and uthers I 
with them all elongate and pinnate or deeply pinnatifid. ' 

VAB. X MUCR0NIF0L1UM. {Bl. En. PI. 'JFav. Fil. 164-) 
Fronds 3-pinnate or sub-3-pinnate. (Clarke, l. e. 509.) 

Khasya and Assam ; this is very distinct looking, it is tripinnat e 
like the last, but very different, being 
finely cut with small pinnules. 

9. POLYSTICHUM PRESCOTTIAHCM - 

(Wall.) Stipes short, thick, flacd«*- 
with many straw-coloured scales ar»** 
fibrillse ; fronds from narrow to broo-** 
lanceolate, tapering at the base: pi***" 
na; eithcr short oblong, \-i inchlonß' 
more or less divided, but not to *»* 
rachis, or elongate, 2-3 incheslongar»** 
deeply pinnatifid to the rachis or we ° 
pinnate; Segments with the marg»" 
serrate and often hair-pointed, more O t 
less fibrinöse bencath. Wall. Cf**' 
363. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 34. ifa"*- 
Syn. Fi/. 2 5i , 

Himalayasj from Kashmir *-° 
Bhotan, 10,000-13,000 feet elevau'on — 

(Clarke.) Fronds large, very flacci^ 3 ' 
broad-lanceolate, (9-10 inches broad), truncate at the base. Chrlr^'' 
F. N. 1. 1. 66. 

Sikkim; Yakla, 12,000 feet; very distinct-looking at first sighJP" ' 
but evidently only a flaccid variety of the above. 

Var. y castaneum. (Clarke.) Stipe round, naked, scales ot» 
the rachis blackish, pinna: little pinnatifid. 

Sikkim, 15,000 feet elevatum. 




Var. 



fr- 105. 



{Wall.) 
3 Bakerianum. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 211 

GENUS L.— CYRTOMIUM. (Presl.) 
(Derivation not known.) 

Indusium orbicular, peltate ; veins pinnate from a central costa, 

* lower anterior veinlets free, the rest angularly and irregularly 
tstomosing, forming unequal and subhexagonal areoles within 
ich are 1-3 excurrent venules, or the upper veinlets only angularly 
lstomosing ; fronds pinnate, coriaceous. 

1. Cyrtomium falcatum. (ßw.) Stipes tufted, 6-12 inches 
g, densely clothed below with large dark scales ; fronds 1-2 feet 
S> by 6-9 inches broad, pinnate ; pinnae numerous, the lower 
ssstalked, ovate-acuminate, falcate, 4-6 inches long, by 1-2 inches 
sad, the edge entire or slightly undulated, the upper side narrowed 
denly, sometimes auricled, the lower rounded or obliquely trun- 
2* at the base ; texture coriaceous, both surfaces naked, the upper 
- glossy, primary veins from the midrib of the pinnae parallel to 
h other nearly to the margin, throwing off pinnately 1-2-3 times 
"ching veinlets ; sori small, copious, scattered. Swartz^ Syn. Fil. 
VZ- Hook. Syn. Fil. 257. 

Var. ß caryotideum. {Wall.) Pinnules larger, sharply 
-lied, sometimes deeply lobed towards the base, and generally 

* a long sharp auricle on one or both sides at the base. Wall. 

* 376. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 119. 

Nilgiris at the higher elevations. Himalayas from Gurwhal 
^hotan, 3,000-8,000 feet elevation. Khasya, 3,000-4,000 feet ; 
r lon. There is also a variety common on the Nilgiris known as 
r *"optera, which has more numerous and much smaller pinnae, 
*"cely at all auricled or lobed, but it graduates into caryotideum, 
'"Ugh extreme forms look very distinct. The type of falcatum, 
l ^h only differs slightly, is from China, Japan, South Africa, 
^dwich Islands, and Madagascar. 

2. Cyrtomium caducum. (Wall.) Stipes tufted, 1 foot 
>*& firm erect, stramineous, scaly below ; main rachises sometimes 



212 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



with a terminal rooting bud ; fronds 1-2 feei long, 6-9 inches broad, 
pinnate; pinnae petioled, numerous, narrow lanceolate acuminate, 
from subentire to deeply lobed ; texture coriaceous ; primary veins 
from the midrib of the pinnae repeatedly dichotomous at an acute 
angle into nearly equally strong veins, not anastomosing usually tili 
near the margin, many of them free to the margin ; sori rather large 
and in two rows half-way between the rachis and the margin, ormuch 
smaller and scattered. Wall. Ca f. 381. Hook. Syn.Fil. 257. Btdi- 
F. B. I. t. 45. Clarke, F. N. Lp. 512. 

Himalayas; from Nepal to Bhotan, 4,000-7,000 feet; Khasyfti 
3,000-5,000 feet elevatioh. 

GENUS LI.- -ASPIDIUM. (Swartz.) 

(Asßidos, the indusium being like a shield.) 

Indusium orbicular or reniform, or sometimes irregulär ar*** 
abnormal, being linear and curved, or sometimes absent; vei**- 
compoundly anastomosing with generally free veinlets in the areote^- 
receptacles compital or often at the apcx of the free veinlets ; fron*^ 
very various, from simple to tripinnatifid, often membranaceous ar* 
flaccid. 

j. Aspidium singaporianum. (Wallich.) Rhizome creepi^l 
stipes subtufted, those of the fertile fronds 6-12 inches long, fror»' 
12 inches or more, 2-4 inches broad, oblong entire, acuminate at t* 1 
apex, narrowed rather suddenly and then decurrent gradually at *-** 
base ; texture herbaceous ; primary veins distinct nearly to the e<J^5 ' 
united by transverse arched ones, the areoles of which enclose net* 
veinlets, the ultimate ones free ; sori numerous, close, 4-6 i** 
linc between the main veins ; indusium peltate orbicular. Nepf 1 
dium (Baker), Hook. Syn. FiL 296. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 168. 

Singaporc and the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

2. Aspidium vastum. (Blume!) Rhizome creeping, st*!' 



scattered, narrowly winged often nearly or quite to the base, * , 
nished with numerous linear subulate brown persistent scales ; fro< 




CYBTOMIUM FALCATUU, VAS. ß CARYOTI DEUM, {WalL\ 



2I 4 



FERNä of British Ixdia axd Ceylon. 



2-4 feet long, cut down lo a broadly-winged rachis, into entöe E 
oblong piniue 6-12 inches long, by 1-2 incbes broad; textnre suixKz-^. 
riaceou5 ; main veins distinct neariy to tbe margin, connffirrf t*y 
numerous prominent cross veins fonning 7-8 areoles beteten Ifae 
costa and margin, with netted and free veinlets in the areoles; son 
small, scattercd on the netted veins ; indnsium renifonn. BL &*■ 
PL Jav. Fi/. 14». Book. Syn. Fi/. 296. Aspid. alatum, ««* 
Ca/. 378. Sagen« alata, Beü. F. B. 1. 1. 169. 




ASPIDIOM VASTUM. (Bhime.) 



U'OKIANUM. 

(Wall.) 

East Bengal, up to 1,000 feet elevation ; Mishmec ; Khasj'-^" 
Chittagong; Malay Pcninsula. 
(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

3. Aspidium suhconkluens. (Bfää.) Stipes tufted, 1-2 feet 
long, fumished with dark coloured Hnear-subulate scales ; fronds 
ahout 1 foot cach way, triangulär in outline, tripartite, lateral pinnx 
oppositc or subopposite, shortly petiolcd, unequal sided with the 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



215 



»er pinnules small falcate subentire, the lower ones auch pro- 
ed lanceolate acuminate, the 2-3 basal ones cut about one-third 
*n into falcate lobes, terminal pinrwe deeply pinnatifid, lobes 3-6 
hes, pinnatifid a quarter of the way down to the midrib ; texture 
derately firm, surface glabrous above, pubescent on the veins 
»eath; veins anastomosing with a few free included veinlets; sori 
L ttered, small, generally on the netted veins; indusium variable, 
Ufbrm, curved, horseshoe-shaped or nearly peltate, persistent. 
■dd..Sup. Ferns, t. 364. 

Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet elevation, below Umwai. 

■Q. ASPIDIUM SEMI HI PIN - 

-TUM. {Wall, ander Poly- 
*ium.) Stipes r foot or 
*xe long, pale brown, naked ; 
*ids 13-18 inches long, 6-9 
•lies broad, terminal pinnss 
ear-oblong, 6-9 inches long, 
r»ch broad, entire, nanowed 
w-ards both ends, lateral 
mse 4-6 on each side 
aller, the lower one or two 
*s tripartite; texture her- 
-«ous; veins inconspicuous, 

■ primary ones lost before 
J y reach the margin, the 
t variously anastomosing, 
- areoles with free included 
^lets; sori min ute, scattered, 
•»fined to the connected veinlets ; indusium reniform and irregulär 
«1 the last Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 59, /. 231. Syn. Fil. 297. Bedd. 

■ £.1. t. 137. Polypodium semibipinnatum, Wall. Cat. 388. 

Penang ; nearly allied to some forms of polymorphum, but I 
^ink suflüciently distinct. 
{Also in Borneo.) 
5. Aspidium subtriphyllum. (Hook.) Rhizome creeping ; 




{BcdJ.) 



216 



Fkrns of British India and Ceylon. 



stipcs i foot or more long; fronds 12-18 inches long, 8-12 inches 
broad, subdeltoid with a large deeply pinnatifid apex, with lanceolate 
lobes ; below this one or two pinnse on each side, the lowest stattet 
distant, forked atthebase, or pinnatifid, the point lanceolate; texture 
herbaceous, surfaces somewhat hairy beneath and on the main veins 
above, main veins distinct to the edge, the others copiously anasto- 
mosing, with free veinlets included in the areoles ; sori rather Urge, 
but scattered, confined to the connected veinlets ; indusium reniform- 
Hook. Sp. Fi/, iv. 52. Syit. Fi/. 296. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 242, *** 
F. B. I. t. 48. 

Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. 
My Ceylon specimens are muchsmalte 
than those from Birma, but I believe 
they are the same species; in habit it is 
quite like variolosum, but the sori are 
always on the netted veinlets, instcad 
of at the apex of free veinlets. 

6. ÄSPIDIUM VARIOLOSUM. (Wdl) 

Rhizome suberect, stipes tufted, scaly 
ncar the base only, 1 2-1 8 inches long 
in the fertile, less in the sterile fronte 
more or less dimorphous, deltoid * 
outline, herbaceous in texture, and some- 
what puberulous, especially in the sten» e 
ones ; pinnas about threc pair below l ^ c 
pinnatifid apex, the lowest pair ag^ 1 
pinnated with the pinnules often p 1 * 1 
natifid, the next pair often pinnatifid 
pinnated in a less degree, the pinn# „ 
the fertile fronds generally narrower and often more divided, vtf** 
veins not very distinct but more so in the fertile than in the steril 
areoles copious, with many free included veinlets ; sori rather larg" ' 
almost always at the apex of the free veinlets, very rarely on the nette* ' 
veins; indusium peltate and reniform on the same frond. Jl'a^ 
Cat. 379. Bedd. St/p. Fertig t. 365 {not F. B. I. 170, which u* 




ASP1DIUM 



SUBTRll'lIYl.LU M. 

{Hook.) 



- 1 



Kl L.V- < »1 l'ikl I I.-!I 1 \DIA AM) C\.\ } .< »N 



cicutarium.) Aspidium Zollingerianum, Bcdd. F. B. I. /. 251, fcrtf 
frond only. Nephrodium (Sagcnia) variolosum, Hook. Sp. FiL 29« 
and Zollingerianum (I.e.) asfar at least as the Birmcse plant. 

East Bengal Plains, abundant from Assam to Chittagong" 
Tenasserim near Moulmein ; Penang. 

7. AsrmiuM polymorphum. (Wall.) Rhizome suberec - ^ 
stipes tufted, yellowish or brown, paleaceous only at the base ; from 
large, 1-4 fect long, by 1 foot or more broad, pinnate; pinnae 3-6 
each side, oblong or elliptic, acuminate, unequal at the base, sonu 
times contracted when fertile, quite entire to crenate or coarsel 
toothed, stalked or subsessile, the terminal one often more or \( 
lobed or subpinnatifid, the lowest pair generally (not always) bifur~— 
cate ; texture herbaeeous to subcoriaeeous ; main veins prominer»-t 
and distinet to the margin, with many free included simple or forke 
vcinlets ; sori on the netted veins, small and scattered in the m 
contracted fronds, large and more or less in two rows between türm, e 
main veins in the contracted ones ; indusium reniform or oft^^ n 
quite absent. Wall. Cat. 382. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 297. Bt£^ 
F. S. I. tabs. 116, 117. Sagenia siifolia, Baker, Syn. FiL p. 2^ ^h 
as far as the Courtallum plant. Neph. Wightii, Clarke, F. N. I> 
538, the contracted form. 

Western forests of Madras Presidency, very common up to \f> ^°° 
feet. (I do not consider the contracted form even a constant variet^r-) 
Northern India from Gurwhal to Mishmec and Chittagong ; Ceyl^ Ä » 
Birma. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, the Philippines and Fernando 1 >C> ' 

8. Aspidium Simonsii. (Baker.) Very like polymorph*-* 11 ! 1 » 
but with the stipes and rachis polished blackish-purple, lowest p*^ 
of pinnaj pinnate below, deeply lobed upwards, others more or 1^7 
bifurcate below and rather deeply lobed throughout, venation a* ^ 
polymorphum ; sori rather large (in my speeimens), in two ser^- 
between the main veins, or irregularly scattered sub-4-serial betwe - ^^ 
the main veins. Hook. Syn. FiL 504. Bedd. Sup. Ferns. t. 367. 

Seetakand Hill, Chittagong ; Sikkim, and Bhotan. Mr. Clark^ « 
roakes it a variety of polymorphum, and he may be right, but unt - ^ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



219 



r e specimens are gathered, I constder it safer not to lump it 
■* tfcat Mr. Clarke says he does not sec how it diifers from 
'y*norphum, var. macrocarpum, but he has made a new 
^ies of that Both Baker and Clarke make two sections of 
Kenia, one with " sori in more than two 'rows between the principal 
l **s, often inegularly scattered," the other with "sori in two rows 
**een the principal veins," both forms occur in this species and in 
■lymorphum, and more or less in semibipinnatum and other species, 
fc Jie defmition is only misleading. 

9. Aspidium heterocarpum. (Bedd.) Rhizome creeping 

^«ly; stipes solitary, erect, with 

*ceolate-linear brown persistent 

•■les at the base ; pinnate, very 

*th as in polymoTphum, but 

*"«r pinna; not bifurcate; pinna: 

8 inches long, narrow-lanceo- 

-, entire, caudate at the apex, 

•sessile or very shortly stalked, 

imiparous in the axils ; main 

isdistant to nearly the margin, 

les copious with free included 

ets; sori very small on 

etted veins, much scattered; 

; .um reniform or horseshoe- 

1, or sometimes curved or 

as in Athynum and Asple- 

Sagenia heterocarpa, 

? . B. I. t. 47. . Sagenia 

ra (Baker), Hook. Syn. Fü. 504. Clarke, l. c. 537. 

im and Chittagong, in wet flats near rivers, forming large 

out 6 feet high. 

Vspidium decurrens. {Pres!.) Rhizome creeping ; stipes 
ariy or quite to the base, furnished with numerous linear- 
>rown persistent scales; fronds often 3 feet long, dimor- 




\Bedi.\ 



220 Flkns üf British Ixdia axd Ceylon. 



phous, the fertile much contracted, pinnatifid down to a broadly 
wingcd rachis into 3-4 pair of pinnae or lobes on each side, 6-12 
inches long, 1-2 J inches broad, lowest pair often bifurcate, maigiDS 
quite entire in the sterile, more or less crenated in the fertile, sub- 
coriaceous, glabrous on both sides; main veins distinct nearlyto 
the margin, with cross veins forming series of large areoles in which 
are included netted veinlets and simple or forked free veinlets; son 
large, generally in two pretty regulär series between £he main veinlets, 
nearly always at the apex of the free veinlets, often continued all 
down the wing of the stipes ; indusium generally more or less rem- 
form, sometimes elongated and irregulär. Presl. Rd. Jfand, 28. 
Hook. Syn. Fi/. 299. Sagenia pteropus, Bedd. F. S. L t 82. 

Eastern Bengal at the foot of the hüls, Assam, Cachar, Chitta- 
gong; South India in the Bolampatty Hills between Coimbatoreand 
Palghat, 2,000 feet elevation ; Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills, 
2,000-2,500 feet ; Ceylon; Malay Peninsula. In habit veryu* c 
vastum, but fertile fronds contracted, and sori differently situateA 

(Also in the Malay Islands, South China, Polynesia.) 

Var ß minor. (Bedd.) Fronds very small (1 foot longonly)» 
sterile 3-5 partite rather thin pinnatifid, fertile deeply pinnatifi4 
very much contracted, the lobes or pinnae being very narrow- 
Sagenia pteropus-minor, Bcdd. F. S. J. t. 245. 

Ceylon only, in the Doombera district at no great elevation. 

II. ASPIDIUM CICUTARIUM. (S7C.) StipCS tufted, I foot 0l 

more long, with many scales cJose to the base ; fronds very variaW e 
in size, from 8 inches up to several feet, deltoid in outline, ape* 
pinnatifid, below which are 1-4 pair of pinnae, which are either only 
lobed or completely pinnated with the secondary pinnae deeply P in " 
natifid, or even again pinnated (i.e. tripinnate), with the tertiary 
pinnae deeply pinnatifid (quadripinnatifid), the lowest pair of pinntf 
are always deeply pinnatifid or pinnate on the lower margin, but the 
other pairs are generally much less so and often only lobed ^-\ down, 
texture thin, surfaces glabrous in some vaiieties, but in others hairy 
on the upper surface and puberulous on the costas and costules 




ASP1DIUM DtCURRBKS, VAR t MINO». (BuU,\ 



222 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



beneath ; principal vcins tolerably conspicuous to the margin, othen 
copiously netted with often free included veinlets (there are nc 
prominent cross veins forming large well-defined areoles as in some oi 
the species, and the free veinlets are often fewonly) ; sorirather large, 
in two rows between the main veins, on the netted veins (compital) 
or at the apex of the free veinlets ; indusium reniform or peltate. 
Swartz. Mett. Farngatt Pheg. and Asp. 117. Hook. Syn. FiL 299. 
Sagenia coadunata (Wall.), Bedd. F. S. I. t. 81. and t. 170 (variolosa). 

Throughout the Indian region, from the plains up to 5,000 feeU 
In South India (both Eastern and Western sides), the more hairjs 
variety known as coadunata only is found, but in Northern Indic 
the glabrous variety is also common. 

(Also in the tropics throughout the globe.) 

12. Aspidium multicaudatum. (Wall.) Stipes 1-3 fete* 
^ften densely clothed nearly its whole length with linear-subula^ 
brown persistent scales ; fronds 3-4 feet long, with a large termia ^ 
pinna deeply pinnatifid, lobes lanceolate acuminate, and severe 
pinnse on each side, the lowest deltoid 1 foot or more long arm* 
nearly as broad, deeply pinnatifid above and pinnate below ; textu ^ 
firm herbaeeous, rachises beneath rusty; main veins distinet ** 
the margin, areoles with free included veinlets ; sori rather large ^ 
two rows between the principal veins, or more numerous and sca^ 
tered, gencrally at the apex of free veinlets, rarely on the nette- 
" veins (compital). Wall, in Herb. Nephrodium Griffithii (Baker^, 
Hook. Syn. FiL 300. Sagenia Griffithii, Bcdd. F. B. L t. 337. 

Khasya Hills, South side up to 1,000 feet elevation. Birma 
Aspidium? /. 118, F. S. f., is probably this species, or at leasl 
closely allied, it has twice been gathered in the Anamallay forests, 
but young fronds without fruetification. 

In the Synopsis Filicum Sagenia is kept up as a section of Ne- 
phrodium for all species supposed to have a reniform indusium, and 
Euaspidiumas a section of Aspidium for those with an orbiculai 
indusium, the result of this has been that allied species like repan- 
dum and polymorphum (probably one and the same plant) and 
membranaceum and (Trimeni) giganteum (closely allied if nol 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 223 



varieties one of the other), are placed far apart ; it is a fact, however, 
that niost of the species have both orbicular and reniform involucres, 
sometimes on the same individual, the involucres often varying much 
more than this, being athyrioid and asplenioid. Mr. Clarke has 
placed both Aspidium and Sagenia in Nephrodiuro, a genus widely 
different in habit. 

GENUS LH.— PLEOCNEMIA. (Pres/.) 

(P/eos, füll ; knemiciy rays ; in allusion to the venation.) 

Only differs from Aspidium in its less Compound venation, only 

the lower veins anastomose arcuately forming one series of areoles 

near the costa (as in Campteria), without any free veinlets within 

tnem, the other veins generally all free, or some angularly anastomos- 

in 8; sori generally at the apex of the free veinlets outside the areoles, 

out sometimes some are on the netted veins, (/'.*., compital). 

i. Pleocnemia Thwaitesii. (Bedd.) Stipes tufted 1-1$ feet 

* on S» shining blackish-purple as is the rachis and main cosia, basal 

sca les linear dark-brown ; fronds dehoid, 1J-2 feet each way, tripin- 

na *ifid; lowest pinnae largest deltoid stalked,with several large lanceo- 

üte deeply pinnatifid pinnules ; texture xather thick and opaque, the 

ei **s not conspicuous, glabrous beneath, and also above except the 

° s *a and veins which are scurfy or puberulous, lower veinlets forming 

°**gate costal arches, no free included veinlets, the rest free with 

^ v ate apices, none reaching the margin ; sori rather large in a single 

**^s on each side of the midrib of the segments, all at the apex of free 

, ***lets; indusium reniform, with the lobes of the sinus broad and over- 

. £*t*ing, so that it looks orbicular. Sagenia Thwaitesii, Bedd F. S. L 

% ^^4. Nephrodium (Sagenia) simulans (Baker), Hook. Syn. FiL 300. 

Ceylon, southern provinces near Galle, abundant on the Hay- 

^^k Mountain. (C. P. 3331. Thw. En.p. 390.) 

2. Pleocnemia Trimeni. (Bedd.) Stipes tufted, i-i£ feet, 

* ^V, basal scales linear ; fronds 1 £-3 feet long, deltoid or deltoid 

**Ceolate, pinnatifid at the apex, below pinnate with about 5-6 

^i^- of lateral pinnae, which are more or less stalkcd, and all pinnatifid 



224 Ferns of British India and Ckylon. 



more than half-way to the rachis, about 8-9 inches long by 2 b 

and a much larger basal pair which are dettoid, sgain pinnated 

the lower basal pinnules deeply pinnatifid, ultiraate lobes bin 

slightly crenated or neariy j 

entire ; texture rather thin ; Jg ^. f*\ 

surfaces glabrous on both egZp '"eÖÄ A.'t*' 

sides; costas and veins rusty ' / 

above, less so or neariy ^%-Vvi§&J& 

glabrous beneath ; lower veins '"'.T' -^j^^^äf 

formingelongated costal arches " .._* ~^ J &*^JtärqrE^ *td& 

near the rachis of the pinnic, 

with generally a second series 

of areoles formed by the veins 

again anastomosing angularly, 

veins of the segments only 

anastomosing near the midiib 

and forming one series of 

arches, the rest free, no free 

vcinlets in the areoles ; sori in 

a Single row on cach side of 

the midrib, thosc towards the 

margin and apex of the 

segments apical on the free veinlets, thosc lower down and near 

costa of the pinnules generally on connected veins (i.e., compit; 

dusium reniform. Sagenia gigantea, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 80 {1 

df Script ion.) Pleocneniia gigantea (Baker), Hook. Syn. Fii 

Edit.p. 503, not Blume. 

The Kew packet oi gigantenm from which Sir W. Hooke: 
his description {Sp. Fil. iv. /. 50,) contains several difTerent sp 
the Java speeimen being a single pinna of Aspidium gigantt 
species distinet from this ; the liirma and Assam speeimens 
multicaudatum {Wallich) ; and the Ceylon speeimens bein 
plant, Pleocnemia membranacca, and P. Thwaitesn. This not 
Blume's giganteum I have had to rename it. 

Ceylon, central provinces, (C.P. 1357); South India, Anam 
Palghat side, in the forests near the Nelliampady coffee estatc; 




(BcJa 



Fi:u.\s of British Ixma and Ci:yi.«.>\. 2: 



*- - 3 



3. Pleocnemia membranacea. (Hook, under Aspidium.) 
Stipes tufted up to 9 inches long, straw-coloured, basal scales linear ; 
fronds up to about 18 inches long, deltoid, bi-tripinnate, pinnatifid 
at the apex, the lowest pair of pinnae much the largest, long stalked, 
w ith the lowest secondary pinnae stalked and again quite pinnate at 
the base, the pinnules being stalked and deeply pinnatifid, ultimate 
se grticnts crenulate, upper pinnae gradually less Compound ; texture 
thin, membranaceous, upper surface somewhat hairy towards the 
mar gins; costas and veins rusty or puberulous, under surface 
shghtly puberulous ; lower veins forming long costal arches, the 
res * free ; sori at the apex of free veins ; indusium both orbicular 
and reniform. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 259. Sagenia gigantea, var. 
minor, Bedd. F. S. L t. 243, a small frond less Compound than 
feseribed abovc. Thw. En. FL 2>y.p. 390. (C. F. 1358.) 

Ceylon ; in the Doombera district at no great elevation. Mr. 
^/^aites had doubts whether this was a variety of the last, or a 
distinct species ; the venation is quite that of the last species, but rather 
less Compound, owing to the fronds being more cut and narrower ; 
!t l s quite that of Pleocnemia, and I find some of the involucres 
rer üf 0rm . Jt ig f thinner texture, much more cut and less glabrous 
^ ar * the last, and, I think, may safely be considered a distinct 
sPecies. 

(Also in Java, Philippines, China, and Formosa.) 

4. Pleocnemia membranifolia. {Fresl.) Stipes tufted, fur- 
nis hed with black linear subulate scales more copious towards the 

^e* up to about 1 foot long ; fronds sei dorn more than 1 foot long, 

fro *n deltoid to ovate, pinnate with a pinnatifid apex, lateral pinnae 

k* pairs opposite or subopposite, 2-4 inches long, J-i} broad, 

^ore or less deeply pinnatifid, the segments rounded nearly entire, 

*°^est pair of pinnae much larger, deltoid, pinnatifid or almost 

pinnate, the lower basal segments being elongated and pinnatifid; 

nfcin rachis and both surfaces more or less softly hairy, with multi- 

celullar hairs ; texture softly herbaceous ; fertile fronds uniform 

with the sterile, or more or less contracted, often very much so, 

lower veins in the sterile and broad fertile fronds anastomosing and 

16 




PLEOCNEMIA ME.MBl 



£*W> 5"°°*«« c, 

pu l>e», So Ms and „ .."*»*». f 

vi,, 4««, , « « a, ta * 

^•Wiiin, L ped ' laiy .„!? """W 






22$ 



Fekns of British India and Cetlox. 





6. Pleocsemia Lpxzeana. {Hook.) Caodex 
densely scaly at the crown, siipes 2-3 feet long, stout, striated, 
hirsute without scales ; fronds up to 6 feet long» subdehoid, 
pinnate ; pinnae 1— 1 i foot long, 6-8 inches broad, simple, or 
lowcst with 2-3 large (12-14 inches long) secondary pinnx 
the lower side, which are again pinnate with the pinnnlcs 
2-4 inches long, and deeply pinnatifid, ultimate segments 
rounded, cntire or denticulate, usually with a tooth in the sinus 
their base ; lower veins anastomosing in costal arches near the 
of the pinnules and along the midrib of the Segments, other 

free and excurrent» or all the Teins 
the segment are free ; sori copious, 
in Single rows on each side ofthemidrS.h, 
mixed with yellow glandulär hairs ; fi^xi- 
dusium reniform, early fugacious. ifi^^fc- 
Syn. Fi/. 295. Bedd. F. B. I. t 134 — 

North and East Bengal, base of "***« 

hüls up to 2,000 feet elevation, Sikk-i« 1 * 
Assam, Cachar, Khasya, Chittag^^ß '• 
Birma, and Malay Peninsula. 

pmoc nkmia lkuzeana. ( Also in Mala y Islands, China, ~*^ lv 

(I/ook.) nesia, and North Australia.) 




GENUS Uli.— LASTREA. (PresL) 
(After Chev. de I,astre, a French nobleraan.) 

Sori subglobose, dorsal or terminal on the veins ; indusium r ^ 
form, attached by the sinus, or in the first four species someti** 1 
orbirular ; veins all free ; fronds pinnate or compoundly & 
])innate. 

* Indusium reniform or orbicu!ar y texture more or Uss coriaeeous. 

1. Lastkea amadilis. (/?/. under Aspidium.) Rhizotf^ 



Fkkns ui' British India a\i> Ci-vlux. 



--\) 



creeping ; stipes scattered, 6-12 inches long, slender, slightly scaly 
below ; fronds about 1 foot long, by 6-9 inches broad, with a pinnate 
apex and 2-6 lateral pinnse on each side, which are i-i£ inch 
broad, all simply pinnated or the lowest sometimes slightly Compound 
at the base, pinnules subrhomboidal with the lower side much cut 
away $-1 inch long, cut down about a third or half-way to the costa into 
rounded lobes which terminate with a long bristle, sometimes being 
more or less serrated ; texture subcoriaceous ; rachis and both 
surfaces naked ; veins pinnate in the lobes ; sori submarginal ; 
indusium reniform or orbicular. Bedd. F. S. 1. /. 109. Aspidium 
amabile, Bl. En. Pl.Jav. Fi/, p. 165. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 254. Aspid. 
rhomboideum, Wall. Cat. 364. 

I keep this species in Lastrea as I have always found the 
in volucres reniform; they appear, however, to be sometimes orbicular, 
so that the species has equal right to be a Polystichum. 

South India, on the Anamallays, Lower Pulneys, Travancore, 
and Tinnevelly Hills, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation; Ceylon, central 
provinces ; North India, Nepal, Jaintea, about 4,000 feet, rare. 

(Also in the Philippines and South China.) 

2. Lastrea aristata. (Sw. under Aspidium.) Rhizomelong, 

creeping, very scaly ; stipes scattered, about 1 foot long, more or 

^s fibrillose, as are the miin and partial rachises; fronds about 

l2 ~^*S inches long, deltoid in outline, pinnate at the apex, below 

w *ych are 5-6 hteral pinnse on each side, which, except the lower 

P air > are generally simply pinnate or with a tendency to be bipinnate 

their upper basal pinnules, lower pair bipinnate towards the base, 

e lower basal pinnules being much the largest and quite pinnated, 

P^nules subrhomboidal with the lower base cut away, more or less 

°t>ed, the upper basal loba being the deepest, lobes copiously 

°°thed, teeth aristate ; texture more or less coriaceous ; veins 

P lt U\ate in the lobes, the veinlets being simple or forked ; sori apical 

01 * the veinlets and well within the margin ; indusium reniform or 

^cular. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 10 1 Aspidium aristatum, Äe/. Syn. 

Fil 53. 



i 



230 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



South India, very general in the Western forests of the Ma< 
Presidency; Ceylon; Birma. 

I have always found the involucre strictly reniform, and Ho( 
has described it both under Polystichum and Lastrea (in the la 
as Lastrea platypus) ; it is a much less divided fem than coniif< 
besides having an utterly different caudex ; Mr. Clarke, who ur 
it with coniifolia, states, that he has never been able to see thi 
creeping caudex accompanies a less divided form, but Mr. Clar 
specimens are all typical coniifolia, and there is no aristata firom 
Himalayas in the Kew Herbarium, and only one poor specimen £ 
Khasya, labelled Lastrea platypus. 

(Also in Japan, Formosa, South China, Java, Luzon, 
Norfolk Island.) 

3. Lastrea affinis. ( Wall.) Very similar to aristata 
amabilis, but the lower pinnge less Compound than in aristata 
often quite similar to the upper ones ; tcxture much more coriacc 
and sori very large. Wall. Cat. 370. Lastrea aristata, var. Ha 
tonii, Bedd. Fern. Sup. pl. 369. Hook. Syn. FiL 256. 
pidium speciosum (Don.), Aspidium aristatum, var. affinis, and 
assamica, Clarke, l. c. 511. 

I formerly considered this species a variety of aristata, 1 1 
never seen it growing, but Mr. Clarke teils that the rhizome is € 
and not creeping, so I cannot consider it a variety of either ans 
or amabilis. 

Sikkim, Nepal, Assam, Jaintea. 

• 

4. Lastrea coniifolia. ( Wall.) Rhizome erect ; st 
tufted ; fronds very large, ovate, 2-3 feet long, 4-5 pinnate, ultin 
pinnules and segments small, coriaceous shining, aristate ; sori 1 
or small ; indusium reniform or orbicular. Bedd. F. B. I. 261. 
pidium, Wall. Cat. 341. 

I have always found the involucrcs reniform in their yc 
stage, I have had both this and aristata in cultivation on the Nil 
for many years, and they show no tendency to run one into 
other. 



232 Fkkns of British Ixdia and Ceylos. 

Himalayas, Kumaon to Bhotan, 4,000-10,000 feet, Khi* 5 ^ 
3,000-6,000 feet ; South India on the Western mountains ; Cey' 011 ' 
Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Natal, Samoa, and Australia.) 



* * Indusium always reni/orm. 
\ Pinna tubtntirt or only slightly lobed (exctpt tn formt 1 
of Walkera.) 



0«* 



-3 



5. Lastrea cuspidata. {Mctt.undtr Aspidium.) Stipesabc^ 
1 foot long, reddish as is the rachis, scaly towards the base; rrondsi-" 

feet long, pinnae numerous, line^* - * 

lanceolate from a broad base, rf ^"— 

6 inches long, i-f inch broa-^*^' 

cuspidate at the baie, very sha— - 

lowly lobed {not \ to the rachisss- - * 

__ the lobes sharply serrated ; textu^^*^ 

scarcely coriaceous ; rachis ai^^** 

' both surfaces nalced ; veins pi*~ 

nate with 3-4 veinlcts on eae^^" 

side ; sori towards the bass **" 

the vein'cts ; indusium renifbro*^"" 

I fugacious. Mttt. Farngatt. Phtfs^- ' 

I and Asp. 91. Polypodiuro elo* _^ . 

t gitura, Wall. Cat. 309. Bed&-f'* 

f F, S. 1. t. 118. Nephrodiur* ' 

cuspidatum, Hook. Syn. Fit. p ^ ~" 




[vi 



260. 



;.!/,/.'.) 



Khasya Hills, 3,000-4,00 "* 
fret eievation, near Shillong. 
6. Lastrea hirtifes (Bl. under Asfiidium.) Caudex erect * 
siipes tuficd up to about 1 foot long, densely clothed, as is th & 
rachis, with long blackish hair-like scales ; fronds up to 3 feet long- 
pinnss numerous, linear lanceolate from a broad base, 4-8 inches long, 
by nearly r inch broad, with broad shallcw lobes reaching \ to \ 
towards the rachis, lower oues not raduce 1 ; texture herbaeeous ; 



s uiTaces mked; veins pinnate ; veinlets 4-5 on a side; sori low 
d °wn on the veinlets, indusium reniform. Bl. En. Pl.Jav. Fil 148. 
Be^ti. F. S. 1. 1. 96. Asp. atratum, Wall. Cat. 380. 

Himalajas, 5,000-9,000 fect, from Nepal to Bhotan, Khasya 
4.000-6,000 feet ; South India, Nilgiris, &c. ; Ceylon ; Birraa. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and Polynesia.) 

7. I.astrea Walker*. {Hook undtr Folypodium) Stipes 
T* to ijfoot long, clothed with linear scales; fronds up to 3 feet long, 
oolorig-lanceolate, pinnate ; p innre linear- lanceolate, short-stalked, 
ac «minate, slightly crenate 
a ° n g the margins, lower ones 
«-»out 6 inches lonj, by about 
1 Mich broad, lower base c»t 
1Wi y, Upper base Square ; tex- 
tLIr "e subcoriaceous, glabrous ; 
fei °s in pinnate groups; sori 
2 ~~3 seriaL between the midrib 
^ the margin, dorsal on the 
' eir »lets ; indusium reniform, 
I^T" fugacious. Polypodium 
"^ a Ucene, Hook. Syn. Fil. ist 
£. 305. Lastrea, nid 
-»93- Bedet. F. S. I. t. 

Ceyloi. 

Vau. fi MACROCAR PA. 
totids very large, the piina: 
s %My Ubed, often fur- 
*to»ed with 



flrfl 




*35- 



large auricle at. the supcrior base. Bedd. F. S. I. 



Ceylon. 

Var. y pinnatifida. Pinnsc pinnadnd nearly to the rachis, 
ring only a broad wing along the rachis, lower ones sometimes 
irale. Bedd 2. f. /. 235. 



234 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

Var. 8 bipinnata. Pinnae sub-bipinnate. Bedd. I. c. t «35* 
Ceylon. 

1 1 Pinna cut rnore than half-way to the rachis, Compound in #** 

forms of Filix Mas. 
A. Veins generally simple. 

8. Lastrea gracilescens. (Bi.) Stipes tufted, long,slender; 
fronds oblong-lanceolate, pinnate, lower pinnae scarcely reduced, oftö 1 
deflexed, rachises pilose above, pinnae cut down nearly to the rachis, 
segments narrow-oblong, obtuse, not much narrowed upwards, veins 
about six on each side of the costule, the two lowest terminating 
above the sinus, all generally simple, rarely forked, sori medial oö 
the veins, indusium glabrous or minutely pilose. Aspidium graci- 
lescens, BL En. PL Jav. Fil. 155. Hook. Syn. Fil. 262. B*M- 
F. B. I. t. 253. Clarke, F. N. I. 513 in part. 

Mr. Clarke includes here L. flaccida (Hooker), which is certainty 
a mistake ; he also includes the Assam forms of L. immersa (Btw* 
F. B. I. 252) united with the Malay Peninsula plant by Hooker; 
in this he may be correct, as this plant appears distinct from the 
Malay one, it is however, much larger than any of Mr. Clarke s 
specimens of gracilescens, and has more veins to the segments. 

Nepal, Sikkim, 6,000-8,000 feet elevation, Khasya, 4,000 feet ) 
South India, Mudumally forests, a small form. 

(Also in China, Japan and Java.) 

Mr. Clarke*s variety decipiens(Darjeeling, 7,000 feet, and Khasy*» 
Dingling, 5,000 feet) has the fronds shorter and more deltoid, and 
the veins often branched with the sorus subterminal on the upp^ 
branch ; it is probably a distinct species. His variety hirsutipes onty 
differs in having the stipes hirsute and in being of rather thicker 
texture (Khasya and Jaintea, 4,000-5,000 feet); his variety didy- 
mochloenoides has longer narrower pinnae with very large sori, but 
runs into the type. 

9. Lastrea immersa. (Bl.) Caudex creeping, stipes elongated 
3-4 feet long, fronds rather coriaceous in texture, pinnate, ovate 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 235 

ang, or oblong in outline, pinnae 6-10 inches long, sessile, about 
ich broad, cut down close to the rachis, glabrous above on the 
tnents, or with occasionally a few distant inconspicuous hairs on 

viens, the rachis strigose, frosted beneath on the veins and 
his with minute yellow glandulär dots; segments linear, rather 
:ant; veins simple (or the lowest one very rarely forked), 12-14 
^ven more on each side of the costa ; sori medial, one to each 
n, much immersed, the depression plainest on the upper side, 
usium large, persistent, reniform, but appearing orbicular from the 
alapping at the sinus. Aspidium immersum, BL En. FiL 156. 
phrodium immersum, Hook. Sp. FiL 112. Syn. FiL 263. 

Malacca and the Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Philippines and New Caledonia.) 

Mr. Clarke considers that the Assam plant (Bedd. F. B. I. t. 
) should be referred to gracilescens, it is of a different texture, less 
down, and with much fewer veins. 

10. Lastrea calcarata. (BL) Caudex erect, stout, stipes 
: ed, fronds lanceolate pinnate, sometimes with auricles below, up 
*bout 2 feet long, pinnae spreading 1-4 inches long by i inch to 
lr ly 1 inch broad, cut down two-thirds or more towards the rachis 
oblique falcate linear oblong segments, the upper basal one 
ftetimes considerably longer than the others, rachis villous, under 
r fece more or less villous, upper surface villous, or glabrous 
^pt the secondary rachis, veinlets 3-8 on a side, simple, sori 
^ial, involucre glabrous or villous. Asp. calcaratum, BL En. 
tf- Jav. p. 159. Lastrea calcarata, Hook. Sp. FiL iv. 93, and 
biloba,/. 108. 

Var. ciliata, type (Wall. Cat. 351), texture herbaceous, lowest 
tonules deflexed, no auricles on the stem ; stipes rounded, pinnae 
tout 4 inches long, caudate at the apex, nearly 1 inch broad ; 
dusium hairy or glabrous. Lastrea falciloba, Bedd. F. S. I. 105. 
»p. ciliatum, Wall. Cat. 351, and Asp. canum, Wall. Cat. 387. 
iphr. ciliatum, Clarke, F. N. I. 515, except syn. L. Bergiana 
tdd\ which is L. cana (Baker). 



Fkrns of Hritlsii India and Ckyi.on 



- .^/ 



South India, very common in all the Western forests ; and in 

Ceylon (exactly corresponding with Wallich's two type sheets). 

Specimens sent from both these localities were partly referred 

by Hooker to his calcarata and partly to falciloba, but he doubtcd 

thether the two species were really distinct. Also in Khasya, the 

Himalayas ; Birma. 

Asp. calcaratum, var. ß. T/iw. En. 391, L. calcarata, Bedd. 
fiS. L 1 246, is an abnormal form, with small narrow pinnas tajxjr- 
ing at both ends and less pinnatifid, except sometimes quite at the 
base, where the Segments are almost free and distant ; but, as Thwaites 
say?, it passes into the type. A form from Birma also has very narrow 
pinnae and is densely hairy. 

Var. /3 sericea. (y. Scott, MS.) Pinnae short oblong, 1-2 inches 
^8 by \-\ inch broad, quite obtuse at the apex, or ending in a 
'bort sudden point (never caudate), involucre glabrous, otherwise as 
in the type. 1^ sericea, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 308. This is, perhaps, 
*carcely distinct as a variety from the type, but its geographical limits 
are curious, in North India it has only been found in Chittagong, 
devation 200 feet, and in South India only on the Jeypore Hills 
wcst of Vizagapatam, elevation 2,000 feet. I have had it for several 
y^nin cultivation and it quite kept its character. 

Var. y falciloba. (ßlarke.) Stipes angled and furnished 
with auncles below the frond ; pinnae more numerous and narrower, 
4 inches long by \ inch broad ; texture subcoriaceous (more like 
w&thodes) ; indusium glabrous. Lastrea falciloba, Hook. Sß. Fil. iv. 
A ^ in part only. Aspidium hirsutulum, Wall. Cat. 7083, type 
*** example b, has no aurides on the stipe, and appears to me to 
belong to the type (ciliata), it only consists of a single small frond, 
®& might belong to either, but I fear falci'oba and ciliata are not 
^11 defined as varieties, but run one into the oiher. Clarke, 
AM f. 515, excl. t. 105, Bedd. FS./. 

Khasya and Sikkim mountains 11p to 3,000 feet and river banks 
in the plains. 

(Clarke's variety pubera does not belong here, Wall. Cat. 
338, being Nephrodium arbuscula (typical), and from the Sirumal- 
lays near Dindigal, not from Nepal. 



238 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



1 t. Lastrea viscosa. (J. Sm.) Stipes 6 inches or more long, 
firm, erect, reddish-brown, slightly scaly, finely villous; fronds 9"" 1 . 2 
inches long, 4-5 inches broad, oblong-lanceolate, pinnae dose H 
inches long, the lower ones somewhat reduced and deflexed, °* 
nearly to the rachis into close spreading linear-oblong lob^ 
under 1 line broad, textures herbaceous, colour dark green ; rac^ 
villous, under surface densely glandulär, veinlets 5-6 on a side, && 
medial. Hook, Syn. Fil. p. 264. Bedd. F. B. I. t 334. 

Malay Peninsula, at Malacca. 

(Also in the Philippines and Borneo.) 

12. Lastrea crassifolia. (BL) Stipes tufted ii footlo^fr 
channelled above slightly hirsute; fronds deltoid ovate, firm l* er 
baceous, pinnate, pinnae pinnatifid, rachis, costa and costules bene^w 
hirsute, the rest glabrous, pinnae petiolate (petioles \ inch long) ° 
subsessile, lower ones not reduced in size, pinnatifid nearly two-thi*** 
down to the rachis, Segments obtuse subfalcate subentire, basal o^ e 
reduced in size, costa deeply channelled above, veinlets simple, *■* 
lower pair free (as in Lastrea) or joining just before entering the sin 11 
of the segments (as in Nephrodium) remaining ones simple (or rar^' 
forked) sori one on, or a little below the centre of each v^ 11 
involucre reniform glabrous. Aspidium, BL Eti. FiLJav. 158. üfi^ 
Syn. Fil. 266. Lastrea nephrodioides, Bedd. F. B. I. /. 199. 

Birma and the Malay Peninsula. I also have a specinr* € 
collected in Sikkim, 3,000 feet elevation, by the late Mr. Atkins*^ 1 
which I refer here, as it exactly corresponds in venation ; the pinn* 
however, are subsessile, and the upper basal segment (or pinnU^ 
somewhat enlarged. 

(Also in the Philippines and Java.) 

13. Lastrea cana. {Baker.) Stipes densely tufted, 6-10 inches 
long, finely villous and often furnished with pellucid scales, chie/fy 
towards the base ; fronds 8-12 inches long, elongate lanceolate, not 
narrowed at the base, or suddenly or gradually narrowed into 
auricles on the stipe, pinnate with numerous pinnae, central ones two 
inches long by £ inch broad, cut down nearly to the rachis into close 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



239 



renated lobes, texture herbaceous, rachis slender, villous, and both 
•ides slightly so, veinlets 6-8 on a side, simple (very rarely forked) ; 
sori small medial on the veins, indusium reniform, glabrous or pilose. 
Balier, Hook. Syn. Fil. 267, not Wallich, Bcdd. F. B. I. t. 307. 
L. Bergiana, Bedd. F B. I. SuppL t. 370. Aspid. appendiculatum, 

Wall. Cat. 349, type sheet only. Aspid. eberneum, Wall. Cat. 

389, type sheet only. 

Himalayas near Simla, Sikkim, Yakla 8,000 feet elevation. 

Mr. Clarke thinks this may be only a variety of ochthodes, but it has 

no glands at the base of the pinnae, the 

texture also is different, and it is more 

hairy. 

14. Lastrea Beddomei. (Baker). 
Rh'zome slender, wide creeping ; stipes 
H) inches long, slender, glossy ; fronds 
pmnate up to about 1 foot long, lanceo- 
kte elliptic, central pinnae the largest, 
about i\ inches long, f inch broad, 

°& down almost to the rachis into close 

fcther acute entire Segments under 1 line 

tooad, lower pinnae distant and dwin- 

"" n g down very gradually, texture 

^er firm, veins beneath furnished 

s P a nngly whh longish white needle-like 

• "****i veinlets 4-5 on each side, simple 
*** ßear the margin. Baker, Hook. 
^ FiL p. 267. L. gracilescens, Bedd. 
*• S'f.t. 1 10. 

South India on the Travancore and Tinnevelly Mountains in 
swampy ground. Ceylon, common in swampy places about Newera 
%a. A pretty delicate species much cultivated at Ootacamund. 

15. Lastrea Elwesii. (Baker.) Stipe not seen, main rachis 
minutely pubescent; fronds oblong-lanceolate, narrowed from the 
midrib at both ends, 16 inches long, by 4^ inches broad, glabrous, 
pinnate ; pinnae patent, subobtuse, cut down only one-half to^^xd% 




N?I22. 

LASTREA. BEDDOMEI. 
(Baker.) 



240 Flrns ok British India and Ceylon. 



the midrib ; segments broad, short, obtuse, lower pinnae mtH& &r ^ 
flexed and gradually shorter ; texture moderately firm, surfacesnakrt 
bright green ; veinlets distant, simple, about 4 od each side; ^ 
small marginal ; indusium small fugacious. Hook. Syn. FiL 491' 
Bedd. Fern. Sttp. t. 376. 

Sikkim (Elwes, only once collected, and a sin&le frond with^® 
stipe.) 

16. Lastrka ochthodes. (Kze.) Caudex erect, stipestuft^ 1 
1-2 feet long, firm, naked or nearly so ; fronds 2-4 feet long, 8~~* 2 
inches broad ; pinnae |-i inch broad, cut down nearly to the rac* 115 
into entire or bluntish, often falcate segments i-i£ lines broad, * %t 
a prominent gland at the base beneath, the lower ones gradu**™ 
reduced ; texture subcoriaceous ; racrn's and underside more or ^ 
villous; veinlets prominent, simple 10-15 on a side; sori sub^^" 
ginal. Aspidium octhodes, Kze. in Linncca, xxiv. 282. ß e ^ ' 
F. S. I. t. 106. Nephrodium prolixum, Baker, Syn. Fi/. 268. 

Northern India, throughout the Himalayas and Khasya Mo 1 * 
tains ; South India and Ceylon, throughout the mountain fore r,t 
Malay Peninsula. 

Var. ß tylodes. {Kze.) More coriaceous, rachis and un*J ,, 
side glabrous, lower pinnae not gradually reduced, but sudd^^V 
abortive and reduced to tuberculated glands, sori at the base of ^ 
veins, close to the costules. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 107. 

South India mountains, rare, and probably the same localitie^ 
ochthodes ; it is, I believe, (mite entitled to rank as a spec * 
I have had both in cultivation for many years, and Mr. Thwai^*"^ 
who cultivated them in Ceylon, considered them distinct species. 

17. Lastrea Fairbankii. {Bedd.) Caudex long creeping* 
thick as a crow quill, very black, glabrous, but furnished with a & 
scales, copiously rooting, stipes 8-20 inches long stramineous, \A& C 
at the base, rachis channelled above, glabrous or slightly pubesc^ 1 * 
with weak glandulär hairs ; fronds coriaceous 6-10 inches or mof^ 
long, narrow oblong pinnated, pinnae opposite or alternate, sessile or 
nearly so, i-i£ inches long, less than \ inch broad, linear obtuse or 
acuminate at the apex, pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, the lower oncs 



FKkNS OK ])1;IT1SII JM)IA AM> ClAl<>\. J.jl 

reduced in size and often more distant, the partial rachis channelled 
and glabrous on the upper side, slightly pubescent or glabrous 
beneath, and there furnished with numerous broad-ovate or lunate 
very transparent scales, segments oblong to ovate entire much 
r ecurved at the margins; veins more or less undulate; veinlets 
simple excurrent at the margin ; sori one on the centre'of each vem- 
tet ; involucre reniform, fimbriate at the margin. Bcdd. F. B. I. 

'- 254. 

Pulney Mountains, in swamps about the south base of Peermall 
Malley, 4,000 feet elevation. It was also formerly found about the 
wke at Kodiekarnal on the same mountains, but has disappeared 
"Om that locality. In my Supplement I have reduced it to 
tfofyfteris, but now believe it to be distinct. In its reduced lower 
Pinnae it approaches Beddomci, but it is much more rigid in texture, 
and its scaly secondary rachis is quite unlike that fern. I hope it 
ma y be further collected. There is a specimen in the British 
Museum. 

B. Veins forked. 

18. Lastrea thelypteris. (Desv.) Rhizome slender, wide- 
Cre ^ping, stipes about 1 foot long, slender stramineous ; fronds 
*7 a feet long, 4-6 inches broad, lanceolate, truncate at the base ; 
P*nnae spreading, \ inch broad, cut down very nearly to the rachis into 
^Ure spreading linear oblong lobes, those of the barren frond the 

r oadest, lower pinnse equalling the others, veins forked (upper ones 

, slIll ple) texture herbaceous, rachis and both sides naked, sori small, 

°} confluent, in rows near the recurved cdge ; indusium small incon- 

s I> l cu ous# Desv, in Man. Soe. Linn. 6. 257. Bcdd. F. B. L t 44. 

**<*>*. Syn. Fi/. 271. 

South India, on the Nilgiris, swainps near Ootacamund ; 
Not th India, Kashmir, Bandipoor, City Lake, 5,600 feet elevation, 
^öawur, 6,000 feet. 

(Also in Europe, North Asia, North America, Cape Colony and 
New Zealand.) 

19. Lastrea grisea. (Baker.) Stipes firm, erect, grey, villous 
npwards ; fronds 1^-2 feet long, 8-9 inches broad, oblong-lanceolate 5 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 243 

mostly forked ; sori small, submarginal; involviere ciliated. 
f. Syn. Fil. p. 27 1. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 335 . 
South India, near Cochin, only once collected. 

20. Lastrea füscipes. {Wall.) Stipes tufted, slender 6-12 
as long, dark purplish-brown, scaly below, fronds 11-24 inches 
6-12 inches broad, oblong- lanceolate, pinnate; pinnae 3-6 
3 long, 1 inch broad, the lowest pair rather shorter than the 
s, and deflexed, and with some of its lower segments often 
;ated ; segments cut down to a broadly-winged rachis, linear- 
»g, blunt, entire or slightly crenate ; texturc herbaceous, 
s polished like the stipe; veinlets 6-8 on each side, simple 




brked, generally excurrent when sterile, but terminating well 
in the margin when fertile ; sori generally apical on a veinlet, 
'timcs well below the apex; indusium reniform fugacious. 
V. Cat. 361. Lastrea melanopus, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. no. 
t. F. B. I. t. 38. L. sagenioides, Hook. Syn. Fi!. 271. Poly- 
um obscurum, Hiok. Sp. Fil. iv. 237. Syn. Fil. 308. 
i. F. B.I. t. 230. 

Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

{Also in the Philippine Islands.) 

Tke type iheet of Aspidium fuscipes in Wallich's Herbarium, No. 
, is this plant, but the other shiets are Pleocncmia mmbranifolia. 

2i. Lastrea svrmatica. (IVi/ld. under Aspidium). Stipes 



ä hljrous, si-an-cly 


ciiriaix'oi 


i in wy 


sidys; veins all forkcd io-i 


ou eac 


. oti each side of the costule, nearei 


always medial on 


the superior veinl 






renifon 






=37. 1 


iWKuJ%£ 




bilis, Ä 






S.f.t. 


f^jjwsssb 


™ 


Mr. 


\Mt§m 


■■ ''•''' js*j 


veins ol 




seen in 




rarely th 


1 ISsöoSN? 




•:ach othi 






margin; t 


|]^^W| 




tinued be 


S'----^ 


found ai 






often app 


;] TgrfU^ö o D ''■■"■ 




held up t 


j rloJK.'S-S 1 




South 


1;^^» 




ghat, 2,00 


1 N'I35 




Travanm 


LASTREA FLACCIi" 







« 



^ uuiiis costules anu ' 

brown hairs above, and beneath w 
veins pinnate in the ultimate segi 
forked or even simple in smaller e 
or near the apex of a veinlet ; indus 
Fi/, p. 274. Bedd. FS././. 250. 

Mr. Clarke has joined this wi/h 
in my opinion^ i/s real affinity is wi/h 
resembles, and ofwhieh it may be a m< 

South India, Travancore Hills, 
Elya and the highest part of central 
6,000 feet. 

(Also in Java.) 

23. Lastrea Brunoniana. (Jf 
long, black, densely clothed with large 
fronds 12-18 inches long, 2-4 inchei 
subequal oblong-lanceolate blunt pinn 
largest i£-2 inches long, \ inch b 
rachis into sharply toothed rounded lc 
herbaceous, rachises ebeneous and m 
fibrillose scales, under surfaces nakec 
veinlets. Asd. Rnin«« : -- 




jntuloma. (.I/wir.; 



- . . ^ i'iiillUll\ 

/•: />. /. /. 227. L Fal< -niKTi. //<■<•/■ 
/. 41. 

Himalayas; Kashmir to Sikkim 
Nearly allied to Brunoniana if it be n 

25. Lastrea odontoloma. (j 
thick chestnut-coloured, with scattered 
fronds up to 10 inches long, by 6-8 ii 
truncate at the base ; pinnae often w 
secondary pinnae elliptic-oblong, pinn 
ments rounded, sharply serrate; te: 
towards the margin ; venation subfh 
Clarke^ F. N. Lp. 521. L. Filix-mas 
Fil.p. 498. Bedd. F. »SV//. /. 373, not . 
Filix-mas.") 

Himalayas, Chumba to Bhotan, 1 
I have followed Mr. Clarke in s 
but I fear I may be wrong in so doing, 
Filix-mas, var. panda seem to connect 
but if it goes into Filix-mas, Brunonian 
referred there. I find the greatest diffi 
this species and Brunoniana, the fi mhri 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



249 



"MB lanceolate, cut down nearly (scarcely ever quite) to the rachis 

close, blunt, regulär segments which are subentire, crenate, or 
ulate, lower pinnae sometimes gradually reduced, sometimes not 
11 so ; texture generally more or less coriaceous, rachis scaly or 
>rous, under surface generally naked, sometimes fibrinöse, veins 
ed, or the lower ones pinnate, sori medial, involucre large, reniform 
>rous. Polyp. Filix-mas, Z. Sp.PL 155 1. Hook. Syn. FiL 
272; Sp. FiL iv. 116. Lastrea 
ritoloma. Bcdd. F. S./.f. 11 (typical 
c-mas). Clarke, F. N: I. p. 519. 

Throughout the Indian region, but 
Mally confined to considerable ele- 
^ns on the mountains. 

(Also found throughout the world 
^emperate places) except in Australia 

America south of Peru). 



VAR. ß PARALLELOGRAMMA. (Hook. 

FiL iv. 116.) Pinnate, rarely 
bipinnate, pinnae often reduced 
stids the base, segments oblong-pa- 
•logram, generally close and com- 
^ entire, crenated or serrated. 

I include under this as sub-varieties, 
•ntissima, fibrillosa, apiciflora, nidus, 

Clarkei. Taking patentissima (com- 

* throughout the Indian region) as the 
*, they all show very slight differences, 

• these are not Consta nt ; apiciflora ', 
ch has generally been made a dis- 

"t species, is remarkable on account of the sori being confined to 
: apex of its segments ; Mr. Clarke has, however, found it frequently 
h the sori scattered, though he says it can be distinguished by being 
**arkably free from fibrillae and hairs, but I have specimens which I 
thered, near Darjeeling, with fibrillae on all the veins beneath ; 
5 fronds are generally more truncate at the base than patentissima, 




N?I29. 



LASTREA FILIX-MAS. (/,.) 

VAR. NIDUS. (Clarke.) 



I 



.. r iiiiKi' a littlc lvihuvd an 
scatuicd. l)i; t wiih a tcndency to \k 
iect. JUdd. F. B. I. Sup. t. 372.— 
tapering much at the base, almos 
smaller than the type, but quite n 
11,000 feet. Bcdd. Fern Sup. t. 
from Dalhousie with the under surfaa 
British Museum). — Fibrillosa differ 
surfaces of the pinnae copiously clothe 
layas, 9,000-12,000 feet from Kumaoi 

Var. y elongata. (Hook and G 
cate at the base, bi-tripinnate, or sor. 
from high elevations, ultimate segment 
from a broad base, rachises glabrous or 
Bedd. F. S. L 112. Var. marginal 
Canariense, A. Brown. 

South India on the Western moi 
vation; Ceylon ; Himalayas and Khas] 
Aspidium rigidum {Dero.) seems qi 
Schimperianum (Höchst?) [intermedia, 
a form at a higher elevation. 2-m' «*"•*- 



111,11 



In 



■ Cr. 



rachises glabrous, or someiimes scaly. Con. Prod. FL PCep. 6 
Sftfä. F. S. I. t. 115. Aithobotrys macrocarpa, Wall. Cat. 395. 

North India up to 4,000 feet elevation ; South India, Western 
Mountains 2,000-4,000 feet ; Malay Peninsula. A very distinct 
looking plant in its typical form at low elevalions, but running i> to 
elongata at higher elevations (vide forms of my collecting on the 
Ni'giris and Brumagherries in the British Museum). 

Vau. t panda. (Clarkr, 
■f- -A'. /./. 519, /. 68, ßg. ..) 
f fOTnJssiniplypinnatejtnincale 
at the base, na now oblong, 
piwriaj pinnatifid J-| towards 
the midrib, segments sub- 
spinnlose. 

Himalajas, Dhurmsala, 
10,000-11,000 feet elevation. 
Thia has much the aspect ot 
"^«»«Molonia, and it will pro- 
t^oly prove to be a luxuriant 
form of that plant; if a 
variety of Filix-mas, it cer- 
tainly connects odontolomn 
with it. 

t 1 1 Fronds Compound, 2-4-pin/ia/e. 

»7. Lastrea ricida. (Dar.) Stipes tufted, 6 inches long, 

denseijr clothed below with large lanceolate or ovate scales ; fronds 

fl P to 2 feet long, oblong -lanceolate, largest pinnre 3-4^ inches long, 

, ~ 1 t inch broad, the pinnules of the lower half free ovate rhomboidal, 

011 down nearly to the rachis below, teeth mucronate ; texture herba- 

«ous; rachises usually scaly, under side naked or slightly glandulär ; 

*ttn\ets subpinnate in the lower lobes of the pinnules; sori near the 

midrib; indusium firm prominent. Hook. Syn. Fi/, p. 275. Clarke, 

F.N.I.p. $33 . 

Very near L. Filix-mas elongata, and I cannot say I know any 
cfuracter to distinguish it. 




\ 



ucimid, ; 4 inche.s Ion-, i ' 2 iiuhc.s 
cjual to the ne\t ; pinnules ovate-lancc 
long, i inch broad, cut down to the ra» 
lobes with copious aristate teeth ; texi 
mineous, scarcely scaly ; under surface 
green ; involucre not gland-ciliated. h 

Var. y remota. (A. Br.) Seal 
extending to the rachis; fronds oblong-la 
6 inches broad; pinnae lanceolate, clo 
only the lowest free, the largest about 
cut half-way down to the rachis or more, 
side and involucre not glandulär. Hoo» 
F. B. I. /. 336. Asp. eberneum, Wall 

Kashmir to Nepal, 6,000-9,000 feet 
(Also in Northern and Alpine Europ 

29. Lastrea sparsa. (Don.) 
densely covered with lanceolate-linear £ 
stipes long, 1 foot or more, with scatt< 
generally glabrous or subglabrous ; fronds 
pinnse the largest, deltniH «»* 1 - *' 




7 »tfsMw 



... j'iuiLr los divuled, pinnul 
/>'((/(/. J\ .SV//. /. ^74. 

Nepal to Bhotan, 9,000-1 2, o< 

Var. 7 OBTUSISSIMA. (Met 
light brown broad chafiy scales, k» 
frond less cut, the ultimate segme 
oblong to obovate. Bedd. F. Sup. 

Ceylon, Nepal. 

Var. 8 deltoidea. (Bedd.) 
and lower basal pinnules being 
F. S. I. /. 248. 

Ceylon. 

Var. e minor. (77/74'.) Fron 
simply pinnate, the pinnae only £ i 
larger specimens, however, runnin 
deltoidea. 

Ceylon ; Simla, North Cachar. 

Var. £ Zeylanica. (Bedd.) I 
sissima, but much more Compound 
than the others. mnin *>* — J 



Ferns of British India an d Ceylon. 255 



m (near Newera Elya), 5,000 feet elevation. Lastrea undulata 
mifes), Bedd. F. S. I. t 271. 

Mr. Clarke's variety latesquama, does not differ from what I 
der the type of sparsa, which agrees exactly with Wall, Ca f. 390, 
densum, and Wall. Cat. 7080, Asp. oppositum. 

30. Lastrea pulvinulifera. {Bedd) Stipe up to 30 inches 
furnished with a dense cushion-like mass of golden scales at 

>ase (as in L. odorata), and clothed throughout (especially in the 
•specimens), asare therachis and partial rachises, with numerous 
>w black scales, which proceed from a broad base, and which are 
rally more copious at the axils of the pinnae ; fronds ample, up to 
iches long (without the stipe) by 18 inches broad near the base, 
>id, tripinnate, coriaceous-herbaceous ; pinnae gradually decreasing 
ze from the base to the apex, lower piir opposite, large deltoid 
the pinnules of the low^r margin much the largest, remaining 
ae alternate or rarely subopposite or opposite ; pinnules up to 
:hes long in the basal pinnae, with their secondary pinnules equal 
ie primary pinnules on the upper parts of the frond ; segments 
sely rounded, entire or lobed, and occasionally dentate or crenate, 
rous on both sides, but sometimes furnished with a few weak 
on the costules and veins on the upper side ; veinlets incon- 
lous, terminating within the margin ; sori terminal on the lower 
let; involucre reniform glabrous. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 333. Las- 
pulvinulifera (Baker), Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 500, in pari only. 
&, F. N. I. p. $25,1/1 pari only. Lastrea sparsa, var. squamulosa, 
'ke, l. c.p. 524, in pari. 

Sikkim, very common about Darjeeling. Perhaps only a very 
pound form of sparsa. 

31. Lastrea Buchanani. (Baker.) Stipes tufted up to 1 
long, dark coloured atthe base, straw-coloured upwards, densely 
led as is the rachis, with long spreading rather rigid black hairs ; 
is ovate to deltoid, tripinnate, with the tertiary pinnules from 
ntire to pinnatifid, secondary rachis hairy, lowest pinnae largest 
>id unequal sided from being more Compound at the base, 



Ferns of British Indta and Ceylon. 257 



tertiary rachis a little scaly, ultimate segments oblong blunt ; texture 
subcoriaceous ; veins pinnate or forked in the ultimate segments ; 
sori below the middle of the veins and near the costules (never apical 
on a veinlet as in pulvinulifera) ; involucre reniform, glabrous, per- 
sistent. Hook. Syn. FiL p. 498. Lastrea pulvinulifera, Hook. I. c. 
5°°, in part only. Nephrodium pulvinulifera, CVarke, F. N. /. /. 
5 2 5 > in part only. 

Himalayas, near Darjeeling, 7,500 feet elevation. 
(Also in Natal and Bourbon.) 

32. Lastrea spectabilis. {Wall, ujider Asptätum.) Stipes 
X ~ T i foot long and with the rachises purple-coloured and furnished 
wlt H patent linear subulate reddish-brown scales; fronds 2-4 feet 
° n S» more than 1 foot broad, subdeltoid, tripinnate with the tertiary 

P ir *nules deeply pinnatifid, and their segments again crenated or 
serr ated, lowest pinnae largest, deltoid, unequal-sided, the two lower 
^^ül secondary pinnae being much produced ; texture moderately 
rt ** 3 the costa of the pinnules and veins of the segments sparingly 
,ur **ished with long weak setae most copious on the upper side, 
°tri^Twise glabrous, sori medial on the upper basal veinlet of the 
se Srnent; involucre reniform. Wall. Cat. 372. Clarke, F N. I. 
P' S26. Lastrea Hendersoni, Bedd. Fern Sup. t. 377. 

Khasya on Shillong Hill 5,000-6,500 feet elevation ; Nepal. 

33. Lastrea deparioides. (Moore under Diclisodon.) Stipes 
abovn 1 foot, long, firm, slightly scaly below ; fronds up to 2 feet 
* 011 g, oblong-lanceolate, bipinnate with the pinnules deeply pin- 
^tifid, pinnae 4-6 inches long, 2 inches broad, lanceolate, the 
s^ondary rachis with a very narrow inconspieuous wing, pin- 
nules stalked, deltoid, unequal sided, with broad blunt subquad- 
rangular lower segments and prominent teeth, texture rather 
finu, rachis and both surfaces naked ; sori terminal in the teeth 
which the convex involucres quite conceal. Diclisodon, Moore, 
Index FiL 316. Lastrea deparioides, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 104. Hook. 
Syn.FiL 277. 

South India, on the Anamallay Hills, 2,000 feet elevation ; 
Ceylon, southern provinces. 

18 




colour pale areen ■ — 



Fr.KNS Ol-' liKITISII IMIHA 




(Also in Tropical Africa ; Mauritius ; South China.) 

36. Lastrea Parishii. (Hook.) Caudex creeping, stipe 6-9 
inches long, slender, naked, ebeneous, fronds small, 6-8 inches each 
way, deltoid, the lowerpinnse much thelargest, lower pinnules larger 
than the others, which are oblong- lanceolate acuminate 1 J-z inches 
long by $-£ inch broad, cut down 
nearly to the rachis into close oblong- 
lanceolate crenated lobes, texture mem- 
t""auaceous, rachises and under surfaces 
pubescent ; veinlets pinnate or forked 
B» the lobes ; sori in two rows, not far 
fr°TO the midrib, apical on a veinlet 
or situated well below the apex, indu- 
siUxn reniform. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 
«Si- Bald. F. S. I. i. 43. 

Birma, Moulmein, moist shady fo. '^ 
pfoces on limestone rocks. ""■-"" 

37. Lastrea sikkimensis. [Bedd. 
ander J'olystiehum.) Stipes and rachises 
rathet copiously furnished with per 
sistent ovate acute blacldsh scales, 
irands ovate acuminate up lo 3 fect 
' on 8> subcoriaceous-membranaceous, bipinnate, primary pinna; 4-6 
inches long, oblong acuminate, secondary pinnules oblong, deeply 
P^tiatifid, £ inch to 1 inch long, tertiary pinnules sharply and 
o^ply cut, with the segments acuminate and falcatc, costa of the 
pionules waved, veins simple or forked, terminating within the margin, 
sotl " generally one to each segment, terminal on a veinlet, involucre 
rcaiform. Polysiichum sikkimense, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 127. Nephro- 
tom, Clarke, F. N. I. p.$2$. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 256. 

Sikkim, Mon Lepcha, 10,000-12,000 feet elevation. 

38. Lastrea blumei. (Hook.) Stipes up to about 2 fect 
long, staut, very shaggy, with long linear rufous scales, rachises 




parishii. \ffwk.) 



26o Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



rufous-pubescent, and copiously furnished with nifous scales, fronds 
very large ovate in outline, tripinnate, primary pinnas 10-15 inches 
long, tertiary pinnae 1-1 J inch long, pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, the 
Segments oblong entire or rarely rather deeply incised, sparingty 
hairy above, pubescent on the costa on both sides ; veinlets forked 
or simple; sori small medial on the veinlets; involucre renifonn, 
glabrous. Lastrea Blumei, Hook. Sp. FiL iv., 135, in part at Itäit. 
Bedd. F. S. I. t. 249. L. intermedia (Baker), Hook. Syn. M /• 
283. L. rhodolepis, Clarke, F. N. I. 526. 

North Iüdia, Sikkim, Assam and Kha c ya 5,000-7,000 feet ; 
Ceylon, common in the central provinces, 2,000-3,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Japan ; Malay Islands ; Polyncsia. ) 

Mr. Clarke states that it is not the intermedia of Blume. I d° 
not know whether he is correct in this, but in any case a new nafl* e 
is unnecessary, as it has been published and ßgured as Blumei, a narfl c 
otherwise unoccupicd. 

39. Lastrea recedens. (/. Smith.) Rhizome creeping, stip^ s 
erect, villous, clothed at the base with linear scales ; fronds very lar^ 
deltoid, 3-pinnate above, 4-pinnate below, with the quaterna*0 
pinnules deeply pinnatifid, lower pinnre up to nearly 2 feet long, (* *' 
large specimens) secondary plnnre on the lower side 9-10 inch^" 
long, quaternary pinna: J inch long, the ultimate segmcnts enti*"* 
or slightly crenated, texture herbaceous, rachises villous, undc^ 
surface softly hairy on the veins, upper surface nearly glabrot^ 
except on the costules, veins forked, sori terminal on, or a littt - 
below, the apex of a veinlet. Phegopteris recedens (/. Sfttith ^ 
Hook.Jour. of Bot. iii. 394. Lastrea recedens, Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 9^^ 
two-thirds ofa small frond. Nephrodium, Hook. Syn. FiL 281. 

South India, on the lower Pulney Mountains, and Travancor^ 
and Tinnevelly Hills, 3,000-5,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon, centn*- 
provinces, 2,500-5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

40. Lastrea dissecta. (Forst.) Rhizome erect, stipes 1 foo^ 
or more long, a little scaly at the base, fronds deltoid to ovate, up t<F 



Fekxs of British India and Ckvlom. z r )\ 



nearly 3 feet long ; texture herbaceous, pinnate above, with the pinnae 
6-9 inches long by i\ inch broad, pinnatifid two-thirds towards 
the rachis, bipinnate below, from some of the lower basal pinnules 
of the lowest pinnae being stalked and much elongated and deeply 
pinnatifid, and equal to some of the upper primary pinnae ; ultimate 
segments crenulate, a little hairy above (on the lamina, not the veins), 
with scale-like hairs, quite glabrous below in South Indian examples, 
but with scale-like hairs in specimens from Ceylon ; veinlets forked, 
always free, a forked veinlet often proceeds from the -costa to the 
rnargin of the sinus, between the segments; sori apical on the 
superior veinlet, forming a single row on each side of the segments 
nearer the margin than the midrib, involucre reniform, glabrous ; 
fertile portions of the frond often much contracted and frond often 
only partially seeding. Lastrea membranifolia, Bedd. F. S. 1. /. 102, 
<* small frond. 

The descriptions of Lastrea dissecta in Hookcrs Syn. FiL and 
°f L. membranifolia in Hook. Sp. FiL includes this species, the variety 
ln gens and Pleocnemia membranifolia. 

Madras Presidency, Western mountains, common up to about 
5»ooo feet elevation ; also in the N. Arcot and Vizagapatam Hills ; 
*~ e ylon, up to 5,000 feet ; Birma. 

(Also in Malay Islands and Polynesia.) 

Var. ingens. (Clarkc!) A very large fern, stipe and main ra- 

^ ls pubescent, and with lax narrow-lanceolate sparse browndeciduous 

t^^s ; fronds up to 9 feet long, the lower pinnae 2 feet and more 

**& bipinnate above, the pinnae about 1 foot long by 6 inches broad, 

e secondary pinnae quite distinct but sessile from a very broad 

^^^ and deeply pinnatifid, tripinnate below, the lower basal pinnules 

ttie lowest pinnae being stalked, elongated and again pinnated, 

^ lr pinnules (tertiary pinnae) being deeply pinnatifid, and equalling 

e secondary pinnae above; ultimate segments entire, nearly 

fc^orous above except on the costa, and costules, but there are a few 

^^e-like hairs on the lamina, costa, costules and ofcen the veins 

"^eath furnished with white glistening multicellular patent hairs ; 

texture, venation and sori exactly as in dissecta ; involucre reniform, 



2Ü2 Ferns of British India and Ceylok. 

but thc lobes of the sinus often overlapping, so that itappcaisto 
bc circular; fcrtile portions of the frond often much contncted, 
and fronds often only partially seeding. Clarkc, F. N. f.p. 526. 

Himalayas, Sikkim, and Bhotan, 4,000-7,000 feet, veryabon- 
dant bctwccn Darjeeling and Surail ; Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet 

Mr. Clarke says that it seeds but rarely, and then usually only 
vcry partially, this is an error, as I found many clumps near Dtf* 
jceling (end of November) with most of the fronds entirely covered 
with sced, and not in the least contracted I had written out a w» 
description, belicving this to be a distinet species from disseeta, 
diflering in having copious multicellular hairs beneath, the Sout» 
Indian plant being glabrous; I have, howrever, since seen Ceyl° n 
speeimens in the British Museum which have similar hairs beneatni 
so I can now only regard it as a variety ; it only differs in its larg^ 
size, and in being morc Compound, and in the ultimate segmeO 
being more entire. 

41. Lastkka splendens. {Hook) Stipes 2-3 feet long, stot* * 
polished bright chestnut coloured and scaly, as is the mainrachi^ 
fronds long-lanceolatc up to 4 feet, by about i\ broad, bipinnat: * 
primary pinnas narrow lanceolate, about 2 inches broad, and near*^ 
the samc breadth throughout; secondary pinnai 20-30 pairs,aboW 
\ inch broad, lanceolate-oblong, rounded at the apex, cut abo"*-* 
one-third towards the rachis into small lobes, the upper basal of» 
being generally rather larger than the others, all more or less serratec^ * 
texture subcoriaeeous, glabrous on both surfaces, or slightly sca- 1 ^ 
beneath ; rachis of primary pinnre deeply channelled above, ar* 



winged upwards glabrous above, often scaly beneath; veinlets pintf* 
or forked, not reaching the margins ; sori well below the middle ** 
Upper veinlct, forming a row on each side of the pinnule near t* 3 
costa. Jlook. Syn. Fil. 282. Bcdd. F. B. I. t. 42. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 6,000-7,000 feet elevation ; M^ a ^ 
Peninsula. 

42. Lastrea angustifrons. (Moore,) Rhizome wide-cr£ c * 
ing ; stipes 1-2 feet long, ebeneous, deciduously scaly ; fronds 2 *& 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



263 



fr-8 inches, glabrous, elongate, 3-pinnate, pinnas distant, erect- 
tent, flexuose, lanceolate, two inches broad ; pinnulcs distant lanceo- 
e, cut down to the rachis below into subquadrangular toothed 
änrents (tertiary pinnre) $ inch broad, texture subcoriaeeous ; 
-his and both sides naked ; veinlets forked ; sori small, low down 
1 the veins near the midrib of ihe pinnulcs. Moore in Hook. 
•>■ Fil. iv. p. 126. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 283. Bcdd. F. B. 1. 1. «6. 

splendens, var. ß, Ihok. Sp. Fil. 126. 

Nepal, Sikkim (a little-known plant, perhaps abnormal Filix- 
ias or splendens). 



r&S 



43. Lastrea sca- 
:osa (Kunze.) Caudex 
J ut, suboblique, densely 
leaeeous, stipes 1-3 feet 
g, densely palcaceous 
'ards the base, scabrous 
>Ve ; fronds membrana- 
'Us, se initransparent, del- 
i-ovate acuminate up 
»bout 2 feet long, bi- 
*»ate, or subtripinnate 
*ve, tripin nate below, 
flffi alternate, distant 6- 
inches long, the lowest 
*" deltoid with some of 
; inferior basal secondary 
'na; enlarged to double 
: size of the others, which 
b generally iJ-2 inches 
l 8 and pinnatifid down to a winged rachis (or almost pinnate) ; 
e pinnulcs i-$ inch long, cut down orte-third to half-way to the 
•sta into more or less obtuse segments, veinlets prominent, one 
1 Cach Segment, simple or forked, terminating within the margin 
'*d clavate at the apex ; costa and veins furnished with weak whitish 




264 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



hairs on both sides ; sori medial on the veinlets, one to each segment, 
becoming jet black when ripe, indusium (?) Aspidium scabrosum 
{Kunze)) Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 283. Polypodium nigrocarpum, Bäl. 
F. S. I. t. 169. 

Nilgiris, common in the sholas at the higher elevations,.6ooo- 
7,500 feet ; in texture and habit the pinnae much resemble those of 
Cystopteris setosa. I have never been able to detect any indusium 
even in the youngest stage, though I have long had it in cultivation ; 
I suspect it is really a Phegopteris. 

44. Lastrea ferruginea. (Bcdd.) Caudex short, stout, erect, 
stipes 1-1 \ foot long, densely clothed throughout with broad-ovate 
very transparent scales and scabrous with tubercles ; fronds 1-' 
feet long, deltoid-ovate, tripinnate below, bipinnate tripinnatifid 
above, texture hcrbaceous, turning blackish when dried, pinnae 8- 
to inches long, sprcading at a right angle, the lowest pair deltoid and 
larger than the others and more Compound, its lower basal secondary 
pinnce being elongated and pinnatc, bipinnatifid ; secondary pinna) 1-2 
inches long, pinnatc in the lower and larger pinnae, pinnatifid above, 
pinnules about -l- inch long, cut about half down into oblong rounded 
trennte or subentire Segments ; rachises and both sides fermginous, 
with minute glandulär scale-like pubeseence, veinlets simple orforkeo, 
terminating within the margin and clavate at the apex, sori medial 
or subtcrminal on the veins, submarginal, one to each lobe of the 
tertiary pinna?, in the South Indian plant confined to the upper lote 
in the Ceylon plant more Iobes are seeded and the sori are not quitc 
so marginal, indusium reniform, glabrous, persistent. Bcdd. F. S. /• '• 
100. Hook. Syn. Fil. 283. I^istrea obtusiloba {Baker), Beok.S)'* 1 ' 
Fil. 284. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 296. Asp. Blumei, var. ? Tfnc>aift$,p. 39 2 ' 

South India, Nilgiris, rare in sholas between Avalanche anö 
Sispara, 7,500 feet elevation, not observed elsewhere ; Ceylon (C *• 
3142), about Newera Elya, 6,000 feet elevation. The Ceylon and 
South Indian plants are certainly the samc ; I had both in cultivatio n 
for a long time and could not have distinguished them except for tnc 
labeis ; it is nearly allied to scabrosa, but quite a different colo^ 1 
both living and dried, more ferruginous, and not scabrous. 




LASTREA FERRUO] NEA . (£ t .J a ^ 



266 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



45. Lastrea Boryana. (Willd. utider Aspidium.) Sripes : 
feet long, sparingly scaly near the base ; fronds very large» up to 8 1 
long by 4 feet broad, herbaceous or almost membranaceous, bipinn 
with thc secondary pinnae (3^-6 inches long) pinnatifid downtoa \ 
regularly but narrowly winged midrib, pinnules blunt J-f inch 1c 
more or less wide apart at the base, pinnatifid about one-third or h 
down into small entire segments ; rachises and both surfaces nal 
or with a little mealy pubescence and a few hairs ; veins forke« 
simple ; sori low down on thc veins, in a single row on each sid< 
the pinnules near the midrib, generally very small, large in sc 
Himalayan examples, involucre often much lacerated on the mar 
very fugacious. Willd. Sp. PL v. p. 285. Baker^ Syn. FiL 1 
Lastrea divisa, Hook, Sp. FiL iv. 133. WalL Ca f. 393. Bedd 
S. I. /. 97. Polypodium subtripinnatum, Clar&e, F. N. L p. 54, 
80,/^. 1. 

South India, on the Western mountains, 3,000-7,500 
elevation ; Ceylon, central provinccs ; Himalayas, Gurwhal 
Bhotan, 4,000-8,000 feet elevation ; Khasya ; Malay Penins 
Clarke^ variety microstegioides does not recede from the type. 

(Also in Bourbon, Java, and China.) 

46. Lastrea tenericaulis. {Wallich under Polypodiu 
Caudex crect, furnished with numerous fibrous roots, stipes tuf 
below a little scaly, above very glaucous, with a blueish bloom, wl 
easily rubs off ; rachis with a line of hairs on the sulcated u[ 
side, glabrous beneath ; fronds 1-3 feet and more long, broad ov 
lanceolate acuminate, membranaceous, bipinnate with the pinn 
pinnatifid nearly to the costce, pubescent with long white b 
on the costa and costules on both sidcs, rachis of the pinn 
furnished with a very regulär line of dense hairs on the upper s 
glabrous and convex below, pinme rather remote, opposite or alterr 
lanceolate acuminate, inferior ones 10-12 inches long by 3 in« 
broad ; pinnules up to 2 inches long, oblong lanceolate from a bi 
adnate base (which is decurrent so as to form a winged rachis, p 
cularly in the upper pinnae), pinnatifid (in the lower pinnae almost t< 
costa) ; secondary pinnules pinnatifid in the lower pinnae, entii 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



267 



^'Uh the apex crenated in the upper portion of the frond; veins 
in the larger ultimate segments pinnate with veinlets simple, in the 
smaller segments veinlets once-forked only, all terminating a little 
W| thin the margin ; sori medial or terminal on the veinlets, 1-6 to 
each ultimate segment, involucre very deeiduous. Polypodium tene- 
ric^ule, Wall Cat 335. Lastrea flaeeida, Bedd. R S. L t 90. 
^oljrp. Russellianum, Wall. Cat 7077. Lastrea setigera, Baker, Syn. 
F **~ 284, in part. 

Hooker's and Baker's descriptions of tenericaulis and setigera 
^^ made to include Phegopteris ornata, a very different fern. I 
h^ve never been able to detect an indusium even in the youngest 
stag e f our South Indian plant, and I should follow Wallich and 
i&clude it in Phegopteris, only Mr. Clarke says it is present in the 
B^rigal examples. 

South India, on the Western mountains, 2,000-3,000 feet 
elevation, very common; Ceylon, 1,500-3,000 fect ; North India, 
Hirnalays from no great elevation up to 4,000 feet; Malay 
Pcininsula. 

(Also in China, Australia, and Polynesia.) 



GENUS LIV.— NEPHRODIUM. (Schott.) 

(From nep/iros, a kidney ; shape of indusium.) 

Sori subglobose, dorsal on the veins ; (often athyrioid in otaria) 

indusium reniform, sometimes wanting ; veins pinnate, one or more 

P 31 * anastomosing angularly with an excurrent veinlet from their 

junetion which is either free or joined in the angle of the next 

su perior pair ; fronds always simply pinnate with pinnatifid pinnce in 

"** Indian species (rarely simple in species not Indian) ; caudex 

^ct or creeping. Most of the supposed species of Goniopteris fall 

m here, as an indusium is often present in the very young stage 

"tough sometimes entirely ahsent. 



1. Nephrodium Otaria. (Kze.) Rhizome creeping, siipes6-i2 
"fcheslong, pale-coloured ; fronds 12-15 inches long, pinnate, lateral 




263 Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 

pinme distant, 4-6 inches long, i% inch broad, linear-otton& tnffl- 
cate nt the basc, caudate at the apex, coarsely but shallofflr tot** 
the lobes serrated ; terminal pinna sometimes with larger lobö a 
auricles towards its basc ; texture thin herbaceous ; rachis * 
suriaces smooth ; veins pinnate in each lobe, 6-8 on each side, t« 
lowcst pair anastomosing angularlv, with an excurrent rein itP» 
eithcr runs out to the margin or occasionally joins one or even t*° 
of the superior veins (but the anastomosing is not so systemaiK * 
in the othcr species of the genus) ; sori medial on the veinlets, w* 
of which are soriferous ; ie** 
frond often contracted but «* 
always; indusium renifonn * 
often asplenioid and athyiw" 1 * 
Aspidium otaria, Kunu, 0- 
MM. Aspid. p. 34. Hook. 5/* 
Fil. 288. rieocnemia aristata, 
Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 62. B& 
KS.lt. 83. The sori are q^ e 
abnormal, the venation and p" 9 ' 
tion of the sori are not at W 
that of Pleocnemia. 

South India, AnamdW 
Hills, the dry teakforests, i,«f 
3,000 fect elevation, appearing ,n 
the rainy season, Tinnef 
Hills and elscwherc on the ^ V( * 
tern ghats, but by no me an ' 
generali Ceylon, 2,000-3,000 fest üevation. 
(Also in Luzon.) 

2. Nephrodium unitum. {Li tut. under Polypodiitm?) Rhizo 01 
creeping, stipes 1-1 \ foot long, brovmish naked ; fronds about 1 ™ 
long, pinnate, pinna; numerous, 3-5 inches long, -J- inch broad, c 
down about one-third, rarely more, into triangulär acute entirc * 
subentire lobes, lower pinna: not redueed ; texture coriaeeous ; vei" 5 
pinnate in the lobes, 4-8 on each side, the lowest pair anastonw^ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 269 



jularly, with an excurrent veinlet which runs to the margin or joins 
* rarely two pair of the superior veins ; upper surface glabrous, 
ier surface generally very hairy ; sori medial on the veins ; indu- 
ni reniform, hairy. F. Br. Prod. FL Kov. I/o//. 148. Hook. 
*. Fi/. 289. Polypodium unitum, Zinn. Sp. Fi. 1548, in pari. 
propinquum, Hook. Sp. Fi/, iv. 79. Bedd. F. S. Z t. 89. 

Throughout the Indian region in swampy places and tanks. 

(Also in Tropical Asia, Africa, Australia and America.) 

3. Nephrodium pteroides. {Fetz, under Fo/ypodium.) Rhi- 
ae wide-creeping, stipes up to 2 feet long, slender, slightly scaly 
ow ; fronds up to 4 feet or rather more long and 2 feet broad, 
Lnate, pinnae spreading £ to nearly 1 inch broad, apex acuminate, 
tfer ones not reduced), cut down only one-third, the lobes triangulär, 
ite ; texture herbaceous ; rachis and Upper surface nearly glabrous, 
ier surface with minute glandulär pubescence on all the veins, 
ds pinnate on the lobes, the lowest pair always anastomosing 
Sularly with a free excurrent veinlet, the other veins, (7-9 pair,) 
'ays free ; sori towards the apex of the upper veinlets always con- 
cd to the lobes or the apex of the lobes. Polypodium pteroides, 
*/*.), Hook. Syn. Fi/. 289. Nephr. terminans, IVa/L Ca/. 386. 
*ok. Sp. Fi/ iv. 73. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 90. 

Madras Presidency, Western mountains, 2,000-4,000 feet 
vation ; Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet ; Birma ; (not in N. India). 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

Very near extensum, but less cut, the anastomosis of the veins 
5Ular and the sori terminal. 

4. Nephrodium extensum. (Bi.) Rhizome creeping, stipes 
> to 2 feet, glabrous or slightly pubescent ; fronds up to 4 feet long, 
l d \\ foot broad, pinnate ; pinnae about \ inch broad (lower ones 
>t reduced), cut down two-thirds into linear oblong-falcate slightly 
e nulate lobes; texture herbaceous; rachis subglabrous, upper surface 
l ked, or with a few distant hairs, under surface with minute glandulär 
ibescence on the veins ; veins pinnate in the lobes, 10-13 P a i r > 
e lowest pair anastomosing at an angle with a free excurrent 



27o Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



veinlet, or meeting just at the sinus without the excurrent veinlet, or 
the lowest pair is quite free (as in LastreaX the other pairs always all 
free ; sori towards the apex of the veins and present on all or all but 
the 1-2 lower ones, often much immersed and visible as punetiform 
dots on the upper surface. Asp. extensum, BL En. PL J'av. Fil. 156. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 289, (not Bedd. R S. I. t. 85, which is large molle). 
Asp. multijugum, Wall. Cat. 348, (not 355, which is truncatum). 
Nep. punetatum, Bedd. F. B. L t. 131, (not punetatum, Baker, 
Syn. Fil. p". 513, which is Lastrea ochthodes, vide speeimen in KfW 
Herbarium.) 

South India, Tinnevelly Hills, rare; Ceylon, central pro- 
vinces, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation ; Birma, Penang, and Malay 
Peninsula (Khasya, 2 sheets of Griffiths in the Kew Herbarium, but 
not found by any onc eise in North India). 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

5. Nephrodium microsorum. (Clarke.) Rhizome wide 
creeping, stipes angled, furnished with linear-subulate long softbfown 
persistent scalcs towards the base, more or less softly pubescent as 
is the rachis ; fronds about 2 feet long ; pinnse rather distant, sessile, 
about 4^ inches long, by £ inches broad, the lower ones somewhat 
reduced or the stipe with auricles, deeply'cut almost to the rachis 
into linear-oblong tongue-like entirc or subentire segments, the uppt^ 
and lower basal ones often considerably longcr than the others; 
texture thinly herbaeeous, both surfaces, espccially the under one, 
furnished with scattered long white needle-like hairs ; veins about 
13 pairs, the lowest pair always regularly anastomosing at an acute 
angle very near the costa of the pinnas with an excurrent vein, the 
other pairs always all free ; sori minutc, sometimes only ncar the 
costa of the pinnce and scarcely extending to the lobes ; involucre 
glabrous cadueous. N. extensum, var. microsorum, Clarke, ?- 
N. I. t. 530, and var. late-repens. 

Sikkim up to 4,000 feet elevation, very abundant about Silig 011 ' 
near the foot of the Darjeeling Pass. 

6. Nephrodium cucullatum. (BL) Stipes about 1 fo° l 




NEi'IlRÜDlUM C'JCULLAIUM. (ßl.) 



272 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

long, hairy, strong erect ; frond with the raain rachis hairy beneath, 
up to 2 feet long, pinnate ; pinnae very close, 3-6 inches long, byH 
inch broad, cut down scarcely one-third into triangulär acute subfalcate 
lobes, lower pinnse dwindling suddenly into mere auricles; texture 
very coriaceous, lower surface very pubescent ; veins (raised when 
dry), 8-10 pair, 3-5 lower ones uniting; sori towards the apex of 
the veins, which are generally all soriferous ; indusium prominent, 
glabrous, persistent. Aspidium cucullatum, BL En. PI. yav. FiL 
151. Hook. Syn. FiL 290. N. unitum (Sieder), WalL Cat. 358- 
Bedd. F. S. I. t. %%. 

Madras Presidency, Western ghats, not common; Ceylon 
Western and Southern provinces, marshy place?, common ; Maty 
Peninsula ; (Assam doubtful.) 

(Also in Mauritius, Malay Islands, and Polynesia.) 

7. Nephrodium elatüm. (Baker) Rhizome wide-creeping» 
stipes 1 foot long, downy; rachis downy; fronds oblong lanceolate, 3-4 
feet long, pinnate, pinnae sessile, 9-15 inches long by 1-1$ inch broad, 
cut down nearly two-thirds into close rather falcate blunt lobes ; lowest 
pinnce distant and much reduced or not reduccd at all, texture firm, 
herbaceous, above rachis of pinnre strigose, and a few hairs on th e 
veins, beneath costules and veins hairy, with longish white hairs, 
veins 13-16 pair, the lower 3-4 pair anastomosing with excurreiit 
veinlets, sori large medial, involucre minute fugacious. Bakcr^ Sp> 
FiL 502. Bedd. Fern. Sup. t. 378. 

Himalayas (Dr. Jerdon.) Mr. Clarke has stated in his Review 
that Dr. Jerdon's specimen is a Goniopteris, but on examining it with 
me, he acknowledged that it is unlike any Goniopteris, and that it i s 
closely allied to, if not identical with, the Mauritius fern ; the lower 
pinnae are not reduced in Jerdon's specimen at Kew, but much 
so in the Mauritius plant, which is the only difTerence between 
them, and this Variation occurs as much in others of the genus. 

(Also in the Mauritius.) 

8. Nephrodium aridum. (Don.) Stipes 1 foot or more long» 
erect, slightly pubescent ; fronds 3-4 feet long 12-18 inches broad; 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



273 



iae rather distant, 6-9 inches long, $-i inch broad, cut about one- 
i of the way down into subtriangular sharp pointed lobes ; tcxture 
iceous ; rachis and lower surface hairy; veinlets 8-10 on a side, 
pair anastomose ; sori in rows about midway between the midrib 
edge ; indusium naked, lower pinnic reduccd. Aspid. Don, Prod. 
Ntp. p. 4. A. venulosum, Wall. Cat. 352, type sfieet, A. obscu- 
, Blume, Neph. aridum, Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 291. Bedd. F.B.I.t. 



&3 



v^fe 



ThroughoutEast Bengal abundant, from the SoonderbuntoAssa 

ihe Dehra Doon, up to 3,000 feet elevaüon. 

Malay Peninsula (not in South India or Ceylon.) 

9. Nephromum CLAN- y_l 
muh. (Hook) Stipes 

oximate, main rachis 
äly villous, frond 1 foot 
;, adpressedly strigose on 
Upper surface; pinnru trun- 
at the base, subentire, 
ite or pinnatind scarcely 
■sixth the way to the mid- 

veinlets beneath minulely 
ute, several pairs unklug, 
lsium reniform, elongate, 
ainent, firm ; sori ulti- 
elyoften coarluent, Hwk. 

Pil. iv. •j6,parlly. Clarie, 
H, I. p. 531, t, 74, and 
1. Not Bedd. F. B. I. t, 
, which is urophyllum. 

The above is Mr. Clarke's diagnosis from Blume's specimens 
ected in Java, but there is an exactly similar specimcn in the Kew 
barium from Griffith, supposed to have been coDected in Assam, 

Mr. Clarke thinks it is probably from Malacca, bul in either 
: it must be recorded in this work ; it diffcrs from the next in 
l strigose above, bul I strongly snspect it is only a slight vanety cf 




Ferss of British India and Ceylox. 



il ; it hos glandulär dots on the under surface, 6-7 paus of veins, 
which thc four lower Anastomose. 

10. Nephrodium urophyi.lum. {Wall, under PolypoH***"" 
Rhizome short creeping; stipes approximate, 2 feet or more loa# 
stout, erect, furnished with lanceotate-linear brown scales b 
fronds up to about 4 feet long, pinnate ; piniue namnt-ot 
subsessile or sessile, acuminate or caudite at the apex, 6-12 indifS^ 
long by 1J-2 inchesbroad, the margin subentire, slightly crenatedc^ 
with very short serratures ; upper surface quite glabrous, W tb 

rachis of the pinme a Utile str= 
gose, under surface quite glahrou- 
or with some minute pubescenc" - 
on the veins, copious glabron- 
not glandulär punctiform doL 
are present on both sides ; tö 
Iure subcoriaceous or herbaceons^ 
veins 8-10 pair, rarely 14, all * ~* 
ncarly all anastomosing, the e*- 
current veinlets either free * 3 
joining the pah above; so 1 *" 
small, one to each vein, aboi* 
its centre; indusium renifoi** 
generally absent. Wall. Cat.v& 
Hook. Syn. Fil. /. 314. Co°* 
optcris, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 239. Nephrodium lineatum, /***"' 
Epim. Bol.p. 48. Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 72. Bedd. F. B, /. t '3-5' 
Asp. lineatum, Bl. Eh. Fil. Jav. 144, (»0/ Wall) Nephro, gland«' 
losum, Bedd. F. B. 1. I. 132, (not Blume) 

Himalajas, from Gurwhal to Bhotan and Chittagong h°°°~ 
5,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon, Oodawella Forest ; not in So«« 1 
India. There can be no doubt that this is a Nephrodium, and'^f 
involucres are oftcn present, though Mr. Clarke has still kept & J* 
Goniopteris. Sir W. Hooker described it both as a Nephrodium 1°" 
as a Goniopteris. 

(Also in Java and Philippines.) 




IUM UROPHYLLUM. 
(Il'a/n 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 275 

ii. Nephrodium moülmeinense. (Bedd.) Stipes firm, erect, 
1 feet or more long ; fronds up to 4 feet long, pinnate, pinnae 
>ften with a large gland at base, numerous coriaceous, about 1 foot long 
m*i 1 J— 1§ inch broad, narrow oblong, caudate at the apex, the' 
"lai^in with sharp serratures, which are falcate and only about one 
ln e deep, sometimes nearly obsolete or obscure, the frond being 
nearly entire, upper surface generally quite glabrous and shining, 
under surface with obscure hairs on the costa and veins ; veins very 
Prominent 16-21 pair, all but the upper 2-3 pair anastomosing with 
a z igzag excurrent veinlet united throughout ; sori medial on the 
v eins or often near their apex in a Single row on each side of the 
costule; indusium reniform. Bedd. F.Sup. 
P- 18. Goniopteris lineata, Bedd. F. B. I. 
'■ 3- G. multüineata, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 231, 
(ttot 233, Penangiana, wkkh is the next 
s Aecia). Polypodiura multilineatum ( Wall.), 
"<>ok. Syn. FiL 316. I have been obliged 
to rename this as it is a Nephrodium, and 
tn *re is another Nepli. multilineatum, ('. e. 
^alüch's (our truncatum). 

South India, very common on the Gol- 
°°ndah Hills (west of Vizagapatam) 2,000- 
3<ooo feet elevation, involucre distinct ; (not 
"n the Westein mountains). Throughout 
North India, from the plains up to 5,000 «oulhsinmjss. {Bedd.) 
feet elevation, very common ; Birma, very common near Moulmein 
^volucre distinct) ; this differs from urophyllum in being more 
n Sid in texture and in having many more veins. 

11. Nephrodium costatum. (Wall, under Polypodium.) Stipes 
■l bot and more long, rather stout, scaleless, glossy, and as well as the 
^is strongly tinged with red (rarely stramineous); fronds 1-3 feet 
°% broad-oblong or lanceolate coriaceous-submembranaceous 
Pnuiated glabrous, pinnse numerous, rather distant, patent, sessile 5-8 
■•dies long, 4 an inch or a little more broad (on sterile fronds some- 
times exceeding an inch) from an obliquely cuneate truncate sew,\.Vi 




2 7 6 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 



base (lowcr ones rather more attenuated and subpetiolate) lanceoll 
or elongate-oblong, finely acuminated at the apex, ihe margin coars« 
and sharp) y submucronate-serrated, serratures pointing a lit 
forward, uniform; costaj prominent beneath, of the samecolourast 
rachis and stipes, generally reddish, glabrous on both sides 
obscurely hairy on the costa and veins beneath ; veinlets about 6 
pairs, of which all are connivent except 3-3 short pairs in the tee 
of the serratures, sori in two seiies generally at the base of the ve: 
dose to the costules, but sor 
limes near the centie of t 
veins, involucres reniform, v 1 
fugacious and only to be 
tected on very, young fron 
Bedd. F. B. 1. t. 2so. Poly 
dium costatum, ( Wall. He* 
not Brack. P. (Goniopte 
lineatum, Coleb, in Herb. \V. 
and Wall. Cat. 300. Hook. ■ 
Fil.v. 12. Polypodium per» 
gianum, Hook. Sp. FU. v. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 232 (sligt 
broader in the pinnse). 

North India, Nepal 
Kumaon at high elevatio' 
speeimens ftom Dr. Stl 
(Gurwhal) have the involU' 
quite distinet ; Penang. 




KOlnUM Aruuscula. {Dem.) 



13. Nephrodium Arbuscula. (Desv.) Caudexsmallerecttf 
trunk-likc, stipes tufted, short, slightly pubescent ; fronds 11-' 
inches long, pinnatc, lanceulate in outline, pinna; numerous close, i- 
inches long by about 3 inch broad, very shortly petioled, rather bto 
at the apex, generally auricled at the superior base, the inargin wil 
shallow serratures, lower ones gradually reduced to mere deHo 
auricles ; textnre firm, herbaeeous ; veins 6-8 pair, the 3-4 lo*er p 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



277 



anastomosing, the upper ones free, rachis pubescent, upper surface 
glabrous in age, under surface more or less hairy on all thc veins ; 
sori solitary near the middle of the 3-4 lower veins, indusium small 
uniform. Dem. Mem. Soc. Zinn, vi./. 253. Hook. Syti. Fil. 292. 
Bedti. F. S. I. t. 87. Neph. falcilobum, var. pubera, Clarke^ F. N. I. 
P* 5 r 5. Wall. Cat. 338, Asp. puberulum. 

South India, Western forests, 2,000-4,000 feet, in beds of rivers ; 
Ceylon, central provinces. 

(Also in the Mascarene Islands.) 

14. Nephrodium pennigerum. (Bl.) Caudex erect; stipes 

villous or subglabrous up to abotit 1 foot long ; fronds large up to 

4 feet long, pinnate, generally with the lower pinnae more or less 

reduced, sometimesnot so ; pinnae numerous, spreading 8-10 inches 

*° n g, 1-1 i inch broad (the fertile sometimes much contracted), apex 

ac ^minate, margin cut down only about \ towards the rachis 

m *o oblong falcate lobes ; texture herbaceous, rachis villous, upper 

su *tface strigose on the main costa, otherwise glabrous or often more 

0r less strigose particularly near the margins, under surface villous 

0n the veins; veins 8-12 pair, the 5-6 lower ones generally, rarely 

° n ly 3, anastomosing ; sori medial on the veins ; involucre reniform, 

8 e nerally persistent Aspid. pennigerum, Bl. En. Fl. yav. Fil. 153. 

Hock. Syn. Fil. 292. Neph. abruptum, Bcdd. F. S. I. t. 86. Asp. 

n^ltilineatum, Wall. Cat. 353. Neph. glandulosum, var. laete- 

strigosa, Clarke, F. N. I. /. 532. Neph. pennigerum var. multilineata, 

Cforke. /. c.p. 532. Neph. abortivum {J. Sm.), Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 292. 

South India, common in all the Western mountain forests; 

Ceylon, central provinces, 2,000-4,000 feet ; East Bengal, from Mish- 

m ee to Chittagong, at no great elevation. (Clarke's specimens of 

glandulosum var. laete-strigosa and pennigerum var. multilineata are 

quite the same as the South Indian plant) Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and Tropical Africa.) 



15. Nephrodium molle. (Desv.) Rhizome tufted, or more 
rarely creeping; stipe and main rachis beneath pubescent, shortly 



278 Ferns or British India and Ceylon. 



hairy ör glabrous, with few or no scales ; fronds oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 
feet long, pinnate, pinnae spreading generally about 4-6 incheslongby 
£ inch broad, the lower ones generally more or less reduced, ofteninto 
mere auricles, sometimes not reduced at all, generally cut down 
about half-way to the midrib into blunt subfalcate lobes; texturc 
herbaceous, generally more or less pilose on both sides, sometimes 
glabrous or subglabrous, except in the costas and costules ; veins 6- 
8 pair, pinnate in the lobes, the lowest pair (rarely two) anastomosing 
with an excurrent veinlet, involucres reniform glabrous or hairy. 
Desv. Mvm. Soc. Zinn. vi. 258. Hook, Syn. FiL 293. Bedd. RS. 
L L 84. and extensum, /. 85, not BL Polypodium parasiticum 
(Unn.) Asp. solutum, Wall. Cat 350 and tectum, Cat 394. Nepb. 
didymosorum, Bedd. F B. L f. 200. 

Throughout the Indian region from the plains up to 6,000 
feet. 

(Also throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions.) 

Var. ß amboinense. (Fresl.) Fronds smaller, papyraceous, 
more glabrous, pinnae smaller, less cut, being generally only slightty 
crenated or cut down about £ to 1, very gradually reduced towards 
the base, the lowcr ones often being hastate and very acuminate, 
veins 4-5 pairs, 2 rarely 3 lower pairs anastomc sing ; sori generally 
on 2-3 lower veins, sometimes confined to the lowest pair (didyflio* 
sorous). Neph. amboinense, Hook. Sß. FiL 292. Nephr. extensum» 
var. ß minor, Bedd. F B. I. t 201. Evidently only a form of mote 
sometimes confounded in herbaria with Arbuscula. 

Noith India, Bengal, and Assam, near the foot of the hilkJ 
Ceylon, Ambagamoa. (C. /*. 3390.) 

Nephrodium procurrens is a name given by Baker (Sy n - 
FiL p. 290.) to molle with a creeping root, but there are no other 
characters to distinguish this form, as I have the very Iarge form ° f 
molle with the lower pinnae reduced to deltoid auricles (sent frort 
Ceylon) with the root wide-creeping, as well as forms which have the 
fronds truncate at the base and no reduced lower pinnae. ( Wall 349» 
3rd sheet in this form.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 279 



ir. y aureum. (Clarke, F. N. I. p. 533.) Differs by having 
mte pubescence bright and golden, the fertile fronds longer 
e barren, and the pinnae sometimes contracted near the base ; 
ld truncate at the base, i.e., the lower pinna not reduced. It 
feared that none of these characters are permanent. It is a 
om Sikkim and Bhotan, 1,000-4,000 feet elevation, and 
ssam. 

pidiüm multijugum. (Wall. Cat. 348.) Taken by Mr. 
in his type oivar. multijuga, is typical exte?mim (Bl.) 

r. didymosorum. (Parish, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 200.) From 
irim ; is a very hairy form of molle, lower pinnae not at all 
I, sori twin, confined to the two lower v^inlets (the latter 
ix probably not constant.) Wall. Cat. 354, Asp. canescens, 
ngapore, second sheet, is this plant. 

p. tectum ( Wallich, Cat. 394, in Linnaean Herb.) is a deltoid 
molle with no reduction of the lower pinnae, and a creeping 

. Nephrodium crinipes. (Hook.) Stipe up to-ij foot long, 
rect, clothed, as is the main rachis, with lanceolate-linear 
scales ; fronds about 2-3 feet long, pinnate, dwarfed beiow 
ricles ; pinnae horizontal, 4-6 \ inchas long, £-J inch broad, 
m \-% towards the midrib into oblong scarcely acute lobes, 
>er basal one often somewhat enlarged ; texture herbaceous ; 
meath minutely puberuious ; costa, costules and veins spar- 
rnished with longish hairs above ; veins 6-8 on a side, the 
r est pair anastomosing ; sori medial, but alittle nearer theapex 
le costule ; indusium reniform glabrous persistent. Hook* 
7. 294. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 263. 

>rth-east Bengal, up to 1,500 feet elevation, from Nepal to 
and Chittagong ; Malacca (Mr. Clarke's Nilgiri exampie is 
)n of a contracted fertile frond of pennigerum.) 

. Nephrodium ferox. (Moore.) Stipe 1-2 feet long 



280 Ferns of British Indta and Ceylon. 



strong, densely fibrinöse, the hairs long black and leaving thcstem 
rough when they fall ; fronds 3-4 feet long, pinnate ; pinnae rather 
closc spreading, up to 15 inches long, by |-i£ inches broad; apcx 
very acuminate, cut down about one-third into lanceolate-folcate 
lobes ; texture rigid coriaceous, both surfaces glossy ; veins very prom- 
inent, 12-15 on each side, the lower (about 5) pairs anastomosing, the 
excurrent veinlet joined throughout and very prominent ; sori basal on 
the veins close to the costule. Hook. Syn. FiL 294. Bedd. F. N. I- 
t. 129. 

Kumaon. (Mr. Clarke doubts the Himalayan locaiity, but 
there are specimens in Kew Herbarium supposed to have becn 
collected there, and I received it from the Calcutta Herbarium as 
Himalayan.) 

(Also in Java and the Philippines.) 

18. Nephrodium truncatum. (Presl.) Rhizome short, erect, 
stipes tuftcd stout erect up to 2 feet long, greyish naked or slightty 
pubescent ; fronds pinnate up to 4 feet long, the lower piniwc r c * 
duced often to mere auricles; rachis slightly pubescent or glabrous; 
pinnae numerous up to 1 1 inches long by 1 J inch broad, acumin^ e 
at the apcx, sessile or subsessile and often somewhat contractu 
towards the base, cut down about half-way to the partial rachis fa t0 
oblong lobes which are more or less Square at the apex and crenate^ ' 
texture herbaeeous, upper surface generally glabrous, lower glabro 
or slightly pubescent on the costa and veins, and sometimes * filt 
glandulär dots ; veins 6-9 pairs, generally the two, rarely 3-4 \o^ e 
anastomose ; sori smali medial or nearer the costule than the marg 1 * 1 
involucre reniform. Presl. Tent Pter. 81. Hook. Syn. FiL 2*2' 
Neph. eusorum (77/«/.), Bedd. F. S. I. 130. Asp. prionophyllv** 
WalL Cat. 355. Asp. multilineatum, Wall. Cat. 353, from Sir*& 
pore. WalL 352, $rd s/ieet. 

South India, Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills ; Ceylon, C& 
tral Provinccs, 2,000-5,000 feet elevation ; Cachar and ChittagO 1 
Hills at no elevation ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Malay Islands, North Australia, and Polynesia.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



ig. Nephrodium bkachyodon. {Hook) Stipes tufted, \-t 
foet long, greyish naked : fronds up to 3 fett long, pinnate ; pinnre 
petiolate, often contracted at base, 6-9 inches long, ij-i« inches 
broad cut about one-third or half-way down into blunt slightly falcate 
Lobes, lower pinnse not much smaller than the others ; texture sub- 
coriaceous; rachisnakedorslighily pubeseent, upper surface glabrous, 
except the partiat rachis which is slightly hairy, under surface gla- 
brous except the rachis and costules which are slightly hairy ; veins 
8-;i2, all free or the lower one anastomosing and with sometimes an 
excurrent veinlet, a single vein generally rises from the rachis of 
the pinnse, between the pinnate groups of veins and runs to the mar- 
gin ] sori medial on the veins ; involucre reniform. Hook. Syn. Fil. 




a 9S- Btdd. F. B. T. 379. The fower pair of veins only occas ionall y 
'"astomose in the Malay Peninsula plant, but in the West Indian 
plant several pairs generally join ; the two plants, however, seem quite , 
to "in one into the other, and I am afraid they also connect Lastrea 
Wfcsifolia. 

Malacca and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in West Indies and Peru.) 

Nephrodium multijugum (Baker), given as a Malay P«\.ms*V\ 



282 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



fern (Syn. Fil. 291) is, as far as the Kew specimen of Wall C& 1 * 
348 is concerned, Lastrea ochthodes. Aspidium multijuguro, W 3 * " 
Cat. 348, in the Linnaean Herbarium is, however, Nephrodium e ** 
tensum, typical, though referred by Clarke to molle as a varie*^ ' 
Nephrod. Hoenkianum (Pres!.), given in Syn. Fil. p. 291, asaCey* 
fern, does not occur in that island or in our liroits. 



GENUS LV.— NEPHROLEPIS. {Schott) 

(Nep/iros, kidney ; lepis, scale — the indusium kidney-shaped 

scale-like.) 

Sori round, arising from the apex of the upper branch of a ve 
generally near the edge ; indusium reniform or roundish ; ve: 
forked, free clavate ; fronds simply pinnate with the pinnce arti 
lated at the base, furnished with white cretaceous dots on the up 
surface. 

1. Nephrolepis cordifolia. (Linn. undcr Polypodium.) C 
dex suberect, the wiry fibres often bearing tubers ; stipes tufted, wi 
1-4 inches long, slightly scaly ; fronds up to 2 feet, pinnate; pin 
numerous, crowded, often imbricated, i-i| inch long, by i~| in 








broad, usually blunt ; margin entire or slightly crenate, the un 
side lounded or cordate, the upper distinctly auricied at the bas—"* 
texture rather coriaceous ; rachis scaly, both sides nearly glabro 
sori about half-way between the midrib and margin in a single ro 
indusium firm, persistent, lunate or reniform. Polypodium c 
difolium, Z. Sp. PL 1549. Nephrolepis tuberosa (Presl.), 
Sp. Fil. iv. 151. Bedd. F. S. L t 92. 

Throughout the Indian region up to 5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in the tropics of the whole world, and in Japan a 
New Zealand.) 

2. Nephrolepis exaltata. (Linn. under Polypodium.) Rr~^ 
zome suberect ; stipes tufted, 4-6 inches long, firm, slightly scal; 
fronds up to nearly 3 feet long, pinnate ; pinnae rather clos 



284 Ferns of British India and Ceylon 



fe* 




2-3 inches long, 3-J inch broad, usually acute at the apex» ^ 
margin entire or slightly crenate, the superior base with a small naif°* 
auricle, the lower base with a smaller rounded one ; texture ratfr 4 * 
coriaeeous, both surfaces nearly glabrous, or very scaly partied**^ 
when young ; sori submarginal ; indusium firm, reniform. TotyfP 
dium exaltatum, L. Sp. PI. 1548. Nephrolepis exaltata (ScH& * 
Hook. Syn. Fi/. 301. Bedd. F. S. I. /. 93. 

South India, the mountain forests of the Eastern and We^' 
sides; East Bengal from Assam to Chittagong, up to 1,000 
eievation ; Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the tropics of nearly all the world.) 

3. Nephrolepis volubilis. {y. Stnith> MS.) Rhizome clim 
up to 50 feet over trees, with adpressed chesnut scales on the 
lateral distant spurs, whence spring Clusters of stipes ; pinnse obtu 
not very acute ; venation, sori, &c, as in exaltata. Aspid. exaL 
Wall. Cat. 1031, part 7y. C/arke^ F. N. Lp. 541, /. 78. 

Syihet and Chittagong ; Malacca. 
(Also in Borneo.) 

4. Nephrolepis acuta. (Presl.) Rhizome short ; st * f^ 
tufted up to 8 inches or more long, firm, naked or slightly sc^*- .' 
fronds up to 8 feet long, pinnate ; pinnae up to 8 inches long sncS " 
inch broad, oblong aeuminated, sometimes shortly petioled, ^ 
margin slightly crenated; texture thin, both surfaces hairy r? 1 
young, as is the rachis, but quite glabrous in age ; sori near *- .. 
margin ; involucre reniform to suborbicular. PresL Hook. Sp. ** 

iv. 153. ßedd. F. S. 1. 1. 94. Neph. biserrata {Schot f). 

South India, common on the North Arcot Hills, at no g*"* 5- 
eievation ; Ceylon ; North India, Chittagong Hills, up to 1,000 f&^ ' 

(Also in Tropical Africa.) 

5. Nephrolepis ramosa. (Beauv. under Aspidium.) Rhiza** 1 
slender, wide-creeping ; stipes very short, scattered ; fronds up * 
12 inches long, 1-3 inches broad, pinnate; pinnae \-i\ inch lo* 1 ^ 



Fi 



Jli 



i~ i inch broad, slightly cre- 

nate, the Upper edge auricled 

an<i truncate, parallel with the 

stem, the lower oblique; tex- 

'ure papyraceous, rachis villous, 

both surfaces slightly villous or 

ßl»fc»rous in age ; soii near the 

rila - r 'gin ; involucre cordiforra, 

r oundish fugacious. Beauv. . 

*'** *Ju Flore d' 'Omare. Hook. 

Sy**. Ftl. 301. Neph. obliterata 

C-ÄKw*), Bedd. F.S.I. 251. 

Ceylon, central provinces, 
a »c^<^o-5,ooo feet, climbing on 
^ees ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical Africa ; 
**lȆippines; Australia; Fiji.) 




{Beauv.) 



GENUS LVI.— OLEANDRA. (Cot:) 
(Resemblance to the Oleander.) 
Sori round, inserted in a row near the base or below the centre 
°* the compact free veinlets ; involucre reniform ; fronds entire 
"■^^eolate-elliptica], stems jointed, rhizome wide -creeping. 

1. Oleandra neriiformis. (Cav.) Shoots woody, wide-creeping 
™* often suberect, clothed with short adpresscd scales which are often 
"^»«duous; stipes short, seldora 1 inch long, with the Joint below the 
mi *irile ; fronds 4-8 inches long, i-i J inch broad, in opposite pairs 
01 *ȟ ten in terminal whorls, or more rarely scattered, from narrow-linear 
*^blong-acuminate ; texture sübcoriaceous, both sides glabrous or 
™ r > underneath ; sori in two rather irregulär rows near the midrib. 
Ho °£ Fii. Exot. t. 58. Syn. Fil 302. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 264. 

Himalayas from Nepal eastwards ; Khasya ; 2,000-5,000 feet 
Ovation. 

{Also in Central America.) 




OI.EANDKA NER11POEU1S. (C«P.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



287 



a. Oleandra mus.efoi.ia. {Kunze.) Shootsfirm, wide-creep- 
ln S» clothed with long golden scales which are not deciduous; fronds 
;enerally single, scattered, or more rarely in tufts, 12-20 inches long, 
°y at»out ri inch broad, narrow oblong acuminate on stipes which 
are * ~2 inches long and jointed close to the base ; texture thin, a 
Uttle liairy on both sides and the midrib scaly below; sori in two 
"regulär rows near the midrib. Mttt, Fi/. Ind. p. 240. Hook. Syn. 
'*• 3<>ä. Oleandra nerÜformis, Bedd. F. S. I. 91. 

South India on the Western mountains, particularly abundant 
in Coorg, rare elsewhere ; Cey- 
lon, central provinces. Mr. 
Clarke considers this species 
not distinct frorn the last ; 
they appear to me as distinct 
as the others ; all four, how- 
ever, are so closely allied that 
they might be all consideted 
varieties of one species. 

3. Oleandra Waluchii. 
(Prcsl.) Caudex creeping, root- 
ing, thicker than a gnose-quill, 
denscly clothed with subulate 
crisped ferruginous, spreading 
and often reflexed scales 
thickly tufted at the extremity 
of the branches; stij>es dis- 
tant ^-3 inches long and some- 
times paleaceous, jointed close to the base, so that the very short 
lower articulation is concealed among the scales ; fronds 6-14 inches 
long, membranaeeous soft, more or less hairy, subelliptical-oblong, 
the sides parallel, the base often obtuse and rounded, the apex 
suddenly and sharply acuminate; sori compact, almost imbricated 
in a conlinuous line close to and parallel with the costa on each 
side; involucres reniform, ciliated, opening towards the margin. 




N n l47. 
OLEANDRA WaLUCHH. (Prttl.) 



288 1'ekks of British India and Ceylon. 

PresL Tent. Pter. p. 78. Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 158. Aspid Wallichii, 
Hook. Ex. Fl. \.p. 6. /. 5. Bedd. F. B. Lt. 265. 
Birma and the Malay Peninsula. 

4. Oleandra Cumingii. ( y. Sm.) Caudex creeping, scarcelj 
so thick as a writing pen, clothed with close-pressed subulate imbri- 
cated scales, stipes subterminal and subaggregated 2-7 inches lonÄ 
slightly downy, articulated within £-3 inches from the base ; fronö* 
i-ia foot long, firm membranaceous, elongate lanceolate acuminat^» 
very much attenuated and gradually decurrent at the base, pubescen* 
villous on the costa and veins, sori rather large, forming a Single an.« 
scarcely interrupted line very near to and on each side the cos*^- 
y. Sm. in Hook.Jour. Bot. iii. 413. Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 158. 2te**** 
F. B. I. t. 135. 

Birma and the Malay Peninsula. The Assam locality is doub te 
by Mr. Clarke, who thinks the specimen in the Kew Herbarium ° 
Griftuh's was collected at Malacca. The Nilgiri locality is an oX*° ' 
the specimen being mussefolia (Kze). 

(Also in the Philippines and Canton.) 



B. Exinvolucraivk. — Sori without an indusium. Tri^ e 

Polypodierc to Acrostichece. 

TRIBE X.— POLYPODIEÄ. 

Sori on the back of the iobes, round or rarely short-oblong. 

* Dcsmobryoid series, habit and mode of growth of AspiJ* £it ' 
the stems contimwus with the caudex ; sori generali)' medial on * 
veins. 

GENUS LVIL-- PHEGOPTERIS. (Fee.) 
(Fhegos, beech — the beech fern.) 

Sori round, veins forked or pinnate, veinlets free ; fronds iv° 
pinnate to decompound. Habit of Lastrea, and only dißering ffC® 
that genus in wanting an indusium. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



289 



Phegopteris Scottii. (Bedd.) Caudex suberect, stout 
clothed with brownish-black subulate scales as is the base of 
>e ; fronds pinnate, oblong, with the stipe 10-12 inches long, 
»ut 3 inches* broad, rachis furnished with hair-like scales ; 
alternate 6-7 approximated pairs, with a terminal one, lower 
)t much decreased in size, all short oblong or ovate obtuse 

Square unequal base about ii inches long, by a little iess 
inch broad, and furnished with falcate acute serratures, gla- 
>n both sides, but with a few weak setze or scales on the costa 
ns, especially beneath ; veins 
täte groups, the lower veinlet 
two lower not reaching more 
ilf-way to the margin, upper 
jrminating in a dot with in 
•gin; sori medial on the lower 
nlets. Bedd, F. B. I. /. 345. 
jar Darjeeling, Valley of the 
je, 2,000 feet elevation (per- 
n abnormal form of Lastrea 
.ta or hirtipes). 

Phegopteris erubescens. N?I4-ö. 

undtr Polypodium.) Stipes P11EG0PTER1S Sc0TTII . ( ^, 

-2 feet and more long, stout, 

as the rachis and costa more or less purplish-tawny, fronds in 

ample but varying from 1 to 4 feet in length and from 6 
to more than 2 feet in breadth, firm, sub-coriaceous, broad- 
cuminate, pinnate, pinnse 3-16 inches long, \-\\ inch wide, 
mate, sessile, eiongate-obiong, the sides parallel for a long 
i then gradually acuminated to a serrated apex, deeply nearly 
costa pinnatifid, segments oblong, subfalcate, rather acute, 
or obscurely serrated, glabrous above, beneath sparingly fur- 
with longish white needie-like hairs on the rachis and costas 
aetimes on the veins ; veins approximate, simple free, two 
ost opposite pair meeting but scarcely uniting at the sinus, 

20 




290 Fekxs ok British India and Ceylon. 

soriferous always at the very base, so as to form two linea orseries(at 
length confluent) one on each side and close to the costa, not artend- 
ing to the apex of the segment ; main rachis stout with a broad groove 
on the upper side (when dry.) Wall. Cot. n. 330. Hook. Sf* ffl* 
iv. 236. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 213. Hook.Syn. Fil. 306. 

Himalayas, Kashmir to Bhotan, Khasya, 3,000-7,000 fcet 
elevation ; Malay Peninsula, It is very like Lastrea tylodes. 

(Also in Malay Islands.) 

3. Phegopteris auriculata. {Wall, under Polypodiun*) 
Stipes stout, densely villous, with white matted hairs (as is the rachis), 
furnished below with numerous ovate black shining scales ; fronds 
ample, firm, membranaceous, 3 feet and more long, 16 inches broad, 
oblong-lanceolate acuminate, generally gradually attenuated below by 
the dwarfing of the pinnae, pinnated, pinnae numerous, about 8 inches 
long by 1 inch broad, sessile and furnished at the base on the 
under side with a curious hooked gland, sometimes nearly quarter 
inch long, pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, segments broad ob- 
long, very obtuse, entire, subfalcate, costa costules and veitf 
villous, and the segments sparingly hairy on both sides betwec° 
the veins ; veins pinnate, simple, extending to the margin, low#* 
pair entering the margin above the sinus, soriferous below the 
middie, spore cases furnished with a few long weak hairs. PoW" 
podium auriculatum, Wall. Cat. 314. Hook. Syn. Fil. 3 "" 
Bedd. F. B. I. t 203. 

Himalayas, from Gurwhal to Bhotan, 5,000-8,000 f^ 
elevation, common about Darjeeling, Khasya, Myrung woc?^ 
5,000 feet elevation. Polypodium appendiculatum, Bedd. F. B- *' 
256, is only a State of this with the pinnae not reduced * 
the base. 

(Also in Java.) 



4. Ph ego FfERis vulgaris. (Mett.) Rhizome slender creeping • 



mm 




ritECOPrems 



292 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

stipe with large lanceolate yellowish-brown scales near the 
fronds 6-9 inches long by 4-6 inches broad, subdeltoid, lowestpind^ 
as long or nearly as long as any above them, main rachis beuatt** 
with small ovate scales, pinnse 4-J inch broad, cut down nearly ^° 
the main rachis, lobes oblong blunt or scarcely acute, entire or süghtJy 
crenate, 1 j-2 lines broad, more or less pilose on both sides ; Temlc*^ 
6-8 on a side, the lower ones forked ; sori nearer the margin ttaJ* 1 
the midrib. Met/. Fil. Hort. Lips. 83. Polypodium Phego] 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 308. Clarke, F. N. I. 544. 

Cashmir, above Sonamurg, 11,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in North Europe, «Asia, and America ; Caucasus 
Japan.) 



5. Phegopteris distans. {Don. under Polypodium.) Sri] 
tufted, squamose near the base up to 2 feet long, yellowish or dar^ 
purplish-brown, glossy ; fronds up to about 3 feet long, the lower pinii 
generally reduced and distant, sometimes not at all reduced, pinn 
6-8 inches long, 1 \ inch broad, cut down nearly or quite to the rachl^ 
into deeply pinnatifid pinnules \ inch broad, with blunt or acut^ 
toothed or subentire lobes, the base dilated, texture herbaceous, räch x^ 
vilious or rarely giabrous, undersurface a little hairy ; veinlets pinnat^ 
in the ultimate lobes, peilucid ; sori generally on the lower veinlets 
below the apex, or rarely apical, the veinlet not being continued beyon^ 
the sorus. Polypodium, Don. Frod., Fl. Nep. 2. Polypodiu*** 
paludosum (£/.), Bcdd. F. S. I. t 168. P. Griffithii, Hook. Sp. &*' 
iv. 236. P. longipes, Wall. Cat. 316. P. adnatum, Wall. Cat.p 8 ' 
P. brunneum, Wall. Cat. 333. This variety "adnata," Clarke, R Ä ^ 
p. 544(which is Lastrea microstegia, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 119 zxAB^' 
F. B. I. t. 39) only differs in being a little more Compound ***** 
generally bipinnate, but it runs into the type. Var. "glabrata" 
Clarke only differs in being somewhat more giabrous. Var, " mino r 
of Clarke is a smaller, less cut form, pinnae only 1-2 inches lo^ f 
pinnatifid only one-third down, but it runs into the type. 

North India, from Kashmir to Bhotan, 3,000-8,000 feet elevati ^ 
very common ; Khasya, 3,000-5,000 ; South India, on the Weste 111 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



untains, 5,000-8,000 feet, veiy abundant ; Ceylon ; Malay 
ünsula. 



6. Phegopteris rufescens. (Blume, under Pofyfiodium.) 
»dex creeping, furnished with appressed scales and wiry roots, stipe 
6 inches long and together with the main and partial rachises 
htly asperous ; fronds 12-18 inches long by 9-12 inches broad, 
deltoid, subcoriaceous, puberulous beneath, with minute yeliow 
's, bi tripin natifid, 1. e. lower pair of pinnse often bipinnatifid, 
«r ones pinnatifid, pinnules 
ong obtuse, spinulose-ser- 
- ; veins pinnate, 3-4 on a 
-y veinlets simple or forked, 
c hing to the margin; sori 
dial on the veinlets. Poly- 
^■\aa,Bl.Ftl./av.p. 194,/. 
■ Jfaoi.Sf.-Fi7.iv.25j. Sjrn. 
r - 309. Bedd. F.S. 1. 1. 236. 
Ceylon, central provinces, 
^^0-5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Java, New Cale- 
**ia and Queensland.) 

7. Phegopteris Dryop- 
**1S. (Linn. under Poly- 
*tum.) Rhizome creeping ; 
*« with lanceolate subutate 
J«s near the base ; fronds 
8 inches long and broad, deltoid, 3-pinnate, thin green, nearly 

Qrous, often glandulose, lower pinnie largest, pinnules lanceolate, 
*y the Iowest free, oblong slightly crenate, texture thin herbaeeous, 
-l\is glabrous ; veins pinnate in the lobes, veinlets forked or simple ; 
*i submarginal a little below the apex of the veinlet. Polypodium 
■^opteris, Ltnn. Sp. PI. 1555. Hook. Syn. Fil. 309. Bedd. F. B. I. 

74. Polypodium Robertianum, Milde, Fil. Eur. 99. 




Fkrns of British India an» Ceylon. 



Kashmir, 7,000-1 1,000 feet elevation, and eastwards to KnmX* - 
(Also in Arctic and Alpine Europe, Asia and Aroerica.) 

8. Phecopteris Ornata. (IVa/l.undcr Polypcdivm) CaU^eX 
erect ; stipe, main and partial rachises with lanceolate-linear scales ano 
muricate or scabrous from their persistent bases, not pilose, viseous ö 
glaucous ; fronds very large up to 1 5-20 feet long, tripinnate, SX.C&V- 
that tliere is a very regulär wing to the rachis, pinnse generally 1 fe* 1 
ormore long and about 1 foot broad, secondary pinn.-e 1-2 inches broa^ 




N?f5|.{U N?IS2 .. 

niRGOPTKRIS DRYOPTEMS. (£/»«.) l'ITF.norTEHIS OKNATA. (Ha/1.) 



theii rachis also scabrous and scaly and furnished with long *hi te 
needle-like hairs, tertiary pinnulcs up to i inch broad, linear-oblonJS 
from a sessile square base, resting on the wing of the tertiary rachis 
rather distant from each other, acute or blunt at iheapex, deeplyolte" 
nearly to the Costa pinnatifid, the costaand often the veins furnished 
with needle-like hairs, texture thin hcrbaceous ; veinlets simple o r 
forked; sori medial. Wall. Ca/. 327. Btdd. F. S. Lt. ij'- 
Lastrea tenericaulis, Hook. Sp. Fil Iv. /. 160, not the dfsrription wtöf& 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 295 

— ~- I ■■ ■ ■ M I M M I ^ I I I I I * ■ I ■ ■-■ ^^^"^^^^^^ 

f y refers to Lastrea tenericaulis. Phegopteris pallida (Brack.), 
fc. Sp. FiL iv. 266. 

Himalayas, from Kumaon to Bhotan, in tropical Valleys up to 
3 feet elevation, common in Chittagong Hills, 500 feet elevation ; 
h India, Carccor ghat, Malabar and elsewhere along the Western 
$, but not common ; Malay Peninsula. 

One of the handsomest of Indian ferns, and much in cultivation, 
*y be a Lastrea (if Phegopteris is to be kept distinct from that 
is, the propriety of which I doubt), but no one has yet detfccted 
ndusium, in any case lt is quite distinct from Lastrea tenericaulis. 
(Also in North Australia and Polynesia.) 

9. Phegopteris punctata. (Thunb. under Folypodium.) 
Uome firm, wide-creeping, villous ; stipes scattered 1-2 feet 
g and with the lower part of the main rachis more or less viscous- 
>escent; fronds 1-4 feet long, tripinnate, pinnae up to about 
'et long, lanceolate to deltoid, secondary pinnae 4-6 inches long, 
iary pinnae sessile on the rachis, which is not winged, blunt at the 
x, and pinnated two-thirds down into short rounded crenated 
is, more or less furnished on both sides with scurfy hair-like 
es, the margins often somewhat reflexed, as in Hypolepis ; sori 
Unis towards the apex of the veinlets and near the margin. Thunb. 

J a P- 337- Phegopteris punctata, Hook. Syn. FiL p. 312. 
rpodium rugulosum, Hook. Sp. FiL iv. 272. Bedd. F. S. I. /. 
. * Polyp, rugulosum, Labill. FL Nov. Hol. ii. 92 /. 241. Hypo- 
s hostilis, Presl. (as to the Nilgiri piant.) 

Himalayas, from Chumba to Bhotan and Chittagong, 1,000- 
k> feet elevation ; South India, common on the Western moun- 
s at the higher elevations ; Ceylon, about Newera Elya ; Malay 
insula. 

(Also almost throughout the tropics and south temperate zone, 
•tiding to Japan, New Zealand, St. Helena, and Chili ; not from 
tinental Africa.) 

10 Phegopteris subdigitata. (Bhme, under Folypcditm.) 
pes tufted, flim, continuous with the rachip, furfuraceous, or 



dryini; quitc grcen, glabrous; veinlets fo 
ating well within the margin and clavat 
the apex of the veinlet. Polypodiui 
FiL 196. /. 93. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 1 
Phegopteris davallioides (Mett.), Hook 
coniifolium, Wall. Cat 326. 

fiimalayas, from Nepal to Bhotai 
common ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

GENUS. LVIIL— GONIO: 
(Gonia, angle ; pteris^ fern — the veinlets 

Habit and venation of Nephrodii 
lowest or several pairs of veinlets of coi 
at an angle from which proeeeds an e> 
tinuous with the rhizome ; fronds pinnat 
as in Nephrodium, except that there is r 

All the supposed Indian species ex< 
proved to possess an indusium in a y< 
conditions, so that they have been trai 

followin? SDPriVe H#mm *»♦"**• 




\ 



)lL,iZ2ifS' 



i 



GONIOPTERJS FROLIFEKA. (Roxi.) 



Ca/. ;, i 2, in Ca/r. jfonni. Xaf. 7//V, 
Judd. F. S. J. /. 172. Monis* 



3'5- 



Throughout the Indian region g 
ditches in the plains or low down on 

(Also in North Australia, Trop 
Islands ; Philippines ; New Caledoni 

GENUS LIX.— DICTYC 

(Diktyon, a net ; pteris, fen 

Habit and venation of Aspidiun 
mosing with or without free included 
Aspidium in wanting an indusium. 



I. DlCTYOPTERIS BARBERI. (HÖi 

long, slightly scaly at the base ; frond 
usually pinnate with a large terminal s< 
the upper ones oblong-lanceolate, 4-( 
nearly entire, the lowest pair with a de< 
on the lower side, texture subcoriaceoi 
rather large and regulär, with pnniw 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



299 



'der, glossy, stramineous, the base vcry tomentose with a few 
r se scales paitly subterraneous, attached to the caudex by a small 
nt; fronds ihin, membranaceous pale-green, glabrous, subpuber- 
us on the veins, 6-9 inches long, quite as broad as long, cordate- 
toid, subternate or pinnated with 3-9 subfalcate pinnae, lateral 
'S nearly opposite, petiolate, loivest pair half ovate, acuminate, 
> inches long, lobate-pinnaiifid, those of the superior margin with 
ad ovate nearly equal subdentkulate blunt lobes, the inferior 
■s much elongated and acuminated, the basal ones again lobate 
natifirl, intermediate pinnae ovate-lanceolate, pinnatifid, terminal 
na long petiolate, broad-ovate 



minate, deeply pinnatifid 
ecially at the base ; veinlets 
Formly reticulated, areoles 
1 no included free veintets, 
tular areoles large; sori rather 
gularly scattered, dorsal or 
»pital. Hoch. Sp. Fil. v. 104. 
'.F.B.I. t. 4. 

Moulmein ; very like small 
-imens of Aspidium cicatarium 
habit and outline, but there 

no free veins, and the sori 
more scattered and larger, 

show no signs of an in- 



3. Dictvopteris chattagramica. (Clarkt.) Rhizome short, 
t; stipes 10-11 inches long, tufted, long, black with small scales 
" the base ; fronds deltoid, distinctly dimorphic, pinnate below, 
tatifid upwards about 10-12 inches long by 6-7 inches broad, 
; * pinnae deltoid with the lowcr basal lobes much entarged, mar- 

pinnatifid, surfaces pubescent, the margin with minutc golden 
-icellular hairs; sori naked, medial or terminal on the veins. 
-■*t,KN. I.p. 548, /. 81. 

Chittagong at no elevation, very general. 




limcs free, and 5 -6 inches long, a 
often to within one-third of the c 



PÜkk 



/ 






IlJk&? 



!££> 



ÄT 



N°155. 
DICTYOPTERIS CHATTAGRAHICA. ((7/flW.V.) 

Polypodium confluens, Wa//. Ca/. 3 
The Malay Peninsula, Tenassei 




IJ1CTY0PT8RIS DIFFORMIS. (81.) 



3oj Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



texture membranaceous, surfaces glabrous ; main veins distinct to 
margin ; areoles with free included veinlets ; sori copiously scattered, 
terminal or compital. Mett. Kuhn. Litt. 36, /. 1 24. Bahr, He&- 
Syn. Fil. 506. 
Malacca. 

6. Dictyopteris heterosora. (Baker.) Stipe short bro*n, 
with spreading linear scales ; fronds oblong-spathulate, 2-3 feet long, 
simply pinnatifid, the lowest foot only a narrow wing to the rachis, 
above this 3-4 patrs of distant oblong-lanceolate acuminate puutfi 
1 \-2 inches broad at middle, confluent in a narrow wing, the lowest 
simple or bipartite, texture thin but firm, surfaces glabrous, ribs naked 
brownish ; main veins distinct to edge, 3-4 lines apart with distinct 
arches between them, and copious small areoles with free included 
veinlets ; sori very abundant, small irregulär, often confluent Bahtfy 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 506. 

Malacca, (habit of Aspidium vastum.) 

** Eremobryoid series. Sterns articulated at the point ofjundion with 
the rhizome ; sori generali} 1 ', not always, terminal on the veins. 

GENUS LX.— POLYPODIUM. (Linn.) 

(Polys, many; pous y foot; polypus, — the rhizome when destitutc of 
fronds, having the appearance of some kinds of sea polypus.) 

Veins all free; sori naked, generally punctiform, round, rarely 
oblong, generally terminal on the veinlets, or more rarely below tto 
apex ; fronds simple or pinnatifid or rarely pinnate or more 
Compound. 

* Fronds entire. 

1. Polvpodium parasiticum. {Mett.) Rhizome erect, rarely 
creeping ; stipes tufted, subsessile, hairy or fuscous , fronds 2-3 
inches long, \-$ inch broad (rarely more), narrow linear (rarely 
abnormally pinnatifid), blunt at the apex, gradually narrowed at üu: 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 



303 



«, the margin entire or slightly undulated, texture herbaceous to 
■coriaceous, both sides more or less clothed with long hairs ; veins 
re or less immersed, forked ; sori often mixed with copious hairs, 
nd or linear, at the apex of the superior veinlet forming a single 
t on each side of the costa. Hook. Syn. Fit. />. 319. Bedd. 
S. 1. 1. 165. P. mediale {Baker), Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 507. 

South India, common on the Nilgiris and other Western moun- 
is at the highest elevations ; Ceylon. (This includes P. mediale of 
ter, the sori often being linear and globose on dirTerent fronds 
the same plant, as in 
figure quoted above). 
'■ Wall sends some 
»mens from Ceylon 
th a creeping root, 
t I never saw itcreep- 
ä in the Nilgiri plant. 

I. POLYPODIUM 

bevenosum. {Baker.) 
ipes tufted, very short, 
*ck wiry ; fronds 3-4 
c tas long, J inch 
oad, ligukte, the point 
Mtish, the lower part 
Towed very gradualty, 
- edge slightly repand, 
•ture subcoriaceous, 
lotir bright green, the 

'im black, slightly für- N o, S j 

aceous below; veins i-olvi-odium i-ahasiticum. (mhi.) 

iple, very short and indistinct ; sori round, tending slightly to- 
rds oblong, in a long row on each side close to the midrib. Hook. 
t. Fü. p. 330. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 323. 
Penang. 

3. Poj.vpoüium Zevlanicum. {Afett.) Rhizome Strang, vidi- 




FhkNs of British Indta and Ceylon. 305 

reeping, clothed with broad grey scales ; stipe 1 inch or more long, 
othed with soft spreading hairs; fronds 8-12 inches long, J-| inch 
road, acuniinate, the base narrowed very gradually, the raargins 
ightly undulated ,* texture subcoriaceous, both sides naked ; veins 
rked oblique, rarely simple ; sori round, at the apex of the upper 
-inlet, or at the apex of the vein when simple, forming a single row 
1 each side of the costa. Hook. Syn. Fil. 321. Bedd. F. S. L t. 237. 
Ceylon, Newera Elya, on rocks and trees. 

4. Polypodium Wallii. {Bedd.) Rhizome creeping, scaly, fur- 
shed with numerous thick black wiry roots ; stipes 3-6 lines long, 
aly and hairy; fronds linear-lanceolate with a blunt apex 3 inches 
ng by i inch broad, thick, coriaceous, the veins quite hidden, more 
' less clothed on both sides and on the margins with delicate black 
Urs ; veins thick, forked (or simple towards the apex of the frond) ; 
>*i large, round, terminal on the superior veinlet and forming 

regulär row on each side about midway between the costa and 
fc margin. Bedd. Fern Sup. t. 380. Polypodium parasiticum, var. 
losiusculum, Thw. MS. C. P. 3921. 

Ceylon, Adam's Peak ; allied to parasiticum, but much larger 
1 d of much thicker texture. 

5. Polypodium hirtellum. (Bl.) Caudex small ascending, 

^y above ; stipes tufted i~i \ inch long, slender, filiform, villous, 

n th spreading reddish-brown hairs, fronds firm-membranaceous, 

^ear-oblong to lanceolate, 1-4 or more inches long, £-J of an inch 

btoad, quite entire at the margin, attenuated at the base, rather 

densely villous and ciliated with similar hairs to those of the stipes > 

veins spreading, simple or often forked near the base ; sori in a single 

regulär series close to the costa ; veins when simple soriferous near 

their base, when forked, soriferous at the apex of the short fork. 

BlEn. Fii \ Jav. /. 123. Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 166. Polypodium hir- 

tam, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 170, (not Mett). Bedd. F. B. I. 2T2. P. 

lasiosorum (Hook.), Bedd. F. B. I. t. 17 2. 

Ceylon. 

(Also in Java and Luzon.) 

2\ 




{ N?I5! 

POLYPODIUM HI1 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



307 



6. Polypodium SBSSlLiFOLiUH. {Hook.) Caudex sraall, erect 
iscending, scaly; stipes scarcely any; fronds tufted, membrana- 
us, firm, 3-9 inches long, 2-3 lines wide, linear, scarcely 
minated, obtuse, attenuated at the base ; veins oblique, approxi- 
:e, forked; sori oblong, parallel with the costa in lines or series inter 
üate between the costa and the margin, medial on the npper 
ilet. Hook. Fit. iv. 168. Syn. Fit. p. 32z. Bedd. F. B. f. t. 119. 

Penang. 

(Also in the Philippincs.), 

** Fronds pinnatifid. 

7. Polypodium cornicerum. ^ 
'aier.) Fronds tufted, subses- 

e, erect ligulate, 3-4 inches long, 
2) lines broad, pinnatifid or 
bpinnate, lobes 20-30 jugate, 
minishing in size from middle of 
»d both ways, almost triangu- 

f, subacute, repand on the upper 
ge; texture subcoriaceous, sur- 
Ms glabrous ; veins one to each 
be, forked, falling far short of 
e margin ; sorus large round, 
litary at fork dose to main rachis, 
id medial on the vein. Hook. 
*n. Fit. 503. Bedd. Fern Sup. 

Ceylon, Horton plains, rare, 
- P. 4005) 

8. Polypodium cuculla- «*™>»™ c«cuix*tuh. |äw.) 
nt. (iVees.) Caudex very small, ascending ; stipes densely tufted 
3 lines long, naked ; fronds subcoriaceous or somewhat membra- 
ceous, 3-5 inches long, 2-3 lines broad, flaccid, linear-lanceotate 
jininate, deeply nearly to the costa pinnatifid ; the lobes linear- 




308 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



oblong i— J line broad, those of the upper half fertile, broadet acd <"& 
the edges upcurved so as to clasp the large solitary sorus ; «so ind 
sometimes the frond deciduously pilose. Hook. Syn. FU. 314. Ca- 
lymmodon cucullatus {Pres!.), Btdd. F. S. 1. 1. 233. 

Ceylon, on rocks and trees, central and aouthem province, 
3,000-5,000 feet elevation. 

9. Poi.vponti'M khaivanum. (/f"ok.) Stipes tufted, vnydxA 
fringed with softhaiis- 
fronds up to about N 
inches long, byitW 
broad, flaccid, cutdwn 
nearly to the rachisinw 
Hnear-oblong entiieff 
slightlyundulatedblin« 
lobes 2-3 lines broad, 
texture thick subcow 
ceous; rachis and botli 
sides sparingly haiT ; ' 
veinlets simple; »n 
apical on the reWtt 
sunk in an oval ««9 
(having an elevat*" 1 
on the upper side °' ! 
the frond) in rms^ , 
4-6 oneachsideof' he . 

niidrib. Hook. Syri. Fil. 325. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 173. ■ 

Khasya 3,000-4,000 feet, near Cherra ; Assam, from Chena' 

Jowye and Jarain in Jaintea, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation, not plenli^' 

anywhere. 




10. Polvpodium trichomanoides, (Sie.) Caudex short, eK* 
paleaceous above, densely rooting with wiry fibres ; stipea short, H 
inch long, densely tufted, patent-vtllous with long fibrous hilft 
fronds 3-4 inches to a span long, 2-4 lines wide, rigid-membranaewWi 



FtRNS of British India and Ceylon. 



309 



tenuated at both extremities, deeply nearly to the costa 
or almost pinnate (quite so at the very base), lobes hori 
uent from a broad base, ovate or oblong entire, sub-concavc 
sub-dedduously ciliated with long fibrous or blackish 
rs ; veins solitary in each lobe, simple or forked, each lobe 
ingle sorus near the base of the veins and the costa. Hook. 
. 178 ; Syn. Fil. 326. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 2. 
m, 9,000-12,000 feet elevation. 
in South America, Brazil and Ecuador ; and Cuba.) 



'olvpodium gi.andui.osum. (Hook.) Caudex small, in 
inging to the bark of trees by copious 
ares, the rest of the plant all ovtr 
idulose, most so beneath ; stipes 

ltnes long, fronds 2-4 inches long, \ 
1, linear obtuse, scarcely attenuated 

extremity, rather firm-membrana- 
t-succulent, deeply nearty to the 

natifid ; segments ovate, sub-acute, 
ly patent, decurrent at the base, 

ones free, all of them serrate-pinna- 
ile, and rather distant few and ob- 
ile veins indistinct ; sori 1 -6 to each 
dobose. Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. 193. 
527. Btdd. F. S. I.t. 238B. 
m, in the central provinces, Rain- 
d summit of Wattakelia Hill. 

?olypodium THWAntsn. (Bedd.) Caudex creeping, 
ith lanceolate scales ; fronds sessile or subsessile, sub- 
, perfectly glabrous, 2-4 inches long by about 1 inch 
iecolate or oblanceolate, deeply almost to the rachis pin- 
bes 1-2 lines broad, lanceolate, blunt, rather ascending, 
less repand or sinuate-pinnatifid, the lower reduced 
to a narrow wing ; veinlets distant, erect-patent, simple or 
ly forked, where simple soriferous at the apex, where 




(Hook.) 



3io 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



forked the superior veinlet only is soriferous ; sori round, slighüj 
immersed. Bedi. F. B. 1. 1. 1 88 . Baker, in Hook. Syn. RLp.y& 
Ceylon, about Dickoya, <* 

trees, veiy sweet scented (C-P- 

3.900). 




13. POLYPODIUM DECOlW 

(Brack.) J, Caudex short, mbe 

thick, creeping, densely ferrap- 
nous-sqnamose, stipes appn»* 
mate, sub-terminal on the cauda, 
2-4 lines long ; fronds coriaaA 
glabrous, 6-12 inches long, H 
inch broad, narrow-lanceoto 
much and almost caudate** 
minate, the base very gradu^ 
attenuated into the short stipe, 
deeply and nearly to the rad* 
pinnatifid, segments horiionuDj 
patent, nanow-oblong obtuft 
quite entire, below graduallj' be- 
coming shorter and broader W» 
forming shallow elongated lobe» 
wings at the base ; costa glabroU 5 
or pilosulous, costute and «i°* 
quite sunk and inconspicuou 5 '• 
sori oblong, 2-8 in a row, oneac" 
side of the costute, and apical o" 
the short veins, which do n" 1 
nearly reach the margin, partialty 
sunk in a hairy cavity (but wÜ n 
no raised border). Hook. Sf- 
Fii. iv. 179. Brack. Fil. U«. $ 
f. 2. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 238a. P. sem, WA 



(RcäU.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



3" 



South India, on the Tinnevelly Mountains, near Courtallum ; 
eylon, Singhe Rajah Forest; Singapore and Mount Ophir; North- 
est India, near Mandal (Edgeworth). 

(Also in Borneo, Luzon, Tahiti.) 



14. Polypodium füscatum. (BI.) Stipes tufted, 1-3 inches 
«ig, densely clothed with soft spreading hairs ; fronds 3-6 inches 
mg, i-r inch broad, cut down nearly to the rachis throughout into 
loseentireobtuse pinnse, 
line broad, the lower 
nesshorter and broad er, 
ature subcoriaceous, 
ichts and both sides 
ünly clothed with soft 
airs; veins obscure, sim- 
'le ; sori forming a close 
w 011 each side the 
lidnb, at last filling 
«rty the whole surface. 
took. Syn. Filp. 331. 
*dlF. £././. 324- 

Ceylon. 

(Also in Java.) 

* * * Fronds ptnnate. 



15. Polypodium 
'"Uquatum. {£/.) Stipes 
"fted, 1 inch or more 
3n gi rigid, naked or vit- 
™s; fronds up to 15 inches long and 2 
M down to the rachis throughout into entire close subhorizontal 
Mar pinnce, i-rj lines broad, dilated at the base, the lower ones 
varfed, texture subcoriaceous ; rachis naked or nispid, both sides 
üed ; Yeinlets simple, not reaching the margin ; sori sunk in a 
vity 4-6 on each side, apical on the veinlets ; the edges of the 




N?I65. 

(Brach.) 

inches broad, pinnate, being 



lc=rt »lc pinnse sometimes undulated. Hook. Syn. Fil. 328. Bedd. 

' «S". /. 167. Cryptosorus, He. Ccelopteris, A. Br. 

South India, Anamallay Mountains, up the Toracadu River, 
+ * 0<: > 0-5,000 feet elevation, Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills; 

e yl«n, common on trees about Newera Elya. 

16, Polypodium 

"■■^■JUTDÜMIM. {Meli.) 

^^■Ucaex stout, erect, 

w ' lt h densely matted 

"^Qts; stipes tufted, 

ver y short, naked or 

halry; fronds 4 -6 

incheg i on& a b ut 1 

inc h broad, cut down 

to thetachis throu^h- 

° u *» into erect-patent 

•"Untcrenated pinnse 

»~t lines broad ; tex- 

tu *e subcoriaceous ; 

"^his naked, or 

w >th a few very long 

"airg; surfaeesnaked, 



rmA 



w »ith long hairs 
^«eathonthecosU; 
y ei olets simple, fall- 
ln 8 Short of the mar- 
P ; sori slightly 
ltn m e rsed, filling 
nea >-ly the «hole 
s Pac e between the 
'drib and the margin, and apical on the veinlets. 




Hook. Syn. Fil. 



5*8. Polypodiam subfalcatum, var. ß, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 189B. 
?ol yp. minutum (Baker), Hook. Syn. Fil. 328, as far as the Ceylon 
*****( isconemud. C. P. 3073. 

Ceylon, higher parts of central provinces, on trunks of trees. 



3'4 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



17. Polypodium subfalcatum. (BL) Rhizome erect ; stip 
densely tufted, clothed with soft spreading hairs ; fronds a-10 inch» 
long, by J-i inch broad pinnate, i.e. cut down to the rachis into clo* 
spreading pinnse ; pinna; hairy on both sides, soft in tcxtuie, ratb- CI 
sharply toothed sometimes one-third ot half-down, decnrrent at tn* 
basc, the lower ones gradually reduced ; veinlets simple, not reachifS 
the margin ; sori apical on the veinlets one to each tooth or \a*^ 
ofthepinnae. Bi.ffl.Jav. 186, /. 87. A.B. Hook. Syn. /&J** 
Polyp, parvulum, Bt&~' 
F.S.I.t.\66,*otB<t*CJ- 
P. subfalcatum, *^j 
F.B.I. i8g,ßg. A.{>^^ 
fig. B.) P. parvnlu«^ 
Tktt: En. PI. Zey. ^~J 
394 ««/ort, C. P. \t<r~ 
»0/3073. Itdiffersfro* 1 
the last in being soft L^ 
texture instead of cori^*' 
ceous, in being mut*-" 
more hairy(repandulurr#"^ 
being generali)- quit^ 
glabrous), in being ser—" 1 
rateinstead of crenulate,** 
and in the sori not ^ 
being immersed. Mr. - 
Thwaitesinctudedthem * 
1 subfalcatum. (Bi.) both under his parvu- ' 

lum, and Mr. Baker has the former both under repandulum and 
minutum in the Synopsis Filicum. 

South India, Nilgiris Lamb's Rock near Conoor, Anamallays 
banks of Toracadu river, 4,5000 feet ; Ceylon, central provinces ; 
North India, Himalayas from C-urwhal to Bhotan, 5,000-9,000 feet 
elevation ; Khasya. Mr. Clarke says that some of the Khasya 
speeimens ore as small as P. trichoraanoides, but that species has 
only one sorns to each pinna, whilst this has the pinna polysorus, or 





POLYPODIUM UARE.EFOKME. (Ht>l>k.\ 



3i6 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

one to each lobe of the pinna, besides the sori are diffeier**' 
situated. 

* * * * Fronds Compound, 

l8. POLVPODIUM DAREiEFORME. (Hook.) Rhixome SttM ^ 

creeping, clothed densely with filiform golden scales ; stipes 6 " 

inches long, articulated on the rhizome, naked, glossy ; front 
12-18 inches long, 8-12 inches broad, sub-deltoid, 3-4-pinnatc 
Darea-like; pinnae 1-2 inches broad, lanceolate deltoid ; seconda^c -fl 
pinnae £ inch long, tertiary pinnae small, forked or pinnate ; tfcr^^ 
ultimate segments narrow, almost filiform bluntish, texture herl»'^** 
ceous, rachis glossy, both sides quite naked; veins one to eac 
ultimate segment, not reaching the margin, and thickened at tl 
apex, and bearing the sorus low down ; sori extending beyond 
margins of the segments ; indusium none. Hook. Sp. FtL iv. 25» 
Syn. Fi/. 339. Acrophorus Hookeri, Bedd. F. B. I. 95 (not 
which is Leucostegia Hookeri.) 

Himalayas and Khasya, 4,000-5,000 feet elevation. Tl -Miis 
cannot belong to Phegopteris as the stipes are articulated with £ ~be 
rhizome ; it is very probably a Leucostegia, but no indusium is to be 

detected in the many examples that I have examined ; it has lo — "ig 
been confused with Leucostegia Hookeri, which it closely resemb fcs 
in habit. 



GENUS LXL— GONIOPHLEBIUM. (Pres/.) 
(Gonia, angle ; phebes, veins — the veins forming angles.) 




Veins forming am ple regulär areoles, each with a simple or rar^^/ 
forked free included veinlet, on which the sorus is terminal, often^_ w 
the costal areoles only, but sometimes also in the second or evea XW* e 
third row, marginal veinlets free; sori non-indusiate, globose *^ T 
rarely oblong ; fronds pinnatifid or pinnate (simple in some speci^ 5 
not Indian); rhizome wide-creeping, the stipe articulate oa the 
rhizome ; pinnae articulate with the rachis. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 317 

* Fronds pinnatifid or somewhat pinnate at the base only. 

1. Goniophlebium AMiENUM. {Wall.) Caudex creeping, 
)ut, densely paleaceous, with fenuginous subulate scales, which 
i sub-adpressed, never hair-pointed ; stipes a span to a foot or 
3re long, stramineous or brown ; fronds 1 to nearly 2 feet long, 
10 inches wide, glabrous or sub-pubescent, ovate, terminating in a 
lceolate acuminate subentire segment, deeply pinnatifid to within 
3 lines of the costa, segments horizontal, more or less approximate, 
8 inches long, \^\ inch wide, subfalcate from a broad base, 
siform gradually acuminate, entire, or coarsely dentate-serrate, 
vest pair deflexed, veins forming one costal series of moderately 
ed soriferous areoles, and sometimes two (the second not sori- 
ous), marginal veinlets free, soriferous veinlet always arising from 
» vein at a distance from the costa ; sori subglobose sunk (papil- 
;e on the upper s*de.) Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 24. Wall. Cat. n. 290. 
dd. F. B. I. t. 5. 

Himalayas, from Gurwhal to Bhotan, 4,000-11,000 feet ele- 
tion, common ; Khasya 3,000-6,000 feet. (Clarke's var. 
iglensis from Tpnglu near Darjeeling, appears only to differ in 
» pinnae being blunt at the apex, there is, however, only one poor 
reimen known of it.) 

2. Goniophlebium subama:num. {Clarke.) Rhizome slender, 
nsely clothed with grey-brown lanceolate-subulate scales, which are 
badpressed, never hair-pointed, near the base of the main rachis 
» sometimes ovate or lanceolate scales ; stipes about 2 inches long ; 
mds 6 inches long, deeply pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, lower 
rments much abbreviated and deflexed, all serrated at the margins ; 
stal arches of the main rachis continued nearly or quite to the base 

the frond ; main rachis above glabrous or puberulous. Clarke, 
N. Lp. 550, /. 82,/ 2. 

Very nearly allied to amaenum, and perhaps only a form of it, 
(fers in its slender rhizome and small size. 

Himalayas, on the ridge between Sikkim and Nepal, 11,000- 
,000 feet elevation, very abundant. 




INIOPhTI-EHTUM AM*MUM. (iVall.) 



Ferns op British India and Ceylon. 



3'9 



3. Goniophlebium lachnopus. ( Wall.) Rtiizome more slen- 
than in amraum, densely clothed with hair-pointcd brown-black 

es spreading from small bases ; base of the rachis orten with a few 
lar scales ; stipe 2-4 inches long, slender naked ; fronds flaeeid, 
*8 inches long, 3-4 
.es hroad, cut down 

ly to the rachis 
spreading slightly- 
hed segments { inch 
L<i, texture herba- 
is, both sides naked, 
the rachis beneath 
ltly scaly, and pubes- 

above; costalareoles 
Jsingle series^(never 
as sometimes oecurs 
inwenum), or rarely 
veins are all free (not 
»ing areoles) ; soriin 
ingle series in the are- 
s,orat theapex ofthe i 
kedveinletwhenthere j 
lo anastoraosis. Wall. : 
'/■ 310. Hook. Syn. 
' 34a. Btdd. F. B. I. 
:«3. Chrfct, F. N. I. 
351. 

Himalayas, from 
Lshmir to Bhotan, 
•00-3,000 feet eleva- 
O, very common. 
lasya, 3,000-5,000 
t elevation. 

4. Goniophlebium erythrocarpum. {Afett.) Rhizome \ line 
ck, glaueous, firm, wide-creeping, scales lanceolate, dark-castaneous, 




GONIOPHLEBIUM 



320 Fekns ok British India and Ceylon. 

minute, not hair-pointed ; stipe 3-4 inches long, naked, stramineous, 
very slender; frond oblong-deltoid, 3-4 inches long, ij-a inches 
broad, pinnatifid nearly to the rachis, lobes 5-10 jugate, ligulateblunt, 
3-4 lines broad, obscurely repand, adnate, only the lowest narrowed 
at the base, on the lower side scarcely shortened, texture rigidly 
subcoriaceous ; rachis and costas below and under surface pflosc; 
main veins raised, very distinct to nearly the edge, costal areoles in 
one or two series, the second series when present generally withoutt 
free veinlet in lower areole, sometimes forked, or rarely netted and 
graduatiog into the venation of Pleopeltis ; sori in a Single series in 
the lower areoles. Mett. Kuhn. Zinn. 36, /. 135. Hook. Syn.M 
511. Bedd. F. B. I. Sup. 382. 

All my specimens from Messrs. Clarke and Atkinson ha« 
typical Goniophlebium venation, so also have nearly all the speci- 
mens at Kew. Mr. Clarke, however, has removed the species to 
Pleopeltis, because some specimens gathered by him have the costal 
areoles less defined and the veinlets somewhat netted and graduat- 
ing into the venation of Pleopeltis. I look upon these as abnor- 
mal, the whole habit of the plant being that of Goniophlebium. 

Sikkim, I^acheen, 9,000-11,000 feet elevatum, Yakla valley, 
8,000 feet. 

5. Goniophlebium Hendersoni. {Atkinson, MS.) Rhixome 
very slender, glaucous, wide-creeping, clothed with hair-pointed 
scales ; stipes 3-4 inches long, naked or scaly, very slender. 
grey, stramineous ; fronds narrow-lanceolate 8-10 inches long. 
1J-2 inches broad, deeply nearly to the rachis pinnatifid, or 
the lower lobes or pinnae quite free ; pinnae or lobes 20-30 pair» 
patent lanceolate acute, 3-4 lines broad, distantly incised, all except 
the lowest dilated at their base, texture moderately firm, surfaces 
green, naked ; areoles and sori uniserial, the latter near the midrib, 
not crowded, occasionally the veins are all or nearly all quite free and 
not anastomosing, or forming areoles, costal arches of the main 
rachis prominent, very long and narrow, absent of course at the base 
of the larger fronds, where it is pinnate, not pinnatifid. Hoch. Syn. 
Fil. p. 511. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 383. 



$22 Y\ rs> w Bkiti.sii 1m>ia and Ceylon. 



Himalayas, dividing ridge between Sikkim and Nepal, and noi 
of the Jongri, 11,000 to 13,000 feet elevation, very abundant 

6. Goniophlebium microrhizoma. (Clarke.) Rhizome 1 li*»* 
thick, firm wide-creeping, clothed with grey-brown ovate or lanceotaJt* 
scales, not hair-pointed; base of the rachis often witha fewsimilar 
stipes 4-5 inches long; fronds lanceolate, often caudate at the t] 
about 1 foot long by 3-4 inches wide, deeply nearly to the nd*» 5 
pinnatifid, the lowest pinnae sometimes free ; pinnae 20-30 pair» 
patent lanceolate acute, 3-4 lines broad, distantly incised, textuie her- 
baceous, rachis glabrous above, castaneous beneath ; areoles aod sofi 
uniserial, or all the veins often quite free, and not foiming areoles. 
Clarke, F. N. I. 55 1. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 5 1 1 . Bedd. F. £. L t. fi+ 

Kashmir to Bhotan, 5,000-8,000 feet elevation, very common. 

* * Fronds distinctly pinnate throughout. 

7. Goniophlebium molle. (Bedd.) Rhizome creeping, si* 
of the stem of a tobacco pipe, densely covered with reddish bro*& 
subulate scales ; fronds 1 J foot long, 7-8 inches broad, oblong aoi' 
minate membranaceous, pinnae numerous, 3-4 inches long, £anincb 
wide, furnished on both sides as is the rachis with soft weak whitish 
hairs, sinuate-crenate, superior base often subauricled, superior ooes 
decurrent on the rachis, remainder sessile from a broad base,or 
inferior ones subpetiolate ; veins forming two series of areoles, the 
lower of which has the soriferous veinlet arising from the side of the 
areole distant from the costa, marginal veinlets free or rarely uniung, 
simple or forked. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 206. Polypodium Beddomei 
(Baker), Hook. Syn. Fil. ind Edit. 344. 

Malay Peninsula, in Tenasserim. 

8. Goniophlebium subauriculatum. (Bf. undcr Polypodium). 
Rhizome creeping, stoloniferous, densely clothed with narrow acuffli- 
nate, often hair-pointed scales, subpruinate ; stipes a span to a foot 
and more long, sparingly paleaceous, rufous-brown ; fronds firm, 
subcoriaceous, glabrous, 2-6 feet long, a foot and more wide, pinnated, 
pinnae horizontal, numerous yet remote, 3-10 inches long, jto nearly 
1 an inch wide, shortly petioled and jolnted on the rachis from * 



Ferns of British Ikdia axd Ceylon. 



323 




iewhat cordate or truncated and occasionally auricled base, linear- 
c eokte, finely and gradually acuminated, serrated ; veins forming a 
ifele costular series of areoles, includinga free venule, ofwhich the 
^1 series is soriferous, mar- 
*5 veinlets free ; sori in a 
Sie series forming slightly 
v ated pustuleson the superi- 
aide. BL Fil.Jav.p. 177, f. 

• Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 31. 
f rfrf. F. B. 1. 1. 78. 

Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet N 

evation; Malay Peninsula. uoniophlibium si 
(Also in Malay Islands and Queensland.) 

9. GONIOPHLEBIUM ARCITCM. (Wall, under Poiypodi 
thizome thick as a writing- 
iiill, squarrose withovate-acute 
101t bkckish or brown glossy 
ireading scales, stipes 3-4 
dies to a span long, brown 
ossy ; fronds finn-membra- 
iceous, glabrous, 1-2 feet 
ng, 8-10 inches broad, pin- 
ited, pinnse distant sub 
irizontally patent, 4-6 inches 
ng, i-i inch wide, frorn a 
oader but obtusely and ob- 
jue cuneated or subtruncatcd 
ise (rarelyrotundate-auricled) 
ongate-oblong, acuminate, 
ttherobtusely serrated, lower 
-\es often opposite, the rest 
ternate, superior ones more üomoriiLEMUM aruutum. (Wall.) 

• less adnate and decurrent, terminal one similar to the rest, veins 
rming a cnstal series of largc oblong suriferous areoles ; marginal 
iins enditig in a thickened apex within the margin all free ; sori su|>or- 




324 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



{ 




..„/■ - 




i 



ficial at the apex of the free veins in the costal areoles. IValL C**~ 
//. 308. Hook. Sp. FiL v. 32. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 6. 

Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhotan, 4,000-9,000 feet dtf"*~ 
tion, very common. Closely allied to the last species. 

IO. GONIOPHLEBIUM VERRUCOSUM. (Jfall. Hndcr PofypodtU*-) 

Rhizome long, stout creeping, very paleaceous; stipes i^ footandmor e 
long; fronds 2-3 feet long, oblong-acuminate, firm-membranaceottS» 
drooping; pinnae nuinerous but distant, 6-9 inches long, i -1 * 
inch broad, oblong costate, articulate upon the rachis, suddenly >&<* 
shortly cuspidate-acuminate entire or serrated chiefly towards tbeape** 

T* nearly sessile, the base obliquely cuneate » 
primary veins slender but straight a&<* 
parallel costuliform, forming with the 
anastomosing veins four or five serics o* 
areoles each with a free included veinte*» 
but of which the lowest series only is 5°" 
riferous ; sori in a Single series next t* 1 
costa sunk in a deep cavity, having a c° r 
responding pustule on the upper && c ' 
Wall. Ca f. n. 296. Hook. Sp. FiL v. 3 
Bedd. F. B. I. t. 257. 

Malacca and Penang. 
(Also in the Philippines.) 

Mr. J. Smith has separated tluse Fast Indian species of G0* 1 
f* klein um from the American because tke pinnce'are articulated witft 
rackis, and he has constituted tlu genus SchelloUpis for them. 



\ 



- + 



.*< 



-r 










v\. - 

x — • * — 

N°I75. 




Ul- 



('.OXIOI'flLKHIUM 
V K K R 17 COS UM. ( Wall. ) 



GENUS LXIL— NIPHOBOLUS. (Kuulf.) 

(Nipkos, of snow; bolus, a large pill — the snow-like scales 

round sori.) 



n) 



Fronds on their under surface matted with woolly or cott ^Vj 
tomentum ; sori globose or elliptic, superficial or immersed, buT*^\ 
in the tomentum ; veins internal, obscure, pinnate, prominent 



Fkrns of British India and Ckylox. 325 



orm from a central costa, venules anastomosing sometimes trans- 
5 ^ly parallel, forming parallelogrammoid areoles, with excurrent 
- or occasionally connivent or anastomosed veinlets, sometimes 
ting in roundish or oblong hexagonal unequal oblique areoles, with 
lously directed simple or divaricately forked veinlets, the veins of 
5 fertile frond when contracted less developed ; fronds simple or 
fcly lobed, rigid, coriaceous, opaque, the fertile often contracted. 

1. Niphobolus adnascens. (Sit*, under Polypodium.) Rhizome 
'de-creeping, paleaceous with lanceolate-setaceous scales ; stipes dis- 
n *> 1-2 inches long, furnished at the base with lanceolate-linear 
* e n hairy scales; fronds dimorphous, carnose-coriaceous, dark 
*fc*i above, but hoary with sparse Stellated pubescence beneath, and 
^cr and even white with more copious compact hairs ; sterile fronds, 
'4 inches long, spathulate or elliptical-lanceolate, obtuse ; fertile ones 
"8 inches long, linear or oblong obtuse or acute, both kinds tapering 
fow into the stipe, costa sub-carinate, costules sunk obscure, their 
soles including four (sometimes only three or two) veinlets, which are 
fceraUy free with clavate apices, though they sometimes anastomose ; 
r i deep sunk in the tomentum and in the substance of the frond on 
c h side of the costa, arranged 5-6 in obliquely transverse series, 
Psules long stalked, mixed with long stalked Stellated scales. 
*'• Syn. Fil.pp. 25 and 228. Hooker. Sp. Fil. v. 47. Bedd. F. S. 
*• 184. Wall. Cat. 268. Polyp, verrucosum, Wall. Cat. n. 267. 
vittarioides, Wall. Cat. /..270. P. pertusum, Wall. Cat. 267. 

Throughout India from the plains up to 4,500 elevation; Ceylon ; 
*lay Peninsula. 

CAlso in China ; Fiji ; Mascareen Islands, Camfcroon Mountains. ) 

2. Niphobolus LiEvis. (/. Sm.) Rhizome slender, wide-creep- 
ß» clothed with linear setaceous scales ; stipes distant, somewhat 
°y i inch to nearly 2 inches long, furnished with a tuft of scales 

Ü*eir base ; fronds coriaceous, linear-lanceolate, much narrowed 
^^ds the apex, 2 J-6 inches long, £- J inch broad, glabrous above, 
^y 'with Stella te pubescence beneath ; venation obscure, costules 
^ areoles in three series between the costa and margin, with one, 



Fkrxs of British India and Ckyi.on. 327 



or three clavate veinlets in each, which are variously directed, 
1(5 or rarely joined to the basc of the areole above ; sori large, 
ttially sunk in the tomentum, often confined to the apex of the 
)n d, or scattered, or covering nearly all the under surface. Bedd. F. 

f~ t. 161. P. Niphobolus jaintense, Clarke, F. N. I.p. 552, /. 8a. 
Khasya hüls, Jaintea, Jarain, 3,500 feet elevation. Considered 
'ariety of adnascens by Mr. Baker, but sufficiently distinct in its 
Ration, I think, to rank as a species. 

3. Niphobolus acrostichoides. {Sw.) Rhizome wide-creep- 
>t branched, younger portions squarrose, with rather large bright fer- 
tfnouslanceolate scales; stipes 1-3 incheslong furnished at thebase 
h obtuse scales; frond hard coriaceous, 1-2 feet and more long, 

1 inch wide, glabrous above, beneath whitish or tawny, steilate- 
aentose (tomentum very deciduous) elongate-lanceolate or linear 
Use ; sterile fronds generally the broadest ; areoles 5-7 between the 
ta. and margin, each with 3-6 veinlets free and simple, or variously 
ted and anastomosing ; sori rather small, prominent, very compact, 
LOxally occupying the upper part of the frond, arranged in 6-8 
icjue very close series between the costules. Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 29 
^ 225. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 44. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 81. Polyp furfu- 
eum, Wall. Cat. n. 278. 

Burma and the Malay Peninsula generally. I have specimens 
*** Tenasserim 2 feet long and only \ inch wide. 

4. Niphobolus Heteractis. (Mett.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 
- scales copious lanceolate-linear, not adpressed golden ; stipes 
stant up to 7 inches long, more or less scaly ; fronds oblong, 
tih a long acumination about 6 inches long by ij inches broad, 
oriaceous, the fertile not generally contracted, upper surface glabrous, 
ower clothed with close compact stellate scales, the rays of which are 
Jroad, with filamentous hairs admixed; areoles in 8-9 series 
tttween the costa and margin, each including 2-3 veinlets, which 
re generally forked and more or less anastomosing ; sori rather large 
ld prominent. Mett. Kuhn in Zinn. 36, 140. Clarke, F. N. I. p. 
J5« N. Lingua, Hook. Syn Fil. 350, /// part, and p. 512. Bedd. 

: supt. t. 385. 



328 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Sikkim and Bhotan, 4,000-6,000 feet elevation ; Khwy 3 * 
3,000-5,000 feet. This is very near the Japan Lingua, but it appea** 
to difler sufficiently to be considered a species, besides the filamen- 
tous hairs radiating round the scales, which it requires a magnitying 
glass to detcct, the habit is somewhat different and the scales oftH* 
rhizome more free and copious. 



^ 









5. Niphobolus pannosüs. (Mett.) Rhizome wide-creeptoÄ» 
slender, scales linear, dark coloured, closely adpressed ; stipes up *• 

6 inches long, stellately scaly 
fronds lanceolate up to 6 inch< 
long by i£ inch broad, na-*"" 
rowedat both ends, coriaceoi» Ä 
glabrous above, at least in a£^ 
beneath densely matted tfit* 1 
stellate scales, the rays of wnic* 
are hair-like ; areoles in abo*- 1 * 
seven series between the cos*** 
and margin, each including * " 
4 veinlets which are simp^ e * 
forked, free, or variously an 3 - 6 ' 
tomosing ; sori crowded, rath e 
small, 5-6 in a row bet**e en 
the main veins, not reachi 11 ^ 
the margins. Mett. Ku^' 
Linn. 36,/. 141. Hook. S)*' 




N?I77. 

NiPiionoi.rs l'ANNosus. (Mett.) 

Fi/. 512. Niphobolus Lingua, Bcdd. F. S. I. /. 240. 

Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet elevation ; Tenasserim. 



6. Niphobolus stigmosus. (Sw.) Rhizome wide-creeping, st^ u 
rufous-paleaceous with slender subulate scales ; stipes subaggreg***^ 
1-6 J inches long, angled ; fronds a span to iJ-2 feet and more \of*&' 
1-2-3 inches and more broad, firm, coriaceous, in age glabr*? 
above, beneath densely stellatc-tomentose and subfurfuraceous (tom^ n * 
tum forming a close coat), lanceolate or suboblanceolate acumina^ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



329 



»ally tapering below and decurrent upon the stipes, costutes 
ict, elevated on the under side ; sori immersed, very minute and 
Wous, arrangcd in compact closely placed lines or series between 
~ostules and in erjually-compact series transversely with them ; 
l« in about ro series between the costa and margin, each in- 
»ng many veinlets which are much branched and anastomosin g, 

Syn. Fil. 29, 226. N. costatus, Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 50. Wall. 

f. 265. Bedä. F. B. 1. 1. 120. 

Himalayas, from Gurwhal to 
tan, 2,000-6,000 feet elevation, 
isya, 2,000-3,000 feet, Paras- 
, 2,500 feet ; Tenasserim ; 
-ondah Hüls West of Vizaga- 
m. My Birma specimens have 
long atipes and the frond scarcely 

irent, my Himalaya and Viza- 

a specimens have the frond very 
h decurrent, and the stipe very 

7- NlPHOBOLUS SUBFURFURA- 

;. (Hook.) Rhizome short, 
ched, creeping, the younger 
ches paleaceous with femiginous 
late scales, stipes subaggrcgated, 

inches long, nearly glabrous, 
3s 24-30 inches long, 4-5 inches 
, broad-lanceolate or oblanceolate, sharply acuminated below, 
ually and much attenuated upon the stipes, glabrous above, 
itely se IIa te-tomen tose beneath, the tomcntum thin, firm and 
: so as to appear subfurfuraceous or compactly pannose of a 
ish colour, costa stout, costules evident but not elevated ; vena- 

indistinct, quite that of true Campyloneuron, the areoles from 
'■o in a series between the costa and the margin, each with 
'«rousfS-üjincluded free or scarcely anastomosing soriferous vein- 
; sori rather small, elevated, subglobose (not in the least sunk), 




I.SV.I 



330 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



forming as many arched series between the costules as theit»** 
areoles. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 52. Btdä. F.S.I.t. 259. 

Bhotan and Mishmee. The areoles are much morc nuow»*" s 
thanin stigmosus, and theinduded veinleis a'so more nuroerous, b»-* 1 
much less anastomosing, the fronds in myspecimens are oftbinn^ 1 
tpxt.iire. the veinlets being visible (without soaking the frond). 



8. NlPHOTtOLfS FISPUK. 



(ßf.) Rhizome creeping, paleaceoc-» s 
wich ftmiginous scates, stipes ?^0~ 
gregated short scarcely any or 3— ' J 
inches long, and then winged C^ 1 
margined to the base ; fronds <*^*' 
nose-coriaceous 6 inches to i IbC^ 
and more long, { an inch to 1-1 "^ 
inch wide, lanceolate or lipearta"-* 
ceolate or even linear, often fi«l tJ 
acuminated, the margin quite eDW 
(or rarely spuriously and very ui^^" 
equally pinnatifid with remotelon — ^ 
and narrow Segments), from tl£ ^~~~, 
the middle gradually attenuati.^ - 
downwards to the caudex, at fiis^ 8 " 
wholly tomentose with ferrughioi» s 
Stellated hairs, at length glabw*-* 
on the upper sidc and depress»^"" 
purctate, the dots correspondi**-** 
with the sori ; venation quite s""*^ 
veins pinnate but not pron.incnt, venules Iransversely parallel ai» 
forming with the veins parallelogrammoid areoles (about five betwe^ 
costa and margin), with two, sometimes only one, excurrent f re f 
clavate veinlets in each areole ; sori copious and at first quite sU 1 "* 
among the tomentum app*aring in the form of small tubercles, * 
length a circular opening appears, but the sori scarcely rise above *** 
surface of the tomentum, arranged in series. Bl. Fil. Jav. p. 58» 
24. Niph. porosüs, Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 48. B<dJ. F. S. I. f. i 83 ' 




(B/.\ 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



331 



jdium porös« m, Wall. Cat. n. 266. Niph. Schmidianus, Ku. 
Zeit. vi,/. tat. Polyp, myswense {Htyni), Wall. Cat. 269. 
floccigerus (Afelt.), Bedii. F. Sup. t. 386. 
outh India, Western mountains, 3,000-8,000 feet elevation ; 
n, central provinccs ; Himalayas and Khasya, 2,000-7,000 
levation ; Malay Peninsula. (The Khasya floccigerus only 
in the fronds being narrower.) 

. NlPHOBOLUS FLOCCULOSÜS. 

I Rhizome short, stout densely 
especially at base of stipes, 
inely subu'ate golden scales ; 

2-8 inches long, aggregated, 
d as are the fronds with 

«rhitish or brownish stellate 
itum; fronds 4-16 inches 
>y}-il broad, camo c e-coria- 

lanceolate, finely acumina'e, 
iuate, moderately attenuated 
lecurrent, or broad and une- 
' hastate at the base, in age -- 
ms above and blackish punc- )'-... 
venation immersed, costules '; 
inet, areoles 9-16 each with ,- . 
ncluded veinlets which arc ' l 
illy free, simple or forked, 

rarely anastomosing with a N1 
:t from the top of the areole ; sori scarcely Sivnk, small but 
ly elevated above the tomentum, very copious, arranged in 
ir rows between the costules. Don. Frod. Fl. Nep. 1. N. 
jibilis, Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 49. Btdd. F. B. I t. 162. P. costa- 

Wall. Cat. 265, porlly. 
Himalayas, Gurwhal to Bhotan, up to 5,000 feet elevation, 
ya, extending into the Sylhet plains. 

10. Niphobolus Ciardnf.bi. {Afttten.) Rhisome short-creeo- 




132 



Fkrns of British India and Ceylon. 



ing, the younger pirtions densely ferrugineous-paleaccout ; s"P^ 
approximate, arising from a scaly branch of the caudex, 3-4 ine" 
long ; fronds about a foot long, camose-coriaceous lanceolate, ° 

tusely acuminate, gradually itt**" 

' * uated upon the stipes, densW 

clothed with a very compact fi frr 

cj c sub-furfuraceous mass of whjt* 5 

. r or ferruginous Stellated tomentiH » 
H costa and primary veins or C* 
t$ tules slightly elevated bene»'" 1 ' 
venation of Carapyloneuru» 11 ^ 
, . secondary iransverse veins tnO*'^ 
obscure, areoles about 7 betir*^* 
the raain costa and margin, each including 2-4 veinlets, which »*"* 
generally simple with a clavate apex, rarely forked and ra*"^*' 
anastomosing with adjoining veinlets; sori superficial (not sunk) * n 
3-4 series, parallel with the c*^ * 
tules and 10-12 transverse sei"** 5 
between ihe costa and the marg* * 
Mitten. Polypoä. p. 129. JSß***** 





Sp. Fil. 
f. 241. 



Beäd. F. 5- 



Ceylon, rocks and trees 
central and southern provinces '*- 3 ' 
10 3,000 feet ; South India, A-*~* * 
mallay Hills, 5,000 feet elevät*« = * n 

II. NlPHOBOLUS PENAl**^'' 

anus. {Hook.) Rhizome sht*^ 
creeping; stipes scarcely a.»*X' 
fronds submcmbranaceous, * ' 
foot and more long, 2 j incheswi*' 6 ' 
NirwwoLus penasgianus. {l/oobA oblanceolate finely acuminate, *b e 
base much and gradually attenuated, sessile, the margin irregulär'/ 
sinuated, glabrous above (at leasl in maturity), beneath thW 
clothed with fuscous stellated hairs, venation internal, but manift* 1 



I 

t 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



333 



n viewed between the eye and the light, costules not elevated, 
les 10-12 between the costa and the Inargin, including 2-4 
>Ie or forked clavate soriferous veinlets; sori prominent (not 
t). forming a broad mass in the disk of the upper half of the 
d, not reaching the margin ; capsules mixed with long stipitate 
»te Stellated scales. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 52. Hook. Ic. PI. t. 203. 
. Fil. 83, Polycarpium, Pr. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 121. 
Penang, Tenasserim (Parish). 

1 2. NlPHOBOLUS BOOTHU. 

*>k.) Rhizome Short with lan- 
late-linear golden scales; stipes 
<> inches long, and stout in pro- 
tion, tawny brown, paleaceous, 1 
* imbricating ferruginous lanceo- 
: scales only at the very base ; 
■*d camosc-ooriaceous, 16-24 
hes long, 3-4 inches wide, el- 
»c-lanceolate, obtusely acuminate, 
deratety attenuated, glabrous, and 
ictated above with minute black- 

dots (probably corresponding 
\ the receptacles of the sori), 
«ath covered with a dense vel- 
r mass of ferruginous Stellated 
■entum ; primary costular veins 
lent but not prominent, unitedby 
isverse arched veins, forming 
»y series of areoles, each with 
included veinlets, whichare much 
Dched or anastomosing ; sori 1 
dl, partially sunk in the tomentum 
crung transverse lines between the costules and as manyas there are 
Öles. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 53. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 258. 

Bhottn. 




334 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



13. NlPHOBOLUS NUMMULARIAFOLIUS. (Stif. UfuUr AcTOStiÄ»*)' 

Rhizome slender wide-creeping, filiform, clothed with bright ferro- 
ginous lanceolate fibrinöse scales ; fronds dimorphous, carnose-cona- 
ceous, the barren ones roundish or elliptical, subsessile \-i inch each 
way, the fenile ones longer and narrower, i|-2 inches long. 1-5 
inch broad, upper surface naked, at least in age, lower densdy 
coated with loose ferruginous woolly tomentum ; veins fonningaieoks 
irregulär in size and shape, erapty or with one free veinlet, margu» 
veinlets free ; sori close, scattered, sometimes covering the whok 
surface. Sw. Syn. Fi/. 191, 419 to 2. Polyp, nummulariaefbliuni. 
Mett. Farngatt Polyp. 122, /. 3. Hook. Sp. Ftl. v. 54. Syn. El 35 1 - 
Bedd. F B. I. t. 320. Galeoglossa, Fresl. 

East Bengal, Bhotan, Assam, Khasya, Cachar, up to 2,500 feet 
elevation. There is a vaiiety from Khasya (obovatum, Mett) *& 
the sterile fronds obovate on a { inch petiole. This species is 
abnormal in the genus, I do not think n is a Niphobolus at all, but 
probably a Drymoglossum. 

GENUS LXIIL— DIPTERIS. (Rcinw.) 

(Di, two ; ptcrisy fern — the fan-like fronds in two parts.) 

Fronds adherent to the caudex, flabellate in two halves whicn 
are deeply lobed from their circumference in the direction of^ 
base, secondary veins forming many areoles, iocluding free or netted 
veinlets ; sori punctiform, numerous, scattered small, or in a sing' e 
serles. 

1. Dipteris Wallichii. (Br.) Rhizome stout, creeptoß' 
clothed with appressed copious black hard subulate setaceous scaks 
wrinkled at the back; stipes 1-2 and more feet long, smooth ^ 
poiished, distant erect ; fronds coriaceous, 1-2 J feet long and fl uch 
wider than long, dark-green above, whitish or ferruginous beneaA 
flabelliform bipartite into two nearly equal broad-cuneate portion* 
which are palmately and dichotomously divided, ultimate segmcnts 
6-10 inches long, ii-2 inches wide, oblong acuminate; cosW 
from the summit of the stipes dichotomously branched thruugh ihe 




■ii-ram WAu.ici.il. ( Är.| 



55& 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



disk of the frond, a Single pair runs through each terminal segment 
connlvent at the apices ; venation manifest prominent beneath, all 
the costa; are united by transverse flexuose costules, these by a lon- 
gitudinal flexuose vein through the middle into two nearly equal 
series of costular arcoles, then again into lesser ones all subquadran- 
gular ; sori sroall, superficial copious, scattered in the areoles, bot 
generally in series more or less perfect and accompanied by a resinous 
or gummysubstance. R. Br. in Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 168-9. 
Wall. Cat. n. 287. Bedd. F.B.I.t. 80. 

Khasya, up to 4,000 feet, 
Borpani, 2,000 feet, and elsewhere, 
Cachar, at Luckipoor, 250 feet 
elevatum, Jaintea, Sylhet Station 
in the plains. 



Hook. Sp. Fil. \ 




2. DlPTERIS HORSFIELDII. 

(Br.) Stipe strong, 3-5 feet long ; 
frond 1-3 feet long, and much 
broader, the main lobes reaching 
three- quarters of the way down, 
the edges sharply toothed, texture 
subcoriaeeous, upper surface dark- 
green, lower very glaueous, main 
veins very prominent, dichoto- 
mously forked ; areoles copious ; 
sori very minute, scattered irreg- 
ularly, especially plentiful near the 

main veins, confluent, not gummy. F. Br. Hook. S/>. Fil. v. /. 99. 

Bedd. F. B. I. I. 321. Polyp, conjugatum, Kaulf. (not Lam.) 

Polyp. Dipteris (Bl.), Hook. Syn. Fil. 362. 
Malacca, Penang and Singapore. 
(Also in the Malay and Pacific Islands.) 



(Br.) 



3. Diitkris Louisiana. (Hook.) Stipes 1 ioot and more long; 
fronds coriaeeous, 8-12 inches long, flabellifoim, glabrous, 3-4 titnes 




KRYNARIA CORONANS. {WM.) 



338 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



digitately dichotomous, dark brownish-green above, pale and tawny 
beneath, segments 4-8 inches long, scarcely half an inch wide, linear* 
sublanceolate, finely acuminated costate entire; venation manifest, 
the costules form a costal series of large soriferous areoles, the rest 01 
the veins unite, constituting lesser areoles and include free veinlets ; 
sori 1-2 in each primary areole (sometimes confluent) inasioglc 
series very near the costa. Hook, Sp. FiL v. 100. Hook, in !&& 
Gard. Mise. v. /. 300, /. xi. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 233. Polypodiufl» 
bifurcatum, Baker in Syn. FiL />. 362. 
Malacca, on Mount Ophir. 



GENUS LXIV.— DRYNARIA. (Bory.) 

(Dryads, the sterile fronds being like oak-leaves, a tree sacred to tb c 

Dryads.) 

Fronds articulate with the caudex, with either a separate steri* c 
frond like an oak leaf, or the base of the frond pinnatifid and <&*' 
leaf-like ; veins copiously anastomosing, forming quadrate or h € *' 
agonal areoles ; sori small, round or oval, numerous 

1. Drynaria coronans. (Wall.) Rhizome thick, creeping 
branched and interwoven, villous-paleaceous with golden scate 5 ' 
fronds large uniform, when growing arranged in a circle, firm, cor*^' 
ceous, but rather thin and translucent, two and raore feet long, h ot * 
a broad sessile cordate, lofcate-pinnatifid base (then suddenly cO**' 
tracted), lanceolate, deeply almost to the rachis pinnatifid, segme* 1 ^ 
8-12 inches long, f-i inch and more wide, oblong-lanceolate, a clJ ' 
minate, lower ones gradually shorter, entire, incrassated at themaip n ' 
venation very manifest, costules parallel extending to the marg** 1 » 
these are connected by transverse veins forming 5-6 soriferous areofc 5 
and then again generally two or three others which include fr** 
veinlets ; sori oval, often confluent longitudinally, solitary in tb* 
primary areoles, forming an eccentric series always nearer one costute 
than the opposite one. Hall. Cat. n. 288. Hook. Sp. FiL v. 9* 



FKRNS CT llKITISI 



anp Ceylon. 



mW. F. B. I. t. 13. D. conjugata, Hook. Syn. Fil. 366 (not 
im.) 

Himalayas, Nepal to Bhotan, 1,000-4,000 feet elevation, rare, 
kasya, 1,000-3000 feet common, Chittagong Hills, 500 feet eleva- 
>n ; Tenasserim and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Hong Kong and Formosa.) 

j. Drynaria splendet.s. (Hook.) Rhizome woody, the scales 
; y, fibrinöse, adpressed ; 
r»<) s subsessile, 2-3 feet long, 
c»«t or more broad, the lower 
"fc harren, ctit down nearly 
«quite to the rachis into 
*^T-patent entire acute lobes 
4 inches long, 1-2 inches 
»ad, the upper fertile pinnse 
tant, ligulate, 4-8 inches 
K. h-i inch broad; main 
*>s d istin et, with d ist in et 
Hsverse veinlets and copious 
ermediate onea and free 
nlets; sori oblong or sub- 
adrangular, Alling up the 
lole of the fertile pinna? ex- 
Pt the rnidrib. Hook. Sf. 
& v. 96. Syn. Fil. 367. 
itdä. F. B. 1. 1. 316. Dryostachyum,/. Sm. 
Singapore. 
(Also in the Philippinen) 

3. Drynaria profinqua. (Wall.) Rhizome stout, creeping, 
the scales lanceolate-linear pubescent ; fronds glabrous dimorphous, 
the barren ones 4-9 inches long, 3-4 inches broad, cut half or three- 
qturter» down into bluntish or acute lobes, the fertile ones 1^-3 feet 
long often 1 foot broad, with a distinet stein, the lobes 4-6 inches 
long, i-J inch broad, reaching down nearly or quite to the rachis, 





DRYNAltlA PROMNQUA. (Wall.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 341 



»curely serrated, texture subcoriaceous ; main veins of the fertile 
ids ramifying, not carried in distinct parallel lines to the margin, 
ales copious, the free veinlets few and variously directed ; sori in 
ngle row near the midrib, placed at the point of union of several 
llets. Wall. Cat. 293. Hook. Syn. FiL 367. Bedd. F B. I. 
60. Pleopeltis Parishi», Bedd. F. B. I. t 125. 

Himalayas, from Gurwhal to Bhotan, 2,000-7,000 feet elevation, 
stsya, very common ; Birma and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Java.) 

4. Drynaria mollis. {Bedd.) Rhizome creeping, clothed 
1 subulate golden transparent ciliated scales; fronds firm-mem- 
naceous dimorphous ; sterile ones 4-6 inches long, sessile ovate 
arous, deeply pinnatifid with the sinuses very narrow and the 
ments sometimes overlapping each other, fertile fronds very 
>rtly stipitate (the dwarfed lower segments often extending nearly 
the base of the rachis), ovate-lanceolate up to 1 \ feet long, 2-4 
•hes broad, furnished with soft hairs on both sides and ciliated, 
eply almost to the rachis pinnatifid, segments lanceolate 1-2 inches 
*8> $-} inch broad, nearly horizontal, rather distant, thesinusbeing 
r y broad, the lower ones dwarfed and gradually reduced to a de- 
ment wing; venation very prominent in the sterile fronds, but 
■ich less so in the fertile ones than in D. propinqua ; veins form- 
l three or four series of rather regulär areoles in which are some- 
a es included free veinlets ; sori forming only a single series close 

the costa, each sorus being on the vein between the first and 
-ond areole. Bedd. F. B. L*t. 216. Polyp. (Drynaria) rivale, Mett. 
Hook. Syn. FiL p. 367, a later nanu. 

Himalayas, Nynee Tal, Gurwhal, Kumaon, 6,000-9,000 feet 
•vation. 

5. Drynaria quercifolia. (Z.) Rhizome creeping, short, 
•ut, densely clothed with red-brown satiny lanceolate-subulate soft 
tles, which have a cordate base, and are \-\ inch long ; fronds 
iaceons or subcoriaceous of twn kinds, sterile ones varying in 




UKVNARIA MOLL) 



../ 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 343 

> froin 3-12 inches and more long, and 7-8 inches wide, green 
in very young, but soon turning dark-brown, glossy, cordate-ovate 
iouslylobate-pinnatifjd,sometimes half-waydown to the costa; fertile 
s 2-3 feet long, long-petiolate broad-ovate deeply nearly to the rachis 
natifid, segments 5-9 inches long, i-i^inch wide, oblong acuminate, 
re ; vehation manifest, costules distinct rather distant, united by 
isverse veins forming 4-6 primary soriferous areoles filled up with a 
Work of small quadrangula* areoles with or without free veins ; sori 
ipital small, numerous, two in each primary areole, consequently in 

seric s between and parallel 
» the costules. Polypodium 
reifolium, Lin. Sp. PI. f. 1547. 
*A. Sp. Fi!, v. /. 96. Briä. 
S. /. /. 187. 

Throughoutthelndianregion. 
leplains, or very low down on 
niountains, on trees or rocks. 

6. Drynakia LixtiMi. (Jior)- ) 
zonie stout, the scales 1-2 
S long from a peltate base, 
adly ovate obtuse, with a de- 
Jous acumen ; fronds dimor- 
'Us the barren ones sessile, 
wn rigid, bluntly lobed, the 
Üe ones long-stalked 2-3 feet 
g, 6-12 inches broad, cut 
•n nearly to the rachis, into entire erect-patent lanceolate lobes, 
ture rigid, both sides naked ; roain veins distinct to the edge with 
?ious irregulär areoles between them, with copious small scattered 
i. Bory. Ann. Sc. Nat. i. v. /. 464, /. 12. Hook, Syn. Fi!. 368. 
■dl. F. B.I. 315. 
Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. Very like quereifolia, but the scales 

the rhizome are quite difTerent and the sori smaller and more 
ittered, it may be only a variety and is united with it by Bentham, 




344 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

I have seen no specimen from South India, but without dual 
exarnination it might be passed by in the field or in the herbaiiim 
as quercifolia. 



. Drynaxia rigidula. 




(Sie.) Rhizome stuut creeping, tlß 
the scales fibrinöse dark-brcmi 
fronds dimorphous, the bauen 
ones sessilc, 6-9 inches 1«% 
rarely more, 3-4 inches dto»! ■ 
cut down $-t towaids the 1 
rachis into blunt lobes, or rarelf 1 
quite pinnate at the apex, th c ' 
fertite 2-4 feet long, i»-> 8 
inches broad, long-stalked pi* 1 " 
nate, pinnse one inch or mo** 
apart, narrowed or stalked at 
the base, 6-12 inches Jung' 
J-J inch broad, the point aci*- 
minate, the edge more orler* 5 
deeply incised, crenate, le *' 
ture rather coriaeeous ; racr»» s 
and both surfaces nakc** 
main veins not distinet to tl~* e 
edge, areoles copiou«, free veinlets few ; sori immersed in a sing » e 
row half-way between the edge and midrib. S.w. Sri. Bil. »^ * 
Hook. Syn Fil. 368. Drynaria diversifolia (S. Br.), Hook. Sp. F^ 1 
v. 98. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 314. 
Malacca. 

(Also in tropica! Australia, Malay Islands, the tropica! Paci- * c 
Islands.) 

GENUS LXV.— PLEOPELTIS. {H. & B.) 

{Phos, füll; pdtis, shield — the sori often furnished with round seile*'' , 

Venu copiously anastomosing, forming copious irregulär areolcÄ I 

with generally free included veinlets spreading in various directioiA I 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 345 



1 sori various in position, generally on the back of united veinlets ; 
»nds simple, pinnatifid or pinnate, articulate with the caudex. 

the Synopsis Filicum Phymatodes is the name adopted for this 
nus (or subgenus only in that work) ; this name, however, is of 
ich later date than Pleopeltis, having been instituted by Presl. 

1836, Pleopeltis by Humboldt and Bonpland in 18 10. Some 
thors split the genus up into many genera. 

* Fronds simple (also 3-5 lobed in pteropus.) 
A. Main vßins not distinct to the edge. 

1. Pleopeltis accedens. (2?/.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 
rider filiform, scarcely paleaceous, attached to the bark of trees by 
:>ious woolly radic'es, stipes scattered 2-5 lines long ; fronds sub- 
'iaceous, opaque, glabrous entire, sterile ones 1-1 \ inch long, oblong 
**te obtuse, fertile ones 2-3 \ inches long, from a broad cuneate 
►«, long-acuminate ; venation obscure, costules indistinct, veins 
Alling three large areoles (in each of which is one large forked 
nlet) and a smaller marginal areole ; sori large for the size of the 
*"it on the acuminated portion in a single series on each side of 
■ costa. Bl. En. Fil. Jav. p. 121. Hook, Sp. Fil. v. 66. Bedd. 
-Ä /. /. 215. 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Philippines, the Malay Islands, Polynesia.) 

2. Pleopeltis rostrata. (Hook.) Rhizome very slender, 
ie-creeping, furnished with lanceolate-linear scales, stipes distant 
^ inches long, naked ; fronds lanceolate-acuminate, somewhat di- 
> iT>hic, the barren often being broader, coriaceous glabrous, the 
***gin entire ; veins immersed, main veins indistinct, areoles irreg- 
**, including simple or forked free veinlets ; sori in a single row on 
<A side close to the midrib. Hook. Syn. Fil. 353. Bedd. F. B. I. 

159- 
Sikkim and Bhotan, 6,000 feet elevation, abundant ; Khasya 

»000-5,000 feet elevation. 



346 Ferns of British India anu Ceylon. 

3. Pleopeltis linearis. (Thunb.) Rhizoroe widfrcreepag» 
woody, the scales lanceolate dull-brown, never with hairs, stipes&o« 1 
a few lines to 2 inches long, rarely with any scales ; fronds 6-1* i»cb** 
long, rarely more, $-$ inch broad, entice, narrowed graduallytfb 01 * 1 
ends, texture coriaceous, both sides naked or nearly so; »reo 1 




N°I83 

irregulär with forked free veinlets ; sori superficial or scarcely ,tn ' 
mersed, never stink in a cyst, large prominent, formlng a Single ro* 
half-way between the costa and margin, when young covered *' 1 ' 1 
copious thin peltalc scales. Thunb. Fl, Jap. 335. Hook. Syn. $■ 
354. Polyp, loriforme. Wall. Ca/. 371, znd shect (tyßkal.) P- 
Wightianum, Wall. Ca/, 2222, acutissimum, 4727, gladiatuni, 179- 



Ferns of British India anu Ceylon. 



347 



peltis nuda, Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 63. P. Wightianum, Bedd. 
'. I. 180. (P. Joriforme, Wall. Ca/. 271, typt-ihtet, belongs 

I believe, and not to Simplex, it has larger fronds, but they are 
w and coriaceous and the veins hidden.) 

Himalayas, 1,000-10,000 feet elevation, very common, 
sya; through out South India ; Ceylon; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, China, Japan, Central and South 
^i and its Islands.) 



Var. steniste. {Clarke.) With the fronds only 
d and the sori projecting beyond 
rnargin, but always superficial, 
lly a form of linearis, and it 
t graduates into the type, his 

". polymorpha " is an abnormal ; 

of linearis with the fronds pin- 
id (such as occurs in many 
r fems.) 




4. PLEOPEI.TIS SIMPLEX. (Sw.) 

' like linearis, only the fronds are 

inner texturc and much larger, 

^o 2 feet long by 1-2 inches 

■3, the veins more distinet, 

sori always more or less deeply 

- and forming pustules on the 

"!■ side of the fronds, sometimes 

e sunk in a cyst with visible margins, but never nearly so promi- 

t as in stenophylla, which also differs in its smaller size, much 

^ rigid texture and fewer veins. Sw. Syn. Fil. 27. Polyp. 

avatum (Bery.), Willd. Sp. PL v. 158. P. Grevilleanum, Wall. 

'■ 5169. P. sesquipedale, Wall. Cat. 275. P. lineare, var. ß 

iplex, Hook, Syn. Fil. 354. 

Himalayas, confounded by Hooker (in his Sp. Fil.) and by 
\rkt with linearis, but kept distinet by all other Botanists, and 



348 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



made a distinct variety of linearis by Mr. Baker in the Syn. Fil., ^ 
Mr. Baker now agrees that it should be made a distinct specte; 
the scales of the rhizome differ from those of " normalis," but $£ 
fronds are almost exactly similar to that species, and I had previou 8 ^ 
confounded it with that (not with linearis.) 

5. Pleopeltis clathrata. (Clarke.) Rhizome short crc^P" 
ing, with ovate acute, often hairpointed scales ; fronds small, s^P* 
often as long as the frond ; sori mixed with sessile irregularly pel* a 
and lacerate clathrate scales. Clarke^ F. N. I. p. 559, /. 82,^- * " 

Kashmir, Pir Pinjul, 11,000-12,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Afghanistan.) 

Mr. Clarke thinks it may be high level form of linearis, but tt^ 
the scales are pecu'iar, the texture thinner, the venation c( 
quently more conspicuous, and the stipe longer. 



6. Pleopeltis stenophylla. (BL) Rhizome creeping, pal 
ceous, with glossy subulate pale imbricated ferruginous scales, stip^^ 
\-2 inches long, distant ; fronds fi rm-coriaceous, very rigid, glabrc^ "■* 
polished, 4-9 inches long, \-\ inch, or rarely more wide, line^^ r * 
oblong obtuse, the margin thickened and subreflexed.broadlycrena^^" 
sinuate, rarely narrowing upwards, but much and gradually attenuat^^^ 
below on the stipes ; costa prominent beneath, costules none, vei 
anastomosing so as to form oblong, hexagonal oblique areoles, gen - 
rally quite em t >ty or with rarely a free included veinlet ; sori rathe 
distant oval, arranged in a series close to the margin, deeply sunk 
a cyst, forming elevated purtules on the upper side one toeac 
crenature, the margin of the cavity elevated. BL Fil./av.p. 135, 
55,/ 1. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 65. Meli. Polyp, p. 99, /. 1, / 31-1 
Variation. Bedd. F. B. I. 234. 

Mr. Clarke states that this comes between " linearis " type 
his variety "steniste," but both these ferns have different venatioi 
and neither have the sori sunk in cysts; this has the sori alwaysmuc* 7 
nearer the margin than the midrib even in the broader forms. 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



349 



7. Pleopeltis sinuosa. {Wall.) Rhizome much hranched, 
ng-creeping or scandent on trees, sparingly radiculose, half an inch 
two inches thick, almost woody when dry, carnose when recent, 
jdded, as it were, with large conical processes upon which the stipes 
e or have been articulated, and which appear to increase much in 
se after the fronds have fallen, the whole densely covered (as it 
;re tessellated) with nearly orbicular appressed whitish peltate 
ales with a dark spot in the centre, stipes 1-2 inches long, glabtous 
id scaleless ; fronds sub-dimor 
icns, subcoriaceous glabrous, 
sriie ones 3-6-7 inches long, 
- 1 inch broad, subelliptical, ob- 
ig obtuse tntire, fertile ones 
iger, sometimes 1 foot-16 
— les long, i-| of an inch wide, 
«ar-oblong obtuse, the margins 
^»re or less sinuated, the base 
both attenuate-decurrent ; ve- 
tion copiously anastomosing, 
7 raing large very irregulär areoles i£- i 1 
^d with lesser ones (formed by 'w. ; ,,! 
^Te slender veins), and these 
-lüde branched or simple vein- 
s which occasionally again 
^stomose ; sori remote, large, t 
l«ng, imraersed in cysts, which 
"*» pustules on the Upper side 
*^nged in a single series nearer the margin than the costa. Wall. 
**t. n. 2231. Hook. S/>. Hl. v. 61. Btid. F. B. 1. 1. 8. 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Solomon Islands, Amboyna and New Hebrides.) 




\lValt.) 



8. Pleopeltis longifolia. {Metten.) Rhizome horizontal, 
^Wping, thick squamose, stipes approximate, 2-3 inches long ; 
fronds 1-2-3 ' eet l° n 8> i -1 l * ncn wide, thick, camose-coriaceou&. 



35o 



Fern» of British India and Ceylon. 




glabrous, linear-lanceolate, obtusely acuminate, graduallj long »tttn- 
uated below on the stipes, entire, the margins subrevohite, vtnati» 
internal, very indistinct, costules veniform, united by transvcrse «iw 
J into rather largc areoid && 
into irregulär lesserones,whic* 
include(reevein1ets;sorico* B ' 
pital oblong, forming altoe ** 
series near the maigin Btt»* 
close placed, sunk in LJ*** 
and forming a correspoodi** 
elevated line on the nppers* 31 ' 
face, capsules mixed with k*"* £ 
stipitate scales. MetUn. JVp-Zh 
/s. 87. Hook. Sf>.fiLv.&** 
B,dd. F. B. 1. 1. 7. P. «^ fl 
tiguurn, Wall. Cat. 285. 

Birma and the MaL «^ 
Peninsula generally, Mi 
singapore, &c. ; North 
Kumaon. 

(Also in the Philippin^^' 
and Malay Islands.) 

9. Pleopei-tis supeb^^* 
ciai.IS. {Bl.) Rhizome wic==^ 
creeping, thick as a cro»-qu^^* 
the scales ovale and lanceol^^* 
acute,spreading,brown shimr - " -** 
stipes up to sis inches ho» -** 



N?I96. 

ri.ROFEI.Trs I.ONGlFOI.rA. {A/M.) 

gradually at both ends, the margins entire, 6-ia inches long, by 1-* 
inches broa^, glabrous ; areoles numerous with free veinlets ; sor' 



often curved, sometimes « 
ovate scales ; fronds lance^*'^ 
late-linear (often forked at (F* 
apex), subcoriaceous, narrcwff'' 



Fkrxs of Hkitisu I n i >i a and Ckvi.ox. ;;i 



j:> 



copious scattered irregularly, compital, large or small. Polypodium 
superficiale, BL En. PLJav. Fi/. 123. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 355. Bedd. 
J?. B. I. t. 75. 

Khasya Hills, 4,000-6,000 feet elevation, extending to the 
Naga country to the east, and to Bhotan and Mishmee ; Malay 
Peninsula. 

(Also in South China.) 

10. Pleopeltis lanceolata. (L.) Rhizome long-creeping, 
paleaceous, with lanceolate ferruginous scales, stipes remote, 1-2-4 
inches long; fronds coriaceous, 3-9 inches long, £-J inch wide, 
lanceolate, more or less acuminate, long and gradually attenuated at 
tlie base, copiously furnished with orbicular ovate, small appressed 
pol täte scales dark in the centre, pale in the circumference and den- 
tioulate ; veins immersed indistinct, the primary veins form large 
oöliquely elongated areoles, which include very irregulär and different 

• 

sized areoles, and a few free veinlets which are rarely forked ; sori 
^raerally very large and often exceedingly prominent, pulvinate glo- 
^se or oval, stalked scales mixed with the spore cases. Polyp, lan- 
^olatum, Zinn. Sp. PL 1082. P. lepidota, Hook. Sp. FiL v. 56. 
*%Äaf. in Schlecht Adunbr., p. 17. Bedd. F. S. I. t. i8t. P. 
m SUstata var. depauperata, C/arke, F N. I. p. 559. 

Kilgiris and higher mountains on the West side of the Madras 
^ re sicJency ; Assam (one poor specimen in Kew Herbarium) ; Cey- 
' 01 ^ Ambawalla estate. 

(Also in Tropical America and the West Indies, South Africa 
a n <i its islands; St. Helena ; Sandwich Islands.) 

11. Pleopeltis angustata. (Su>.) Rhizome long-creeping, 

totanched, paleaceous with falcate subulate-setaceous scales, stipes 

tf^ote, ii-4 inches long ; fronds 5 inches to a span or more long 

V" 2 inches wide, tapering below into a petiole, glabrous aboye, clothed 

teneath with cottony tomentum which is deciduous, coriaceous, 

oblong-lanceolate ; venation sunk obscure, costular areoles with 

1 

free or branched and more or less connected veinlets ; sori very 
large, subglobose oval, partially sunk in the frond, very convex, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 353 

g a single series on each side between the costa and margin, 
lly towards the apex only, sometimes longitudinally confluent. 
m. FiL pp. 27 and 224. Niphobolus angustatus, Hook. Sp. 
43. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 185. Niphopsis, J. Sm. Pleopeltis 
»ora, Presl. Polypodiumsphserocephalum, Wall. Cat. n. 272. 
alay Peninsula, Singapore, Malacca, and Penang. South 
?) I have never detected it, though I have a specimen said to 
een collected on the Nilgiris, and. Hooker gives Tranquebar as 
ity. 
Üso in the Malay Islands and North-east Australia.) 

\. Pleopeltis normalis. {Don.) Rhizome scändent, thick 
owquill, with ovate or lanceolate almost hair-pointed adpressed 
which carry erect from their backs tufts of linear stiff black-red 
1 ; fronds narrowed much at the base, sometimes to the very 
the stipe, usually broadest near the middle, 1-2 feet long, by 
:hes broad, submembranaceous glabrous, a few scattered ovate 
dpressed scales often present on the stipes and near the base 
main rachis beneath ; venation as in linearis, main veins very 
lct and areoles with free included veinlets ; sori large, super 
r a little immersed, often in several rows, or irregularly in one 
• rarely regulär in one row. Don. Prod. Fl. Nep. 1. Clarke, 
f. 558. Hook. Syn. FiL 358, in pari. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 10. 
gifrons, tfW/. Cat. 274. 

imalayas, Nepal to Bhotan, 4,000-8,000 feet elevation, 
a, 3,000-5,000 feet; Tenasserim on Mooleyit 5,000 feet 
3n. 

B. Main veins distinä to the edge, or nearly to the edge. 

5. Pleopeltis rhyncophylla. (Hook.) Rhizome creeping, 
r, paleaceous, subsquarrose with subulate ferruginous scales, 
scattered, slender, 1-2 inches long of the sterile frond, 2-4 of 
tile one ; fronds firm, subcoriaceous, glossy, slightly thickened, 
;ly crenate, sterile ones 1-2 inches long, elliptical, or subovate, 
, fertile ones 3-6 • inches long, lanceolate from near the base, 

24 



354 



Kerns of British India and CtvLos. 



gradually and long-acuminated, below attenuated ; venation disänct, 
sllghtly prominent, the COStules connected by transversa veins 
fonning areoles which enrlose free veinlets, which latter sotoeüiws 
unite with opposite veins; the »ri 
mostly confined to the nairow aairai- 
nated apex, and when inature «7 
large in a single series on each side of 
the costa. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 65. #t& 
Ic.Ptant. 655 (ort. 55 o/Cent. ofRm) 
Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 9. 

Khasya, 4,000-5,500 feet der* 
tion ; Tenasserim on Mooleyit, 5,0» 
feet elevation. 



14. Pleopeltis GriffithiaHv 
(Hook.) Rhizome wide-creeping, # 
thick as a crowquill, the scales dense, 
lanceolate-subulate, brown, spreadingi 
stipes 3-6 inches long, firm, erect; 
fronds 6-8 inches long, up to ii indies 
broad, coriaceous, lanceolate or ovale- 
lanceolate, the apex acute, the niargin 
more or less rcpand, the base rounded 
or suddenly narrowed; main veinsvery 
distinct to the edge, areoles fine, hidden 
with copious free simple or forkedvein- 
lets ; sori large, one between eachmi" 1 
vein in a single row dose to the cosUi 
often extending more than half-way w 
the base of the frond. Hook. Syn. B- 
p. 359. Bedd. F. B. J. f. 158. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 6,000-9,000 
30-5,000 feet. 




H?I9S 

PLEOPELTIS 

iffooi.) 

feet elevation. Khasya, 4,c 



15. PLEOPELTß 



( Wall.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



355 



:1c as a crowquill, scales lanceolate- linear, brown spreading ; stipes 
i inches long, firm, erect, slightly scaly below ; fronds 6-12 inches 
St up to 3 inches broad, ovate-lanceolate, thc apex acute, the 
rgin entire, the base narrowed suddenly, texture herbaceous, both 
:s glabrous ; main veins distinct to neariy the edge, with copious 
>les including free forked veinlcts ; sori large irregularly scattered 
r the costa. Polypodium ovatum, Wall. Cat. 276, Hook. Syn. 

359. Btdd, F. B. I. t. 157. 

Sikfeim, Chundaghiri, Bhotan, 
asya, 4,000 feet 'elevatum, 
hop's Falls, Shillong, rare. 

16. Pleopeltis MEMBRANACEA. 
l m.) Rhizome short-creeping, 
tut, the younger portion palea- 
ous, with blackish-green ovate 
Uminate scales ; stipes distant or 
baggregated, 1-5 inches long, if 
ftger winged above with the de- 
'Trent base of the frond ; fronds 
•nches to 2-3 feet long, by less 
an an inch to 6 inches broad, 
'n membranaceous and translu- 
Ht, lanceolate or oblong-lanceo- 
c, or oblanceolate, acuminate, 
s base long attenuated and much 
adually decurrent upon the stipes, 
ibrous, the margin entire (or rarely i 

bäte or pinnatifid, and even fimbriated throughout the whole 
ügth with long narrow unequal segments) j venation very distinct, 
Bin veins horizontal or neariy so, slender, usually remote, connected 
1 transverse veins which form the primary areoles, and these are 
ledup with irregulär net-work, of which the areolesare very unequal 
id include copious free veinlets ; sori compital, rat her small, usually 
two series between the costules, more or less numerous accoTdvn% 







r less deeply sinuate- 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. $57 

width of the frond, rarely reduced to one sorus near the costa, 
a Single series parallel with the costa is formed, not unfre- 
y there are 3-4-5 series (not very regulär) between the costa, 
t instance a single series only appears between the costules, and 
of a very large size and abnormal in form, often oval or oblong 
fing parallel with the costules). Don. Prod. Fl. Nep. p. 2. 
r Sp. Fil. v. 70. Polyp, grandifolium, Wall. Cat. n. 282. 
srocarpum, Bl. Fil.Jav.p. 167, /. 75. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 177. 
[imalayas, from Gurwhal and Bhotan, 3,000-8,000 feet eleva- 
Khasya, 2,000-5,000 feet, Chota Nagpore, Parasnath ; 
India, mountainous tracts on both sides of the Presidency, 
5,000 feet elevation; fronds varying from \ inch to 5 inches in 
h ; Ceylon. It only appears with the rainy season and dies 
in November. 

j. Pleopeltis Zippellii. (Bl.) Rhizome slender, creeping 
, scales lanceolate acute ; fronds lanceolate, often quite 
e at the apex, narrowed gradually at the base into a short stipe 
re rarely there is a stipe about 2 inches long), subcoriaceous, 
1 entire or a little undulate, lower part of the rachis beneath 
mes with a few scales ; primary veins prominent and near the 
, areoles copious, with free included simple of forked veinlets ; 
>mpital in two rows between the primary veins and in about 
ws between the costa and margin. Bl. Pl.Jav. FiL 172, /. 80. 
Sp. FiL v. 72. Pleopeltis heterocarpa, Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 360, 
!.) Bedd. F. B. I. 319, (yenation not correct y as not showing 
r veinlets.) 

imalayas, Dalhousie (Dyas), Sikkim and Bhotan, 2,000- 
feet elevation, Khasya, 2,000-4,000 feet elevation, (not in 
as stated by Clark e). 
lIso in Java and Philippines.) 

\. Pleopeltis punctata. (Linn.under Acrostiehum.) Rhizome 

r creeping, stout, clothed with brownish ovate or lanceolate 

fronds 1-3 feet long, 1-3 inches broad, lanceolate, subsessile, 



358 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



gradually narrowed at the base, acute or blunt at the »pex, carnae- 
coriaceous, very glabrous; venation immeised (visible in a dried Site), 
main veins fine but distinct to the margin, areoles copious, including 
smaller areoles, in which are free simple or forked veinlets, vidi 
clavate apices ; sori compital, very small and scattered very intgulanji 
generally only on the Upper half of the frond. Zinn. Sp. PI ij'f 
Sit: in Schr.Jour. 1800, ii. 21. Pleopeltis irioides, Book. Syn. Fl 
360. Bedd. F. S. 1. t. 178. Wall. Cat. 281, glabrum, and IJJ 
polycephalum. 

South India, Western mountainsup 
to about 3,000 feet elevation; Ceykm j 
North India, in the Bengal plains, ffid 
up to 3,000 feet elevation ; Mify 
Peninsula. 

(Also in China, Malay Islands, North 
Australia, Polynesia, Southern and Centnl 
Africa and the islands. 

19. Pleopeltis iiu&efolU- {$\ 
In every way like punctata, so thatth* 
same description will do for both, eurtl* 
that the texture in this is, like that of » 
grescens and hemionitidea, thin an« 
papery, with the veins very promine**' 
K?2DJ. whilst punctata has fleshy leaves, in t eX ' 

pleopeltis punctata. ture ij ke Thamnopteris Nidus. Bl. Z 3 ' 
[Lim.) Jav p f Hggi s M 5 &o 

Bedd. F. B. f. t. 317. 
Malacca. 
(Also in the Malay Islands.) 

20. Pleopeltis hemionitidea. {Wall.) Rhizome creep* rt 
scaly, furnished with wiry scaly fibrous roots ; stipes scaly, win^** 
upwards ; fronds 6 inches to 1 \ foot long, 1-2 inches broad, m^ 1 " 
branaceous subchartaceous, subtransparent very dark shining gre*^ 
broad lanceolate, gradually acuminated into a fine point at the »P" 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



359 



and gradually attenuated at the hase, being winged nearly all down 
the stipe, entire glabtous, costa slightly scaly beneath near the base ; 
venation very prominent, main veins blackish, pinnate nearly hori- 
zontal, areoles in about five series, subquadrate, in which are free 
veinlets which are either simple or forked, but without clavate apices ; 
sori compital, rather large, forming one series between the main veins 
very irregulär in shape and size, subglobose or oblong, or even (by 
confluence) linear. Wall. Cat. p. 284. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 73. 
Bedd. F. B.J.t. 182. 

South India, on the Western 
mountains, rather common in Coorg, 
3,000 feet elevation, rare elsewhere- 
Himalayas, Nepal, Bhotan, 2,000- [ 

7,000 feet elevation, Khasya, 1,000 
-5,000 feet elevation, Chittagong, 

1,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in South China and Ma- 

lay Islands.) 




21. Pleopeltis pteropus. 
(-&J.) Aquatic, rhizome creeping, 
branched, the young apices only 
Paleaceous, with blackish lanceolate- 
subulate scales ; stipes more or less 

a F*s«Jt, 1-3-4 inches to 1 foot long, 

*"**»ged upwards, and as well as the 

«-«^k of the costa and costules für- 

J u *"aceous-squamose; fronds 2-3-9 

ltt <=lies long, i-ii and 2 inches wide, 

l 1 ^^! membranaceous, very dark dirty green (when dry often black), 

la **ceolate acuminate entire, or 3-lobate, or 3-partite, or 5-lobed, 
te *~*»inal lobes up to 3 inches long, lateral ones 3-5 inches, below 
*°**g-tapering into a gradually decnrrent wing upon the petiole, 
ü^brous above, margin entire ; venation very conspicuous, main 
ve ^*ns prominent beneath, rather wide apart, extending ahout two 
">lrds of the way to the margin, then uniting and forming large costa.1 



N?202. 

PLE01'ELT)S HtMIONITIDEA. [Wall.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



361 



areoles, withiti which the sori have their origin, a second series of 
sTTialler areoles is förmed nearer the margin, and these and the rest 
of the frond are filted up with a net-worlt of smaller irregulär areoles, 
incl\aȊing free simple or forked veinlets which have clavate apices ; 
sori small not very numerous, 1-3 in each large areole, coropital 
"pon the secondary veins 



of the primary areole, often 
confluent into transverse, 
oWong or linear (grammi- 
to»d> sori. Bl. Fl. Jav. FU. 
,6 8, *. 76. Polypodium tri- 
dac tylon, Wall. Cat.n. 315. 
#**»<*■. Sp. Fä. v. 75. Hook. 
el GVw, Je. FU. t. 209. 
*■** F.B.'I.I. 11. 

North India, Sikkim 
"Ul Bhotan, 1,000-4,060 
fest elevation ; Khasya from 
n ° elevation up to 4,000 
***. in the plains at Mymen- 
Sln 8h, Chittagong, plains 
™p to r.ooo feet; Malay 
e *xinsula. 

(Also in the Philip 
pln «s and South China.) 



Vau. minor. Fronds 

^^ys small and simple 

j ~~^ inches lopg, by i-f 

jj^«l broad, never lobed. 

■*"*JlS/,i. 170. 




PLEOPZLTlä 



VAR. MINO!. 



South India, Anamallays and Bolampatty Valley, 3,000-4,000 

^ **t elevation, in rivers on rocks under water, fructifying when the 

"*ier Fubsidea after the rainy season ; Ceylon. This may not be 

*™iUed to rank as a permanent variety, as Mr. Clarke says the^ortfe. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Indian plant is small and simple at the higher elevations; butlnc=w 
s.iw 3-lobed examplcs in South India or Ceylon, or fronds more than 
about 4 inches long. 

Var. zoster /E form is. { Wall. Cat. 280.) Fronds very runo* 
and ribbon-likc, 4-7 inches long, by 1-3 lines broad- Hook-fy*- 
Fit- 357- Bedd. F. B. I. t. 123. Baker is wrong in saying Üserc it« 
no free veinlets ; it differs from the last in no way except in the W-- 
rowness of the fronds, and it is certainly only a local variety. 

Tenasserim, beds of rivers at the foot of Mooleyit. 
*• Fronds deeply pinnatifid. 

32. PLEOPEITIS HASTiTA. 

(Thunb.) Rhizome creeping, stout, 
paleaceous with dense subutale or 
hair-pointed. falcatc femipnou* 
scales ; stipes 2-5 inches long i 
fronds coriaceous, 2-12 inches and 
morc long, deltoid-ovate acuminale. 
trifid or deeply pinnatifid to vrithio 
half an inch of the rachis, with 5-" 
scgments, which are 3-6 inches 
long, \ to 1 inch wide, very P*^' 
from a broad base oblong-Ianceobte- 
very finely acuminated entire "' 
repand or denticulate, thicken« 
at the margin, the lowest ° nK 
euneate-decurrent, terminal segm enl 
often the longest and most narro* 1 ' 
acuminated ; venation conspieuous, main veins often prominen' 
bencath, distant, united by transversc veins forming 3-4 series oI 
primary areolcs, which are filled up by lesser ones including B* 
veinlets ; sori large not sunk, arranged in a single series nearer ll* 
costa than the margin. Thunb. Fi. Jap. 335. Polypodium oxylobu 111. 
Wall. Cat. 294. B,dd. F. S. /. t. 175. Pleopeltis trifida, D» 




N?205. 



{TAimt.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 363 



W. Fl. Nep.$. Hook. Syn. FiL 363. Pleopeltis malacodon, Bedd. 
! Sup. t. 387. 

Young rhizomes often produce only very small fronds, which are 
nple or trilobate only; (var. Thunbergii, Clarke). This fern 
in at once be known from malacodon by the base of the lowest 
rir of pinnae (i.e., base of the frond) being always a little decurrent 
1 the apex of the stipe, (not scooped out and subcordate) and in 
sing subentire or only a little denticulate instead of acutely serru- 
te ; Mr. Clarke, however, is wrong in saying that it is always quite 
ttire, my specimens (looked at under a lens) are always more or 
ss toothed. 

Throughout the Indian region on the mountains; in South 
idia between 5,000-8,600 feet elevation ; in the North 2,000 to 
>,ooo feet. 

23. Pleopeltis malacodon. (Hook.) In all respects like 
istata, only that the base of the frond is scooped out and subcordate 
istead of being a little decurrent), and the margins are acutely 
rrulate, the teeth mucronate or spinescent. Hook. Sp. FiL v. 87. 

Stewartii, Clarke, F. N. I. p. 563, a variety less serrated. Mr. 
iker and Mr. Clarke both protest against this being considered a 
riety only of hastata, otherwise I should have so placed it, the 
fferences being those of a variety rather than of a species. 
Himalayas, Nepal to Bhotan, 10,000-13,000 feet elevation. 

Var. ß majus. (Hook. Sp. Fi/, v. 88.) Base of the frond 
>rdate or sometimes decurrent ; pinnae (or rather segments) narrower 
ld longer, and much more erect (i.e. pointing upwards) ; margins 
ss promineotly serrated, scales of rhizome blacker. Pleopeltis 
;ewartii, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 204, and Baker, Syn. FiL 513 (not 
larke). Pol. propinquum, var. Wall. P. crytolobum, J. Smith, 
fS. Clarke, F. N. I. t. 83. 

Nepal to Bhotan, 9,000-12,000 feet elevation (pcndant from 
ees). I think that Sir W. Hooker may be safely followed in con- 
dering this only a variety of malacodon. 

24. Pleopeltis ebenipls. (Hook.) Rhizome stout cretyui^ 



lowcst pair (tunerally deffcxud, and cit 
slipe, <jr scoupcd out and subcordate al 
patent as are the other pinme, all a littli 
gl 




H*TO6. 

PLEOI' 

though closplw oüi"^ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



365 



of the sterile frond, 2 feet of the feriile, glossy brown ; fronds firm- 
coriaceous glossy dimorphous, sterile ones 6-10 inches long, 8 inches 
to 1 foot wide, hastate, tripartite, simply ovate or pinnatifid with 
4-6 lateral lobes, lobes ovate-acuminate entire horizontal, terminal 
one very large, all thiclcencd at the margin ; main veins distinct, 
but immersed, other veins internal and very indistinct ; areoles with 
free included simple or forked veinlets ; fertile fronds very long- 
stipitate, 10 inches to a foot long, nearly as much wide, very broad- 
ovate deeplypinnatifid nearly to the rachis, below subpinnate, segments 
5-15, 4-8 inches long, very 
remote, linear and acuminate, 
decurrent at the base ; sori 
large, copious, oval, sunk into 
a very deep cavity which forms 
a circular elevated truncated 
tubercle on the opposite side, 
occupying the Space between 
the costa and the margin in a 
single series. Bl. Fit. Jav. p. 
151, f. 65. Book. Sf>. Fil. v. 
77. Bedd. F. B. I. 124. 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Malay 
Islands.) 

26. PLEOPELTIS IN51GNIS. 

(Bl.) Rhizotne short-creep- 
ing, paleaceous, with decidu- 
ous ferniginous scales ; stipes 

1- 2 inches or more long (according to the length of the decurrent 
wirig of the frond) ; fronds subtriangular-ovate, raembranaceous, 
glabrous, 4-9 inches long (independent of the decurrent wing), and 
nearly as much broad, subdeltoid, deeply pinnatifid, with 5-9 lance- 
olate spreading acuminate segments ; the base of the fronds subcu- 
neate and decurrently attenuated so that the stipes is winged for the 




(Als,. 



« l'hili,>pi, 



s and J 



6 mcha,I„„ ? , todeep , jn ^ 

ennre, acumm,«, ,,„ ceo| 
broad,«,,«,^ «»» 

«eck, s* with 4 ^'te 
immroed, i- s seri ,, „ " "" 
?.* »7 « or «»"»red. 

«*. Ä/. 364. Bau. R s , 
tat. !8 9 ,w,,fo r , ■ • '7 

*-2f ' Ma,ab "" d Tm »« 

fronds ,- 4 tan 1 ■ J"W 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



367 



.Assam, Gowhatty, Sylhet, Furidpore (floating in jheels.) 
<Also in the Philippines, Formosa, and Malay Islands.) 



29. Pleopeltis niürescens. (Bl.) Yery like longissima, but 
wing to the rachis broader and the pimue broader (i-ij inches), 
ei more crisp in texture and the veins more prominent ; it is 



seen longissima in a wild 




iaps only a variety, but I have 
=- Bl. En. Fil.Jav. 127. 
ongissima, Bedd. F. S. I. 
Wall. Ca/. 289, mdshtet 
•»■nifolium). 

South India, on rocks, 
at the foot of the WestcAi 
ntains, (foot of Sispara 
Carcoorghats),notascend- 
tTie mountains to any ele- 
>n, and never growing in 
-* ; Ceylon. An exceed- 
y handsome fern, 



3o.Pleopeltisdilatata. Äy. '^xh iSSr 
«*//.) Rhizome stout creep- T?&>_ 1 
■ pileaceous with ovate ^'.- '■ ■*' 

culated scales; stipes 1* 

t and more long, but strongly 'ri° J06. 

»ged the whole length by ri.EorEi.xra njgrescens. {Bl.} 

' decurrent base of thefrond; fronds ample i£-2 and 3 fect long, 
^ot and more wide, membranaceous, light-green, glabrous, oblong- 
»te, pinnatifidtowithini-r inchof the rachis (lesstowards the base), 
;ments 6-1 1, 5-8 inches long (shoiter towards the apex), J-i| inch 
le, oblong- lanceolate acuminate, subentire, suddenly decurrent ; 
in veins wavy, forin ing large primary areoles which extend two- 
tds of the way to the margin and include the sori, these and the rest 
the segments are occupied by lesser irregulär areoles including 
'fly free veinlets, their branches moderately divaricating; sori nu- 
■rous, very small, often oval-or more or less elongated, compital on 




368 Febns oy British India and Ceylon. 

the secondary veins and veinlets. Wall. Cat. n. »95. HaA-^t- 
Fil. v. 85. Stdd. F. B. I. f. 122. 

North India, from Nepal to Bhotan, 3,000-8,000 fcet eleviiioii, 
Khasya, 2,000-6,000 feet ; Ceylon, forest* above Telgamma, 4,000 
fcet elcvation ; Tenaiserim and Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Samoa.) 

"* Fronds pintiate. 

31. Pleopeltis palmata. (ßl.) Rhizome stout, the scate 
large lanceolate; stipes 
6-1 2 inches long, firm,er«a, 
glossy ; fronds 6-18 inches 

t long, 8-12 inches broad, 
with a linear or lineai-ob- 
long entire or sligntty 
toothed or repand terminal 
lobe, and 1-6 similar OK* 
on each side, which an 
j-i£ inch broad, nat- 
rowed or dilated, always 
slightly adnate at the base, 
long caudate at the ape*, 
those of the barrenfrondthe 
broadest, texture subcon- 
aceous, both sides glabrous; 
main veins distinct to the 
edge, areoles fine, hidden, 
including free incurved clavate veinlets ; sori rather large in a 
Single row, midway between the costa and margin. Bl. Fil. Jav. 
p. 150, l. 64. Hook. Syn. Fi!. 368. Btdd. F. B. 1. 1. 156. 
Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Penang and Malacca. 
(Also in the Malay Islands and Philippines.) 

32. Pleopeltis jugi.anoifoi.ia. {Don). Rhizome stout creep- 
ing, with many spreading lanceolate subulate bright-ferruginous scales ; 
stipes 1 foot or more long, firm, erect, glossy ; fronds ii-2 feet long, 
1 foot or more broad ; pinnae 8-10 on a side in pairs, which are 1-2 



370 Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 

inches apart, notquite opposite, articulated withthe rachis, i-ijinch 
broad, the apex caudate ; the margin thickened and wavy, rarety 
lobed, sessile from a rounded base, or attenuated and petioled, tex- 
ture subcoriaceous, both sides glabrous ; main veins distinct to the 
margin ; areoles copious, hidden, including free veinlets ; sori large, 
one between each main vein, forming a Single row, much nearer the 
midrib than the margin (rarely in two rows). Don. Prod. Fl. Aty-3- 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 368. P. capitellata, Wall. Cat. 306. Bedd. F. B. I 
t. 12. 

Var. tenuicauda. (Hook.) Pinnse gradually narrowed and 
acute at the base and petiolate, quite runs into the type and cannot 
be considered a variety. P. leiorhizon, Wall. Cat 303, $rdsfaä- 

Himalayas, from Gurwhal to Bhotan, 2,000-9,000 feet elevation» 
very common, Khasya, 2,000-5,000 feet 

33. Pleopeltis Lehmanni. (Mett.) Rhizome creeping, clothed 
with ovate or orbicular glabrous scales, each ending in a very long 
acumination ; stipes 8 inches or more long, glabrous as well as 
the rachis and frond ; fronds 1J-2 feet long, submembranaceous 
pinnate ; pinnas opposite or subopposite, sessile, articulated at the base 
(terminal one long petioled), linear oblong entire, with a caudate 
acumination 4-6 inches long, about | inch broad, superior base 
obliquely excised, inferior base amplexicaule, the margin entire or 
slightly repand ; main veins evident not extending quite to tf* 
margin, connected by the transverse veins which form about 4 senes 
of areoles in which are free simple or forked .veinlets with clavate 
apices ; sori irregulär, generally 4-6 in two rows between the main 
veins. Mett Poly.p. 229. Bedd. F. B. I. t 260. Hook. Syn. B' 
/>. 369. 

Sikkim, 4,000-8,000 feet elevation ; Birma. 

(Pleopeltis moulmeinensis, Bedd. F. B. I. t. 205, drawn from* 
single specimen in Mr. Parish's possession, is probably this, imper* 
fectly seeding ; it does not agree in habit with juglandifolia.) 

34., Pleopeltis himalayensis. (Hook.) Rhizome glaucous 




n-EOl'ELTli LEHMANN I. [Attli.) 



372 



Fehns or British India and Ceylon. 



creeping, clothed witli bright femiginous hair-ljlce scalcs ; stipes a 
span to i foot and more long ; fronds i-il foot long, submembra- 
naceous, sometimes pubescent or even subtomentose, glabrous sub- 
coriaceous in age, pinnated, pinnae almost invariably opposite, sessDe 
in distant pairs 5-8-9 inches long, by ij-a inches broad frora w 
obtuse böse, elliptical-oblong, finely and long-caudately acuminatcd 
emiiu, bm with a very distinct membranous hyaline matgin ; main 
veins manifest, connected by transverse ones foiming areoles, of 
which one or all are soriferous, these areoles are filled up wilh a net- 
/ work of lesser areoles wbkh 




d^\ 



(AW-.) 



have free included veinlets; 
sori often large, 1-1 in Ö* 
primary areoles, hence they 
are i-a serial between tbe 
main veins, and 3-4 serial in 
a direction parallel with thc 
costa. Hook. Sp. Mi.V- 
/ Bcdd.F. B.I. t. 318. PoV 
l>odium venustum, Wall-C*'- 
305, not of Der.-. 

Himalayas, 6,ooo-i0i°° 
feet elevation, from Nel* 
to Bhotan, Khasya B ifl * 
(Jcrdon), young plants °' x '*\ 
have simple or 3-lobed fn? 1 * 
Mettenius considers it <* 
a variety of Lehmanni. ^ 
Clarke calls the tomei»**' 



variety, var. niphoboloides, but it graduates into the type. 



35. Pleopeltis leiorhiza. {Wall.) Rhizome very tr*** 
fieshy.wide-creeping, covered with ovate adpressed peltate,5laty-br<'** 
scales ; stipes i-a feet long, erect ; fronds 2-4 feet long, i-i £* 
broad ; pinna? narrow lanceolate-linear coriaceous acuroinate at <** 
apex, margins cntirc, sessile and rather decurrent at the base, & 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 373 



:cnuated and petioled, both sides glabrous; main veins scarcely 
ore prominent than the rest, areoles with copious free veinlets; 
ri large, in a Single row, a little nearer the midrib than the margin. 
>lypodium, Wall. Cat. 303, type-sluet. Hook. Syn. Fi/. 369. Bedd. 
S. /. 174. 

South India, common on all the Western mountains, 2,000-4,000 
jt, on rocks ; North India, from no elevation up to 4,000 feet. 

TRIBE II.— GRAMMITIDEÄ. 

Sori on the back of the lobes, more than twice as long as broad, 
iually linear. 

GENUS LXVL— NOTHOL^ENA. (R. Br.) 

Nothos, spurious ; lanos, wool — the scales on back of frond pseudo- 

woolly.) 

Sori marginal, at first oblong or roundish, soon confluent into a 
ntinuous marginal line, without a distinct involucre, but with the 
ge of the frond frequently inflexed ; veins free ; fronds adherent 
the caudex, pinnate or bipinnate. 

1. NoTHOLiENA Marantve. {L.under Acrostiehum.) Rhizome 
ut, horizontal, densely paleaceous with soft silky ferruginous finely 
*ited subulate scales; stipes generally stout purplish-black, 3-10 
hes long, aggregated, setosely and densely hirsute, as well as the 
his ; fronds 4-10 inches long, 2-2 \ inches wide, oblong-lanceolate, 
ia.ceous, glabrous above, beneath densely clothed with ferruginous 
tang-lanceolate imbricated scales, bipinnate, primary pinnae pe- 
>Uite or sessile from a broadish obtuse base, oblong-acuminate, 
Httiules not numerous, approximate, sessile, 2-3 lines long, very 
touase entire, upper ones confluent at the base (as are the terminal 
fritfiary pinnae), the edge scarcely reflexed ; sori forming a broad 
border extendlng some way from the margin tovraxd* \.\\fe co&x^. 




wmovssN Mkuarc.«. {/.{im.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 375 



rauch concealed by the paleaceous covering. Zinn. Sp. PL 1527. 
Notholaena Marantae, R. Br. Nothochlaena, Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 120. 
Bedd. F. B. I. t 1. 

Alpine Himalayas, from Kashmir to Kumaon, rare ; Sikkim, 
9,000-15,000 feet elevation, Lachen Valley. 

(Also in South Europe and the Mediterranean region, from 
Macaronesia to the Caucasus and Abyssinia.) 

2. Notholjena vellea. (R. Br.) Stipes densely tufted, 
woolly, wiry, short; fronds 8-9 inches long, \-\\ inch broad, oblong- 
lanceolate, bipinnate, pinnae close lanceolate, the central ones the 
largest, with close roundish or oblong entire or 3-lobed pinnules, 
texture herbaceous but thick, both sides, especially the lower, coated 
with whitish or subferruginous tomentum, rachis bright chesnut- 
fcrown, more or less woolly. R. Br. Prod. p. 146. N. lanuginosa, 
Jbesv. Hook. Syn. Fil. p. 370. 

Pangi and Lahul in Churaba, Cashmire. 

(Also in Afghanistan, South Europe, Madeira, Cape Verd Isles, 
-Algiers.) 

GENUS LXVIL— MONOGRAMME. (Sckk.) 

43no, one ; gramme, a line — sori in a single line on each frond.) 

Sori subimmersed, linear elongated close to the midrib on one or 
sides, the receptacles formed of a portion of the costa ; veins 
sisting only of a costa ; fronds small, grass or rush-like, simple or 
ed, rhizome creeping. 



1. Monogramme Paradoxa. {Fee.) Rhizome creeping, hairy ; 
s linear filiform, grass-like, 2-12 inches long, \-\ line broad; 
within a vaginiform expansion of the costa, one side of which is 
r than the other. Fee. Vi/t. p. 38. M. Junghuhnii, Hook. Sp. 
v. 123. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 210. 
Ceylon, 3,000-5,000 feet elevation, not very common. 
. (Also in Java, Philippines, Queensland and Polynesiatv l&ta\4&.\ 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 377 



GENUS LXVIIL— LEPTOGRAMME. (/. Sm.) 
{Leptos y slender ; gramme, a line.) 

Sori arising from the veins over the under surface of the frond, 
ear or linear oblong, simple; veins free; fronds bi-tripinnatifid, 
herent to the caudex, habit and mode of growth of Phegopteris 
d Lastrea, and only differing from the former in its elongated sori. 

1. Leptogramme Totta. {Schi.) Rhizome scarcely creeping, 
pes subtufted, 6-12 inches long, pilose, below scaly; fronds 
!-i8 inches long, 6-8 inches broad, pinnate, both sides pilose, pinnae 
nceolate, i-i inch broad, pinnatifid half-way to the midrib, lobes 
unt, entire or subentire, 1J-2 lines broad, herbaceous in texture; 
einlets simple 5-7 on each side with the linear oblong sori medial. 
chlecht, Adumbr. 15, /. 6. Hook. Syn. FiL 376. Grammitis Totta, 
WS/. F. S. I. /. 49. 

South India, very common on the mountains on the west side 
the highest elevations ; Ceylon at the highest elevations ; North 
dia, North-west Himalayas, Kashmir to Bhotan, 6,000 feet 
vation, rare, Khasya, 3,000-5,000 feet elevation, common. 

(Also in Java, China, Japan, and Africa and its islands.) 

2. Leptogramme aurita. {Hook.) Rhizome extensively 
^ping; stipe 1 foot long, naked, glossy, the base curved and 
"^ished with a few deflexed ovate acute scales ; fronds up to 2 feet 
&» and 1 foot broad, pinnate, pinnae in distant pairs pinnatifid 
**ly or quite to the rachis into lanceolate entire or crenate lobes, 

lowest on one or both sides longer than the others and pinnatifid, 

others sometimes unequal, texture subcoriaceous, rachis glossy, 

h surfaces generally glabrous ; veinlets mostly forked ; sori oblong. 

> ^. Syn. Fi/. 377. Gymnogramme, Hook. S/>. FiL v. 141. 

L **imitis aurita, Bedd. F. B. I. /. 152. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 3,000-6,000 feet elevation, Assam, 

ya, 2,000-5,000 feet elevation. 

Var. levingii. (C/arAy.) Fronds weak and flaccid, pinnae ij inch 




?. Toita. l_S.Af.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



379 



f, and f inch brond, not auriculate, lower ones very distant, 

igly covered on both sides with long needle-like weak hairs. 
v.N.I.p. 568. 

hmir, Jhelum and Chittapani Valleys, 4,000-7,000 feet 
(Levinge), Sutlej, 9,000 fect elevation (Stewart). 



„eptogramme dpaca. (Sfir.) Stipes 1 j and more feet long, 
aly near the base ; fronds 2 feet and more long 11-15 inches 




AURITA. {Hoot.) 




{■1fr ) 



base, subdeltoid-ovate acute membranaceous, pubescent on 
ises and costaj, bipinnate, lower primary pinnre petiolate 
is long, 3-4 inches wide, oblong-ovate, their pinnules an inch 
long sessile and adnate, and slightly decurrent at the base, 
■r acute, pinnatifid, the lobes retuse or emarginate and 
veins pinnate in each lobe of the pinnules or large 
, veinlets forked or simple, soriferous towards the base of 
r branches ; sori oblong. Heok. Syn. Fit. 378. Gymno- 



380 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



gramma, Hook. Sp. Fil. v./. 143. Spr. Syst Veg. iv. 39. Btü 
F. B. f. t. 238. Gynnogramraa obtusata, BL Fil.Jar. f. 97» '-43- 
and Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 143. 

Nepal to Bhotan, 4,000-7000 feet elevation ; Khasya, 3,000- 
5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Java.) 

GENUS LXIX.— STEGNOGRAMME. (Bl.) 

(Sfegnos, a cover ; gramme^ a line.) 

As in I-reptogramme, only the veinlets of contiguous groups 
uniting as in Nephrodium, fronds pinnate ; habit and mode of grofA 
of Nephrodium and Goniopteris, only differing from the latter in te 
linear sori. 

1. Steonogramme aspidioides. {Hook.) Fronds hairy on 
both sides, especially the veins, ovate-lanceolate acuminated, pinnate, 
firm-membranaceous, pinnae opposite or alternate, sessile subtruncate 
or adnate at the base, 3-4 inches long, rarely an inch wide, oblong- 
lanceolate, pinnatifid |-£ the way to the midrib ; veins 5-6 pair, 2-5 
lower united, with an excurrent spurious vein reaching to the sinus, 
those in the lobes free, all soriferous ; sori linear-oblong, nearly the 
length of the veins. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 150. BL Fil. Jav. /. 172. 
Bt'dd. F. B. I. t. 149. 

Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet elevation; Ceylon (?) 

(Also in Java.) 

GENUS LXX.— GYMNOGRAMME. (Äw\) 

(Gymnos, naked ; gramme^ a line.) 

Sori arising from the veins over the under surface of the frond : 
linear or linear-oblong, forked or sometimes simple ; veins forked, 
veinlets free ; fronds various, adherent to the caudex, habit and 
mode of growth of Cheilanthes. 



3»2 



Ferns of British India ako Ceylon. 



i. Gvnnocramme Andersons {ßedd.) Caudex fumished 
with numcrous black, wiry roots ; stipes tufled, 1-2 inches long, 
shaggy, with long soft golden hairs ; fronds (including stipes) 1-4 
inches long, J inch broad, membranaceous pionated, copiouslj 
lialry, cspecially beneath, pinnse sessile, cordate-ovate or obkmg- 
uvatc, pinnatifid or crenated ; cosla not veiy prominent, veins [Himalc 




IJYJINOCkAMML ANDERSOS]. (EtilJ.) 

in ihe lower segnients of the pinnse, forked or simple in the ot ■* 
all free and not reaching the margin ; sori forked copious. &** 
F. B. I. t. 190. Hook. Syn. Fil. 380. 

Kumaon, Soondadunga Valley, on dry rocks, 13,000 **• 
elevation. 



-. Gv.mnogramme LEtTOPHVLLA. (Desr.) Root a small aiinuäl 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



383 



rnass of fibres ; stipes tufted, glossy brown, slender, filiform, 
ches long; fronds small 2-4 inches long, i— 1 i inch broad, 
e, membranaceous very transparent, ovate or deltoid, all 
varying from Teniform crenated to variously pinnate or 
nnate, those on the shorter stipes being less Compound, pinn.c 
late to obovate, decurrent, deeply crenated, lobes entire or 
te ; veins simple or forked, not reaching the margin ; sori 



ÜIVMI 



.mm 




GYN NOT- RAM ME L 



{/),:.-,.) 



•„ simple or forked. Desr. Journ. Bot. i. /. 26. Hook. Sp. Fil. 

Bedd. F. S. I. t. 270. Anogramma, Link. 
festern ghats of the Peninsuta of India, Ootacamund, Ma- 
irar, Suttara Fort walls. 

Uso in Europe, the Azores, Madeira, Canaries, Africa, Persia, 
lk, New Zealand, South America.) 



3«4 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



3. GVMNOGRAMME MICROPUVLLA. (Hook.) Stipes lifflSflj 

Lufted, z-4 inches long, slender, fragile, glossy brown; fronds i-i-J 
inches long, deltoid quadripinnaüiid, pinnae close, the Iowa One 
dcltoid, pinnules deltoid, ultimate segments J- J of an inch, oborate- 
ublong, texture pellucid-herbaceous ; veins and sori one to ach 
ultimate segnient. Hook. Syn. Fil. 3S3. Bedd. F. B. L /- 148, 
{habit of leptophylla, but not annual.) 




i.A. U/eai:) 

Khasya, Surarecn, 5,000 feet elevation, Sikkim, Tocglo, 7, ^~ 
, 10,000 fcet elevation, SinchaJ, 8,000 feet elevation, Dikee^ 3 
7,500 feet elevation. 



GENUS LXXL— SYN GRAMME, (/. S»i.) 

(Syri to unite ; grammt, a line — sori often in unlted lines.) 

Sori long linear, arising from the veins and veinlets on the unde r 
suriacc, veins forked close to the midrib or higher up, veinlets panSel 



at the base, sulked, and 2 inche 
pinnae 3 inches long by | inch 
broad rounded base, in both fo 
herbaceous, glabrous, or a little 
or finely toothed ; veins very de 
midrib, 01 much higher up, one ( 
forked, rarely joining with the 
along all the branches, but stoppi 
ziura fraxineum, Don. Fl. Nep. 
(Bl.), Bedd. F.S.I.t. 232, the 
Mpinnatefotm, G. serrulata, Bl. PI 

Himalayas, from Chumba to 
very common ; Khasya, 1,000-5,« 
6,000 feet elevation ; Malay Penii 

(Also in the Malay Islands ; 
Japan.) 

This Fem should certainly b 
" alismaeiblia," with which it quitt 
of the vcins is rare, but I detect it 



. Syngramme vestita. ( H 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



387 



rked or pinnate, where pinnate the lower branches generally 

astomose; sori universal a 

1 the veins. Said. F. B. 

t. 154. Grammitis vestita, 

Voll. Cat. 12. Gymno- 

amme vesüta, Hook. Syn. 

W.379 

Hiroalayasfrora Chum- 
a to Nepal, 6,000-9,000 
-■et elevation.* 

(Also in China.) 

3. Syngrammf, Wal- 
chii. (Hook) Stipes 
Fted up to 20 inches long, 
n, glossy brown, fibrinöse 
W the base ; fronds up to 
— foot long by a\ inches 
»ad, elliptic - lanceolate, 
iple, acuminate, entire at 
margin, the base narrow- 
"very gradually, texture 
Xwriaceous, both sides 
t>rous; veinsfine parallel, 
'ple, or forked Crom the 
■e or much higher up, 
ely joining with the con- 
aous group about the 
*tre, but all anastomosing 
M'theniargin and forming 
3 small oblong hexagonat 
'*olesj sori on all the 
tT "iight veins, but scarcely 
xtending to anastomosing 
mesnearthe margin. Bedd. 
F.B. 1. 1. 153, Gymnogramme, Hook. Sp. Ftl. v.p. 155, t 302 




H?323. 1 

SYNCRAMMB VESTITA. (Hall.) 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 389 

Singapore. 

Also in Borneo.) 

I.. Syngramme alism/Efolia. {Hook.) Caudex creeping ; 

a span to a foot and more long, blackish-purple ; fronds subco- 
>us, simple 5-8 inches long, 2\ inches wide near the base, from 
nded base, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, finely acuminated ; veins 
rous, approximate, simple or forked, anastomosing near the 
n into 1-2 series of oblong hexagonal areoles ; sori narrow- 

on all the straight veins, but scarcely extending to the anasto- 
tg ones. Bcdd. F. B. I. t 240. Gymnogramme, Hook, Sp. 

• *55- 
Singapore. 

GENUS LXXIL— SELLIGUEA. (Bory.) 

(After Selligue, a Frenchman.) 

/eins prominent, Compound, anastomosing, with free included 
its in the areoles ; sori long linear ; fronds simple, pinnatifid or 
r pinnate, articulate with the caudex ; habit and mode of 
;h of Pleopeltis, from which genus it only differs in the sori 
; long linear. 

* Fronds simple, 

1. Selliguea Feei. (Hook.) Rhizome firm, wide-creeping, 
cales bright brown, fibrinöse ; fronds dimorphous, the sterile ones 
inches long, i\-2\ inches broad, on stems 3^-6 inches long, the 
j ones narrower and more contracted at the base on stems 6-10 
s long, both acute, entire, very coriaceous and glabrous ; main 
very prominent to the margin, \ inch apart, veinlets obscure, 
ng copious areoles, with free included clavate venules ; sori 

• immersed in single rows, rarely interrupted, between the main 
, not quite reaching the margin. Hook. Syn. FiL 389. Sp. 
\ 158. Bedd. F. B. L t 151. 

Malay Penin sula, Penang, Singapore. 
Also in the Malay Islands.) 



"'* """"• "- m ^ oncs 4-8 inchcs 
"".'"■' """ ■ '« long, tcsture ra 
>l«cuo US ;m a i nv cin s ,cr,dMi„c 



N< 

th< 




<« 



SELUGUEA H AMILTON , ANA< 


erec 
inch 

the; 


faoth «M« ».1.. . 


r-ai 




SBLLIGUEA ELL1PTICA. (TAun6.\ 



Ijroad, texture subcoriaceous, quii 
disiinct to the edge, areoles um 
clavate veinlets ; sori linear obliqi 
margn, sometimes intemipted 
ellipticum, Thunb, Fl. Jap, 335. 
Fil. 389. Btdd. F. B. 1. 1. 150. 

Hiraalayas, Nepal to Bhotan 
fcet ; Malay Peninsula, Tenasseriir. 

{Also in the Philippines, Quee; 

5. Sellicuea Maingayi. (B, 
naked ; fronds deltoid, under 1 foc 
lanceolate pinnre, the end one largef 
broad, slightly rcpand, narrowed gl 
pair distant, texture membranaccou 
to the edge, } inch apart, areoles coj 
veinlets ; sori very copious, minute i 
in lines or curves. Baier in Hook. 

Malacca. 

GENUS LXXIIL— LOXi 



Im.rns of British India anh Cfyi.on. 393 



»nie slender, wide-creeping ; scales small, linear, brown ; fronds 6- 
inches long by J-£ inch broad, linear lanceolate, the apex acute, 
e tnargin entire, the lower third narrowed gradually into a very 
* ort stipe, texture thick, coriaceous but flaccid, both sides glabrous ; 
nation obscure, costal areoles numerous, small, without, or more 
"ely with, free included veinlets, the midrib much more slender than 
involutä; the sori shorterand often nearly parallel, or quite parallel, 
h the midrib. Grammitis lanceolata, Sw. Syn. Fil. 22, 212, /. 
*5g- m 4. Selliguea, Hook. Syn. Fil. 387. Sp. Fl. v. 156. Loxo- 
mina lanceolata, Bedd. F S. I. t. 51. 

Southern India, Nilgiris and the higher Western mountains, 
00—8,000 feet elevation, (rare compared with involutä). Ceylon, 
>ve Newera Elya, rare ; Khasya, 4,000-5,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in China, Japan, Fiji, Samoa, and Africa, with its eastern 
mds.) 

a. Loxogramme involutä. {Don. under Grammitis!) Rhizome 
mt, creeping, the scales lanceolate, brown ; fronds 8-18 inches long, 
x-2$ inches broad, lanceolate, the apex acuminate, the margin 
tire, the lower part narrowed very gradually into a short broad 
**ipressed stipe ; texture thick coriaceous, but flaccid, both sides 
a brous ; venation obscure, areoles copious with free included vein- 
*s ; sori in long parallel very oblique lines reaching from the 
^drib nearly to the margin. Don. Fl. Nep. 14. Selliguea, Hook. 
Sp'Fil. v. 155. Syn. Fil. p. 387. Loxogramma involutä, Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 50. Wall. Cat. 6, 7 and 10. 

Very common on the mountains throughout the Indian region ; 
Himalayas, 2,000-7,000 feet elevation ; Southern India and Ceylon, 
5,000-8,000 feet. 

Perhaps only a large form of lanceolata. Baker says there are 
10 free included veinlets, but I find them always present in this 
laot, (Sir J. Hooker says sometimes), generally absent though some- 
mes present in lanceolata. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and Polynesia.) 

3. Loxogramme aventa. (Baker.) Rhizome creeping ; stipe 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



i inchlong, frondsgtabrous,eoriaceous, 18-20 inches long.linear- 
g, spathulate, broader up- 



, but narrowed and acute 
s apex, about 3 inches 
q thewidest part, glabrous 
jth sides, texiure less 
:eous than in the last 
venation more evident, 
latejd with free veinlets 
me of the areoles, no 
iient costules though 
imary veins are slightly 
:r than the others; sori 
tow linear more or less 
se, parallel lines in the 

portion of the frond 
ouching the costa nor 
ding to the margin. 
-, Syn. Fi/, p. 388. Bedd. 

1. 1. 266. 

The Malay Peninsula, 
ig- 
Also in the Malay Islands.) 




LOXOCRAMME AYENIA. (Beter.) 



GENUS LXXIV.— BRAINEA. (/. Sm.) 

(After C. Braine who first introduced the fern.) 

Jon linear, simple or branched, usually on the veins which form 
>stal areoles and on the bases of the free transverse ones, often 
extended and confluent ; veins united so as to form one series 
ong or triangulär costal areoles, the rest free, simple or forked, 
enerally all free towards the apex of the pinnje ; caudex erect, 
;scent ; fronds pinnated continuous with the caudex. 



. Brainea insignis. (Hook.) Caudex as thick as a man's 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 397 

m, clothed with shaggy dirk-brown ferruginous jsubuhte-lanceolate 
ales, |-i inch long; stipes stout, firm, 3-4 inches long, scaly only 
the base ; fronds coriaceous bright-green (Lomaria-like), pinnate, or 
casionallybelow partiallybipinnate; pinnae numerous, close, horizon- 
l, 5-6 inches long, 4 lines broad, base cordate, linear-oblong, acumi- 
ite, finely serrate. Hook. Syn. Fil. 390. Bedd. F. B. I. /. 139. 

Khasya Hills, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation, Pomrang and Jainka ; 
alay Peninsula, in Tenasserim, the fir forests (Parish), on Mooleyit, 
000 feet (Beddome.) 

(Also in Hong Kong.) 



GENUS LXXV.— MENISCIUM. (Schreb.) 

(Meniskos, cresent ; shape of fructification,) 

Sori naked, oblong or linear, occupying the transverse connivent 

inlets ; veins pinnate, veinlets numerous, the opposite ones uniting 

an arc or angle, and sending out from the angle a free or con- 

mous venule ; fronds simple or pinnate, (only differs from Goni- 

teris in the shape of the sori.) 

1. Meniscium triphyllum. (Sw.) Rhizome firm, wide-creeping, 
h chesnut lanceolate-linear scales at the extremities ; stipes slender, 
htly pubescent, of the fertile frond 1 foot long or more, of the 
"*le often shorter ; fronds 3-foliate or with 5 or more pinnae, the 
■^inal one much the largest, all oblong-lanceolate with a broad 
- and acute apex, about 4-6 inches long by £-i£ inch broad, 
*^d or subsessile, margin entire or subrepand, the fertile ones often 
"Ower, texture herbaceous, slightly pubescent beneath; areoles 
V>etween midrib and margin. Sw. Syn. Fil. 19, 206. Hook. Syn. 
391. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 56. Wall. Cat. 61. 

South India, Bolampatty Valley, Anamallays, Travancore, 2,000 
^o feet elevation, gregarious and forming very large beds, nearly 
l Vs trifoliate,rarely 5-foliate ; Ceylon, Matale and Saffragam, 2,000- 
^o feet; North India, Eastern Bengal, Cachar, Chittagong, Sikkim, 
*o great elevation ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in China and Philippines.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



399 



Tenasserim and Mishmee. 
is into the type, but there is 



. ß Parishii, pirmx 9-1; 
B. 1. 1. 184 ; this probably 
ke it in South India. 

[kniscium Thwaitesii. {Hook.) Rhizome wide-creeping, 
1 crowquill, stipes 9-12 inches long, angled, naked except 
ise, fronds 8-10 inches long, 4-6 inches broad at base,- 
subdeltoid, the apex acuminate and more or less pinnatifid, 
lieh are several linear oblong rather deeply crenated 




:ium Thwaitesii. [Hook.) meniscium salicifqlium. (Wall.) 

; lowest stalked, the others sessile or subsessile, \-\ inch 

:en suddenly narrowed at the base, texture herbaeeous, 

üttle pubescent, above glabrous or nearly so, except the 

;oles generally 5 series between the costa and margin. 

1. Eil. p. 391. Btdä. F.S.I.L 223. 

1 India, Nilgins, west slopes below Sispara, 3,000 feet 

; Ceylon, Matale, 3,000 feet elevation. 

!eniscium SALiciFOLiuM. {Wall.) Stipe i foot or more 

nineous or pale-brown, glossy ; fronds 12-18 inches long, 



>>. l-il. 391. Bcdd. F. B. I. I. 2 
Malay Pcninsula, Penang and ! 




MEn.PI.Jar.Fu.in. Hooktr,S„ 
309. M. Inmrifiw- '"" " 



Kerns of British India and Ceylon. 



401 



Himalayas and Khasya, fiom 500-4,000 feet, and Mr. Clarke 
makes it a separate variety, under the name of longifrons ; it, however, 
graduates into the type, I believe it is not separated at Kew, nor 
are there any characters to distinguish it ; they both have the costa 
very red sometimes, Mr. Clarke also gathered small specimens wit'.i 
simple fronds (not in fruit, however). 

(Mr. Clarke is quite wrong in referring Gymnopteris costata, var. 
deltigera, to this genus, it has quite different venatipn.) 



GENUS LXXVI.— ANTROPHYUM. {Kaulf.) 

(Antron, a cave, hollow ; phyo, I grow.) 

Sorireticulatedorintermpted, carried 
along the veins in line, the receptacles 
iromersed and forming grooves, or super- 
ficial; veins uniform reticulated ; fronds 
adherent to the caudex, simple, with or 
without a defined midrib, fleshy-coriaceous 
in textuie, all the species closely allicd. 



1. Antrophvum reticulatum. 
{Kaulf.) Stipe none or very short, the fronü 
bcing decurrent down to the hase ; fronds 
6-15 inches long, by i-ij inch broad, 
linear-lanceolate oracuminate, very gradu- 
ally narrowed downwards ; midrib none 
or sometimes present towards the base of 
the frond, the areoles very long and 
narrow and distinctly raised on the upper 
surface ; sori immersed, sometimes con- 
fluent. Kaulf, Fee, yd Mim. Foug. 14. 




AN1KUPHYUM RETICULA- 
TUM. (Kaulf.) 

Bedd. F S. I. t. 231. 



Ant. coriaceum, Wall. Cat. 43. Ant. semicostatiim {Bl.), Hook. 
Sjin. Fil. 393. 

All the South Indian, Ceylon, and North Indian specimens 
seem to me to belong to one species ; "coriaceum " is said to differ 

27 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



403 



py being plicate on the upper surface, but this peculiarity occurs also 
in *h« South Indian plant and is not a specific character ; reticulatum 
ca n always be distinguished from " plantagineum " by its longer and 
nar *"Cwer fronrls, and generally also by the presence of numerous 
fairen sporangiaetra. 

South India,- rare, on the Tinnevelly and ffravancore Moun- 
t* 1 *»», 3,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon, southern and central provinces, 
U E* to 4,000 feet ; Himalayas and Khasya, up to 5,000 feet ; Malay 
" e *»insula. 

(Also in Polynesia and Queensland.) 



Var. ß FARVULUM. 
{&/.) Fronds very sraall, 1-4 
Celles long, by J-i inch 
br oad. Antr. parvulum (Bl), 
****. Jav. 78, /. 34. Hook. Sp. 
**'*. v. 170. Btdd. F. B. I. 
'- =67. 

Sikkira, Yoksun, 4,500 
fe «t, Khasya ; Penang. 
(Also inJava.) 



2. ÄNTROPHYtlM PLAN- 

^-^■CiiNEUM. (Kaulf.) Stipe 




ANTROPHYUM 



^T* s *inct, 1-4 inches long ; 

^*Tids oblong, broadest to- 

^■*"ds the apex, then sudden'y 

^**Towed into an acute point, 

. *^> inches long, and up to 

■ a inches broad, no midrib or 

^L _ an inconspieuous one towards the base ; sori deeply immersed, some- 
^k ^raes distinetiy raised on the upper surface making the frond plicate 

■ sbme. Kaulf, Bory. in Voy. de fa Coq. Bot. Cryp. t. 28. Bedd. F. 

■ S-l.L 52 (reticulatum). 

■ South India, on the Western mountains, 2,000-5,500 feet 



404 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

elevation, not very common ; Ceylon, central provinces ; Himalayas 
and Khasya up to 5,000 feet; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, Philippines and Polynesian Islands.) 

3. Antrophyum t.atifolium. (Bl.) Stipelongup t0 7inches; 
fronds large, broadlg obovate or round, up to 4% inches wide, acuminate 
or acutely lobed at the apex, no midrib ; sori superficial or immersed, 
with the frond plicate above. Bl. Fl./av. Fil. 75. Bcdd. F. BJ> 
t. 176. 

Sikkim and Bhotan, 2,000-6,000 feet ; Assam and Khasya 
1,000-4,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Java.) 

Supposed to differ from the last by the sori being superficial; 
they however are deeply immersed in some of my speeimens, so it 
only differs in its much broader frond and longer stipes ; all the three 
so-called species are probably only varieties of one plant. 

GENUS LXXVIL— VITTARIA. (Sm.) 

( Vitta, a riband, the riband-like ffond.) 

Veins simple, forming an acute angle with the midrib, their 
apices prolonged into a transverse marginal vein. which becomes the 
reeeptacle, or veins forked without the transverse marginal vein ; son 
seated in an extrorse groove of the margin, or in a slightly in^" 
marginal line with the unaltered edge of the frond produced beyond 
and often rolled over it ; fronds adherent to the caudex, linear, grass- 
or tape-like. 

1 . Vittaria elongata. (Sic.) Rhizome creeping, scales many» 
with black hair-like points ; fronds up to 2^ feet long, generally only 
i inch broaH, acuminate, grass-like, but rather firm in texture, mid- 
rib generally more or less distinet beneath ; veins simple, oblique, 
immersed, parallel, connected by an intramarginal veinlet ; sori quite 
sunk in an extrorse marginal groove. Sic. Syn. FiL 109, 302. Wall 
Ca f. 144. Bcdd. F. S. I. t. 21. 




VtfTARIA BLONUATA. {StU ,\ 



406 



Ferns of British India afd Ceylon. 



South India, on the Western mountains, 2,000-5,000 feet deva- 
tion ; Ceylon, central provinces ; North India, from the plains up to 
about 4,000 feet elevation ; Malay Peninsula, Birma, &c 

(Also in the Malay Islands ; Queensland ; Polynesia ; Tropical 
Africa, and Mauritius.) 



2. Vittaria sikkimensis. (Kuhn.) Rhizome very shortly creep- 
ing, with slaty-rufous hair-pointed scales ; stipes densely tufted; fronds 
up to 4 inches long, but often very much shorter, ^ inch broad, 
subobtuse ; midrib beneath obscure or slightly depressed ; sori sunk 

in a large extrorse marginal funow. 
Kuhn in Linnaa xxxvi. 66. Gto&i 
F. N. I.p. 574. V. minor var. minim*« 
Hook. Sp. Fi/, v. 183. Bedd. F. B> '• 
/. 56 {not minor of Fee). 

Sikkim, 2,000-6,000 feet elevatum 
common ; Khasya, Mowlong, 2,500 fee* 
elevation ; Tenasserim. 

The Tenasserim speeimens are c&' 
tainly the same as the Sikkim, and wh^ 
Mr. Clarke stated that the Moulm^ 
and Malay fern was distinet, he had V 
his eye only the Malacca plant (i.e. f& 
cata or the next species). I have neV* 
seen the Tenasserim plant more th-*" 
2 inches long, and the Sikkim plant 
also common in this small State, though other speeimens are4incl^ 
long, the soral groove is extrorse as in Vittaria elongata (not int^ 
marginal as in the section Tseniopsis) and this plant can hardly 
said to differ from elongata except in its very small size, and 
probably only a variety of it. 

3. Vittaria falcata. (Kunze.) Fronds 4-5 inches long, 
inch broad, the apex blunt, the lower part narrowed gradually to t - ^ 
base, texture leathery and very thick ; a distinet raised mid*"* 




f(?239 



vittaria sikkimensis. 
{Kuhn. ) 



Fkrns ok Burrisn Imha am> Ckyi,<»\. .407 

attaining the apex in the barren fronds, but lost in the fertile ones ; 
veins short, oblique, parallel, immersed ; sori quite sunk, in deep 
intramarginal grooves. Kunze. Hook. Syn. Fil. 395. V.falcata 
and minor Fee yd. Mem. Foug. 

Malacca. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

4. Vittaria amboinensis. (Fee.) Fronds 4-5 inches long, by 
3-4 lines broad, smooth, submembranaceous, falcate acuminate, 
tapering below into a petiole ; costa slender, disappearing below the 
apex ; veins curved equal approximate ; sori closely marginal, cuticle 
of the margin resembling a false involucre ; caudex flexuose, con- 
torted scaly, scales cancellate, rigidly toothed at the margin., Fee, 
Vittar.p. 44, /. 1,/ 1. (not Mett) Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 177. Bedd. 
F. B. I. t. 117. 

Martaban. This seems as distinct a species as most of this group, 
though it is possible it may be a small form of scolopendrina, the 
veins are combined where fertile by an intramarginal vein which runs 
along the centre of the receptacle. 

(Also in Amboyna). 

5. Vittaria lineata. (£«>.) Rhizome very short creeping; 

stipes tufted, scales acuminate with caudate points ; fronds up to 8 

ifiches long, £-J inch broad, narrowed gradually downwards to the 

stout compressed stipe, the margin often reflexed, texture thick, a 

distinct raised midrib from the base to the apex; veins simple, im- 

Inei ^sed, parallel, very oblique ; sori in a broad intramarginal shallow 

Urr Ow, the edge of the frond distinctly beyond the furrow and at first 

over it. Sw. Syn. FiL p. 109. Hook. Syn. Fil. 396. Taeni- 

lineata, Bedd. F. S. I. t. 54. Fee separated the Indian plant 

^ r ^txi the American under the name of flexuosa, and Mr. Clarke has 

a ^opted that name, but the two plants seem identical. 

South India, on the Western mountains, 2,000-6,000 feet 
Ovation . Ceylon, centad provinces, common ; Himalayas, 2,000 
*~**,ooo feet elevation, from Gurwhal to Bhotan, Khasya, 1,000- 
^000 feet elevation ; Malay Peninsula. 




lA-ukm.) 



408 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

(Also in Tropica] America, and the West Indies, Africa and Hs 
Eostern Islands.) 

6. VlTTARIA SCOLOPENDRlM- 

(Presl.) Caudex creeping, paleacews 
with subulate scales; fronds linear 
lanceolate acuminate, membranaeew^ 
gradually attenuated at both ewfc 
16-28 inches long by 1 inch broad, 
glabrous on both sides, scarcely stip* - 
täte ; midrib thick ; sori sank in * 
furrow within the margin of the appH 
portion of the fronds, inner roargin of 
the furrow winged, margin of the frond 
rcvolute over the fnictification diapha - 
nous or sub : n -uaiate. Haploptehs 
scolopendrina, Fr. Tcnl. Pter. p. 141. Hook. Syn. Ftl. p.$- 
Treniopsis, Bedd. F.S/.t «*• 
Vitt. Zeylanica, Jv*. 

Ceylon, southern airl cen- 
tral provinces, on rocks up 10 
3,000 feet elevation ; Himalajas, 
Sikkim, Assant, Bhotan. 

(Also in New Guinea, Ph>- 
lippines.Malay Islands, Seychelle 
and Mozambiquc.) 

7. VlTTARIA SU1XAT*' 

{Kuhn.) Rhizome short creep- 
ing, scales dense lanceolate, pal' - 
brown ; fronds crowded, ligulate. 
obtuse, sessile, narrowed to ll* 
base, 2-4 inches long, i in** 
broad ; sori in an intramarginsl 
deep furrow confined to the verf 
much thickened Upper half of the frond, where the midrib and vei« 





11-IS ULLCINOIDIS. {Sta.) 



410 Ferks of British India and Ceylon. 

arc quite lost ; midrib visible in the barren lower half, veins forked 
or rarely with two branches, veinlets slightly clavate at the apex not 
reaching the margin, margin beyond the soral groove very thicL 
Kuhn % Linnaa, 36,/. 68. Taeniopsis falcata, Bedd. F. B. 1. 1 175. 
Ceylon, 4,000-5,000 feet elevation, the forked venation is ab- 
normal in the genus. 

GENUS LXXVIIL— TjENITIS. (Willi.) 
(From tainia, a fillet or ribbon.) 

■ 

Veins reticulated, forming oblong hexagonal oblique areoles; 
sori linear, but the line sometimes interrupted, forming a traDSversc 
band between the midrib and margin ; fronds adherent to the caudex. 

1. TvENiTis blechnoides. (S7ü.) Rhizome creeping, setose; 
stipes 8-12 inches long, firm, naked, glossy; fronds 1-2 feet long, 
8-12 inches broad, pinnate ; pinnee of barren frond 2-3 on each side, 
1-2 inches broad, oblong-lanceolate, the point acuminate, the edge 
thickened and wavy, the base cuneate, the lower ones stalked, fertile 
pinnce more numerous and narrower, texture coriaceous, areoles 
copious, oblique, without free veinlets ; sori in a continuous (rarely 
interrupted) line, about imdway between the edge and midrib. 
Swarts, Syn. FiL 24 and 220. Hook, Syn. FiL 397. Bedd. F. B> '• 

*- 54. 

Ceylon, in the forests about Galle \ Malay Peninsula, in Tenas- 

serim and further south ; Sylhet (?). 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

GENUS LXXIX.— DRYMOGLOSSUM. (Prtsl.) 

(DrymoSy wood ; g/ossa, tongue). 

Veins obscure, compoundly anastomosing in the sterile fronds, 
forming 3-4 series of areoles between the midrib and the margin, 
each including simple or forked free veinlets, with clavate apices *, 
fronds articulate with the caudex, dimorphous, the sterile broad and 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 411 

ort, the fertile long and narrow; sori linear, scarcely immersed, 
ntral or submarginal often at length confluent and covertng the 
lole undemcath suiface of the frond ; caudex wide-creeping on 



1. Drymoglossum carnosum. (Hook.) Rhizome long, filiform, 
ry, clothed with peltate lanceolate-linear toothed scales, which are 
:en hair-pointed ; stipes 2 lines to 1 inch long, distant slender ; 
»nds simple, of two kinds, sterile one from £ an inch, (and 
en generally orbicwlar or sub- 
rdate) to 2 and even 3 inches 
ig, and then elliptical or obovate 

Spathulate, or even lanceolate 
d acuminate, thick and fleshy, 
riaceous when dry, faintly cos- 
;e on the under side ; veins an- 
lOmosing, the areoles including 
e veinlets, fertile fronds i-2j 
:hes long, linear-spathulate ob- 
;e ; sori linear continuous form- 
l a line intermediate between 
; costa and the margin, soon 
nfluent, and representing one 
aad band, nearly as broad as 
; frond, when young covered 

numerous peltate pedicellated 
des. Hook. Sp. Fil.v. 189. Nothochkena ? (Tahitis?) 
r a!l. Cat. n. 138. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 55. 

Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, 2,000-5,000 feet elevation, common. 
(Also in China and Japan.) 

2. Drymoglossum piloselloides. (Pres!.) Rhizome long 
.form, wiry, clothed with adpressed, diamond shaped peltate laci- 
ited scales, which are sometimes hair-pointed ; stipes about 2 lines 
og in tlje sterile, often about 1 inch long in the' fertile fronds, 
mds dimorphous, the barren ones roundish or obovate, \-2 inches 




DRVMOCLOSSUM CARNOSUM. {Heot.) 




D«.VMOjLÖ4SUW TILOSELLOIDES. (Pres!.) 



KERNS OF BkEriSII INDIA AM) CEYLON. 413 



long, £ inch broad, very thick and fleshy, and when young more or 
less covered with stellate hairs, the fertile ones, 2-4 inches long £-J 
inch broad ; veins immersed, areoles with copious free veinlets ; sori 
in broad continuous marginal lines often at length confluent and 
covering the whole under surface, capsules mixed with a few stellate 
paraphyses. Pres/. Tent. Pterid. 227, /. 10. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 55 
and F. S. I. t. 186 (Niphobolus nummularifolius). 

Bengal Plains ; Birma ; Ceylon ; South India, common in the 
Malabar plains, (Calicut, &c. on trees), also on the mountains, up to 
about 2,000 feet elevation, (Anamallays, Wynad, Coorg, &c.) 

(Also in Java Philippines and Japan.) 

Var. ß Beddomei. Mr. Clarke proposes the name Beddomei 
for a specimen from the Anamallays figured by me (fad. 186, 
F. S. I.) because the fronds have stellate hairs and the scales of the 
rhizome are more pointed, but I find this stellate pubescence is 
always more or less present on the young fronds of Himalayan 
examples, and the rhizome scales are quite as hair-pointed in some 
specimens from Java, Philippines, and Japan, the fertile fronds are 
shorter and narrower in this South Indian form, and the broader 
usually sterile fronds sometimes fructify towards the apex, but I am 
not inclined to consider it even a permanent variety, as I believe 
it runs into the type with longer fertile fronds, which is also found in 
Southern India. 

(Niphobolus nummularifolius, though I have included it in that 
genus, rather belongs heie, it has exactly similar venation.) 

GENUS LXXX.— HEMIONITIS. (Z.) 

(Hemionos, a mule— the mule fern.) 

Sori continuous along the veins and copiously reticulated ; veins 
copiously anastomosing, forming numerous areoles which have rarely 
a free veinlet in them, which when present is also soriferous ; fronds 
adherent to the caudex, simple, pinnatifid, or pinnate. 

1. Hemionitis arifolia. (Burm. under Asplenium.) Caudex 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



41S 



xt, short ; stipe of the barren frond, 2-4 inches long, of the fertile 
en 1 foot long, dark chesnut-brown, glossy densely fibrinöse 
vards the base ; fronds 2-3 inches each way, cordate-hastaie, the 
rren ones bluntish at the apex, with generally lounded (rarely 
inted) basal lobes and a decp sinus, the fertiie ones with the lobes 
ire produced and pointed, texture more or less coriaceous, gla- 
dus above, somewhat villous beneath ; areoles oblique, numerous, 
e veinlets none or very rare. Burm. Fl. Ind. 231. H. cordifolia 
oxb.), Btdd. F. S. I. t. 53. 

South India, common in 
e plains and on the moun- 
ins up to nearly 3,000 feet 
evation j East Bengal plains ; 
Jylon ; Birma. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

2. Hemionitis Grif- 
Hll, (Hook. Fi/, et Thoms.) 
izome short creeping; stipes 
iaceous and coarsely hir- 
i» 8-12 inches long ; fronds 
*6 inches long, 6-ioinches 
*d, subdeltoid, pinnatifid 
»innate with 2-4 pinna: on 

* side, which are 1-1J 

* broad, entire or cre- 
-<i, acuminate, texture 
aaceous, rachis and both 
läoes hairy on the venation ; main veins prominent, generally 
fen, the veinlets reticulated into copious areoles all soriferous, 
ely there are free included veinlets, which are also soriferous. 
*>k. Sfi. Fil. v. 192. Dictyocline Griffithii (Moore), Bedd. F. B I. 
»55- 

Khasya, Cherra, 4,000-5000 feet elevation, 
(Also in Formosa.) 




4i 6 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



TRIBE XII.— ACROSTICHBÄ. 

Sori spread in a Stratum over the under surface, or rarely over 
both surfaces of the frond, not confined to the veins only. 

GENUS LXXXL— ELAPHOGLOSSUM. (Sehott.) 

(Elaphos, a stag ; glossa, tongue.) 

Veins free, simple or forked, their apices sometimes clavate, 
fronds simple, entire, sessile or stipitate, the fertile somewhat con- 
tracted and generally sporangiferous over the whole under surface ; 
stipes adherent to the rhizome, but generally pseudo-articulate a Utile 
above the base. 

i. Elaphoglossum conforme. (Sw.) Rhizome woody, wide 
creeping, scales blackish, ovate, jagged, not hair-pointed ; stipes finn 
erect, 2-3 inches long in the sterile, and often much more in the 
fertile, black at the base up to the pseudo-articulation, where it breaks 
off in age, generally clothed with sheathing scales ; sterile fronds 2-9 
inches long, seldom more than 1 inch broad, narrow-lanceolate 
acuminatc, furnished with deciduous scales on both sides, quite 
glabrous in age, margin slightly revolute in age ; veins hidden, 
generally once-forked, just reaching the margin ; fertile fror.ds some- 
what contracted. S7V. Syn. FiL 10, 192, /. 1. Bedd. F. S.I>t- 
198. Hook. Syn. FiL 401. 

South India, Western mountains, at the higher elevations, very 
common ; Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula ; Sikkim and Nepal, 6,000- 
9,000 feet elevation, Khasya, 4,500-6,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Australia, Central and South Africa, Queensland, 
Polynesia, and the Malay Islands.) 

2. Elaphoglossum latifolium. (£«/.) Rhizome woody, widfr 
creeping, scales bright chesnut or golden, lanceolate and more 
pointed than in conforme ; stipes longer than in conforme and the 
deciduous scales not sheathing ; fronds much larger than in conforme, 
and generally over 2 inches broad, margin diaphanous and much 



i.\lso in Cuba and Tropica] .- 
3. Elaphoclossum Norrie 




ELAfHOGLOäSUM LATIFOLIUM. (Sro.) 

li 

sheathing, very dense towards the 1 
a. .- :--■ 



420 Ferns of British India axd Ceylon. 

South India, Nilgiris, and Palghat Hills. 

5. Elaphoglossum viscosum. (Sw.) Rhizome woody, creep- 
ing, the scales bright-brown, narrow, linear, hair-pointed ; sterile 
fronds linear-lanceolate, 6-9 inches long, by J-f inch broad, narrowed 
gradually at both ends, densely covered on the under surface with 
stellate pubescence, glabrous above, at least in age, its stipe 2-3 
inches, scaly and with stellate pubescence ; veins apparent, theirclavatc 
apices well within the margin, generali)* once forked, rarely the forks 
again forked, fertile fronds contracted and on a longer stipe. Sk\ 
Syn. Fil. 10, 193. Bcdd. F. S. /. /. 196. E. stelligerum, Wall- 
Cat. 2167. 

South India, Western mountains, Anamallays 4,000 feet, on 
rocks up the Toracadu River, Coorg, Travancore ; North India, 
Sikkim and Nepal, 6,000-8,000 feet elevation, Khasya, 4,000-6,000 
feet. (It has been proposed to separate the South Indian plant from 
the Himalayan under ihe name of stelligerum, but I cannot dis- 
tinguish them.) 

(Also in Tropical America ; Tropical Africa, and its eastern 
islands ; and the Malay Islands.) 

6. Elaphoglossum s^uamosum. (Sic.) Rhizome short creep- 
ing, scaly ; the scales black margined and ciliate ; stipes 1-2 inches 
long, very scaly, fronds linear-lanceolate obtuse, gradually attenuated 
at the base, 4-12 inches long, -J— J inch broad, densely covered on 
both sides with velvety ciliated scales, fertile fronds often not con- 
tracted, texture rlaccid ; veins hidden, simple or forked. &'• tn 
Schrad. Journ. 1800, ii. /. 11. Bedd. F. S. L t. 197. 

South India, Nilgiris, Anamallays, Travancore hüls, 3,ooo-4j o0 ° 
feet elevation, not common ; Ceylon, central provinces. 

(Also in Tropical America and West Indies ; Sumatra ; Sandwi c " 
Islands ; Mascareen Islands ; Guinea Coast ; Madeira and Azores) 

7. Elaphoglossum spathulatum. (Sic.) Rhizome short, creep- 
ing, densely scaly, furnisheH with numerous wiry roots ; stipes 2-4 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 421 



:hes long, densely covered with reddish setaceous scale*, fronds 
lear-lanceolate to rhomboid-lanceolate 1-2 inches long, covered on 
th sides with numerous hair-like scales, fertile fronds broad ovate, 
laller than the sterile ones. Sw. Syn. Fil.p. 10. Bcdd. F. S. I. 
213. Acrostichum piloseloides, var. £ spathulatum. Hook. Sp. FiL 
228. 
Ceylon, about Newera Elya, and in the southern provinces. 
(Also in Tropical America and West Indies ; Natal and Masca- 
en Islands ; and Tristan d'Acunha.) 

GENUS LXXXIL— STENOCHL^NA. (J. Sm.) 

(Stenos, narrow ; chlozna y cioak ; the narrow involute margin.) 

Fronds simpiy pinnate, the fertile contracted and very narrow, the 
irile with the habit of Lomaria; veins simple or forked, fine and close, 
nerally quite free to the margin, or rarely the two forks or even 

separate veins anastomose; stipes adherent to the rhizome ; pinnae 
ticulate with the rachis. (In palustre, the rachis or costa of the 
erile pinnae is winged, particularly towards the apex, which wing 
is been called an obscure transverse vein, anastomosing in loops ; 
te same occurs in Pteris patens, and some Athyriums (very apparent 

1 Athy. fimbriatum, var. sphceropteroides) and it can scarcely be 
illed a true vein. 

1. Stenochuena palustre. (Linn. under Polypodium.) Rhi- 
me scandent, (often reaching the tops of the highest trees), fronds 
Lbrous, shining, of hard texture, pinnate, 1-4 feet long, pinnae 
iculated numerous, alternate or opposite, lanceolate acuminate, 
ngently serrate towards the apex, oblique at the base, and furnished 
th a marginal gland on the upper edge, 5-10 inches long, i-ii 
ch broad, fertile fronds very much contracted ; veins simple or 
*ked, generally free to the thickened margin, rarely the forks or 
vo separate veins anastomose in the middle of, or towards the 
largin of the pinnae ; rachis of sterile pinnae winged, particularly 
)wards the margin, and forming a pseudo vein parallel with \t 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



423 



Burm. Fl. Zey. 234. S. scandens, J. Smith, in Hook, yourn. of 
Bot. iü. 401. Bedd. F. S. /. f. 201. Lomaria scandens, Willi. 
Sp. PI. 293. 

South India, in the plains on the West Coast and up the 
mountains to about 3,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon. North India in 
the plains of Bengal and at low elevations on the hüls ; Malay Pen- 
insula. (Davallia achilleifolia, Wall. Teratophyllum aculeatum, 
Atett. Ann. Mus. Lug. Bat. 4, 296. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 209, is an 
abnormal form of this plant, showing clearly a winged partial rachis.) 

(Also in South China ; 
Queensland; and Fiji.) 

2. Stenochl^na sorbi- 
folia. (/,.) Rhizorae thiclc, 
woody, often 40 feet long, clasp- 
ing trees lilce a cable, sometimes 
prickly, scales lanceolate-subulate, 
large; fronds up to 18 inches 
long, simply pinnate, barren pin- 
ns 3-8 inches long, about 1 inch 
broad, bluntly pointed, margin 
entire or toothed, 3-20 on each 
side, articulated at the base, 
texture subcoriaeeous, glabrous, 
or nearly so on both sides, rachis 
often winged, fertile pinnsesmaller, 
much contracted, about ? inch 
broad. Acrostichum sorbifolium, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1526. Lomari- 
opsis, Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 412. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 192. 

The Malay Peninsula, Te nasser im, Matacca. 

Bedd. F. B. I. 1. 210, is an abnormal bipinnate form of this 
plant in which the rachis of ihe pinnae is very broadly winged with 
small pinnules resembling the leaves of Feronia elephantum. Lo- 
maria limonifolia, Wall. Cat. 35, is the same form. 

(Also in Tropica! America and West Indies; Fiji; Samoa : 




STEKOCHL*NA SORBIFOL1A. 



424 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



New Caledonia ; Philippines ; Cochin China ; Mascareen Islands, 
and Tropical Africa.) 

GENUS LXXXIII.— POLYBOTRYA. (JI.B.K.) 

(Po/j'j many ; botrys^ bunch — in allusion to the fructjficatioa) 

Fronds pinnate, bipinnatifid or subbipinnate, the sterile not 
lomarioid in habit, generally viviparous, fertile much contracted; 
veins pinnate, all free ; stipes adherent to the rhizome. 

i. Polybotrya appendiculata. (Willd.) Rhizome thick, 
short-creeping, stipes and rachis scaly, scales linear, not adpressed; 
fronds pinnate, glabrous, the sterile ones viviparous at the apcx; 
pinnae 25 to 50 pair, subopposite or alternate, oblong-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, 2-3 inches long, J an inch broad, rather deeply crenated with 
a setaceous bristle between each crenature, superior basal crenaturc 
the largest, inferior base cuneate and slightly unequal ; veins not 
prominent, pinnate free ; fertile fronds much contracted, pinnae much 
shorter than the sterile ones. Wüld. Sp. PI. 114. Bcdd. F. S. /• 
/. 194. Wall. Ca f. 28 and 2685. 

Common throughout the Indian region. 

(Also in Philippines and Hong Kong.) 

The above description only relates to the type, but there arc 
several varieties more or less permanent. 

Var. ß major. Stipes and rachis very thick, £ inch or rather 
more in diameter, rough with dense adpressed scurfy scales j pinn« 
1 inch in breadth, not auricled at the superior base or cuneate and 
unequal at the inferior ; main veins very prominent and straight and 
costa-like veinlets more numerous and very prominent. 

Sikkim ; a very large fern, unlike any forms in Southern India or 
Ceylon. 

Var. y aspleniifolia. (Bory.) Rachis with copious linear 
patent scales, fronds seldom proliferous at the apex : pinme very 




* APPENDICUIATA. {IVHlll.) VAR. Y 



426 



Ferns ok British India and Ceylon. 




unequal sided, the inferior basal portion being much tut my, 
the upper side decper cut than in the type. P. aspleniirolia, Bstj, w 
Belang. Voy. Bot. 23, /. 3. Bedd. F.S. I. t. 195. Acrost. Wighti- 
anuro, Wall. Ca/. 2163. 

South India, in moist evergreen 
forests on the westera side, up to 
nearly 4,000 feet elevation. (Cd 
found in North India.) 

This can only be considerri a 

variety of this variable sped«, ii 

looks, however, very different fh« 

growing, being a much brighter 

polvbotrva appbndiculata. green and a far prettier species tta« 

(m/U.) VA*. * Hamiltosiasa. the typej it jg instant t „ its d», 

acters in cultivation. 

Var. i Hamiltoniana. {Wall.) Fertile pinnae interrupted, 
the sori in bead-like clusteß- 
Wall. Ca/. 29. Btdd.F.B.l 
t. in, the loicer 3 J&W» 
Polyb. Helferiana (M S(M- 
Sup/>. 2 /. 47. /. 1 14. 

Chittagong, Assam; Tt- 
nasserim,and Malay Peninsula 
generally. 

Var. t COSTULATA. ( JWO 
, Sterile pinna: pinnatifid H 
down to the rachis ; nwin 
veins costulate and promina". 
j I 'V ■ '■■;'"': ^^^-i-"^^ the lowest pair of pinnaeoft* 11 
: T t V J ? ~% / j more or less bipinnate both in 

^ J!in the sterile and fertile, soiw- 

(mi/3.) times half deltoid and deeply 
bipinnate at the base, tb* 
pinnules up to 3$ inches long, and again deeply pinnatifid- 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 427 



Hook. Sp, Fit, /. 252. Bedd, F. B, I, t. 110, and in right 
hand top fig, 

Tenasserim ; Khasya ; Jeypore Hills, We.-t of Vizagapatam. 
This variety can at once be distinguishccl by the much more deeply 
pinnatifid pinnae, and by its costulate main veins, but the bipinnate 
character is not so constant ; some specimens from Birma (vide Bedd, 
F. B. I. t, 110) have the lowest pinnae deeply bipinnate in both 
sterile and fertile ; and some specimens from Khasya and Jeypore 
are only slightly bipinnate in the sterile only, ( whilst other specimens 
from Birma have the lowest pinnae quite unchanged (vide Bedd, 
F. B. f. f. m, right-hand top figure.) 

Var. ( subintegra. Pinnae almost entire, of a very dull 
colour and more coriaceous than in the type, not at all or very 
slightly auricled at the superior base, and the inferior base rounded 
and not at all unequal. Bedd, F. B, I, t, 1 1 1, lefi-hand top fig, 

Birma only. 

GENUS LXXXIV.— ACONIOPTERIS. (Pres/,) 

(Akon, a point, and ptcris ; the veins forming pointed angles near the 

margin.) 

As in Elaphoglossum, only the veins are combined near the 
margin by a straight or zigzag vein. 

1. Aconiopteris gorgonea. (Kaulf.) Rhizome very short, 
with ovate-lanceolate obtuse, brown-red scales; stipes tufted, scarcely 
an inch long, being usually winged near the base by the decurrent 
frond ; barren fronds simple entire narrowly elliptic, tapering at both 
cnds, 3-5 inches long, by -J—i \ inch broad ; glabrous, but with peltate 
Hat scales, sparingly scattered on the surface beneath ; midrib strong, 
texture firm, but diaphanous; veins parallel, above simple or/urcate, 
the marginal vein more distinct, and further from the margin than in 
examples from Polynesia. Kaulf, En. Fit, 63. C/arAe, F. N. L 

A 578- 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 429 



Khasya, above Shaila, 2,500 feet elevation, lately discovered by 
r. Clarke, but only in a barren State, so it is doubtful whether it is 
is species, though it must be closely allied. 

(Also in the Sandwich and Society Islands.) 

GENUS LXXXV.— GYMNOPTERIS. (Bern/i.) 

(GymnoSy naked ; pteris ; seeding naked.) 

Veins copiously anastomosing with free veinlets in the areoles ; 
e primary veins costaeform or obsolete ; fronds simple or pinnate, 
nerally dimorphous the fertile much contracted, or rarely simple 
iform and bearing the sori on the contracted apex ; stipes 
Iherent to the rhizome. 

1. Gymnopteris variabilis. (Hook.) Rhizome more or less 
eeping, squamose, with ovate or lanceolate scales ; sterile fronds 
embranaceous to subcoriaceous, generally about 1 foot or a little 
ore long and 1-2J inches wide, ovate-lanceolate acuminate, often 
ng decurrent. on the stipe nearly to its base ; costules generally more 
• less distinct, sometimes very prominent, zigzag or quite straight ; 
eoles copious with free included veinlets ; fertile fronds contracted 
id narrow, and normally entirely covered with sori, but in some cases 
e broader fronds are dotted all over with large polypodioid sori. 
r wk. Sp. FiL v. 277. Bedd. KB. L /. 272. 

Sikkim, Bhotan, Assam, Khasya, Cachar, up to 4,000 feet 
evation. South India (rare, compared with the variety lanceolata) 
innevelly mountains, fronds very thin and membranaceous and 
-current nearly to the base of the stipe, main veins wavy, but 
*y prominent, Jeypore Hills (Vizagapatam), texture thicker and 
>lour deeper green, very decurrent, main veins very prominent and 
•arly straight, polypo iioid sori over many of the broad fronds \ 
irma. 

Var. ß lanceolata. (Hook.) Main veins none, or more or 
ss indistinct Gymnopteris lanceolata, Hook. Sp. FiL v. 276. G. Feei 
Voore), Bedd. F. S. L t. 48. 



430 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



i throughout the Western forests of the Madras 
Presidency and Bombay ; Ceylon ; Birma, Also in Chota 
Nagpore, and on Parasnath : in typical forms there are no nuin 
veins, and all the venation is in listinet, but other forms run 
too closely into variabilis for it to be censidered a distinet specis; 
the fronds are often quite rounded nt the base, but at other lim« 
nearly as decurrent as in variabilis, the seeding is normally over the 
»■hole of the under surface of the fertile frond, but somethnes it is 
in a broad line on each side of the costa, leaving a considewble 
margin of the lamina; without sori, or at other times the seeding is 
punctifoim or gram mit oid {Bedd. F. B. I. I. 274), or the upperto" 
of the frond is contracted and sori- 
ferous, as in Gymnopteris spicaia , 
(Hymenolepis of authors). In South 
Canara and Coorg there are forms «iih 
both sterile and fertile fronds 3-lobcd 
(Bedd. F. B. I. t. 273), and in Ceylon. 
pinnatifid forms {Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 1») 
with often as many as ftve distinet pino» 
on each side the rachis, with only a oar- 
row wing, but as the ordinary form i' 
sometimes mixed with these even on 
the same root they can only be consi- 
dered abnormal forms, not distinet 
varieties. 




(Meli.) 



Vak. y axillaris. (Cav.) This is a name given to a varietj 
with a long slender toituous rhuome, which creeps up trees, but ii 
scarcely differs otherwise, the main veins are less prominent than in 
variabilis, but more so than in lanceolata. Cav. Pralett. 1801, ».5 Sl * 
Hook. Sp. FU. v. 276. Btdd. F. B. I. /. 271. 

South India, in all the western forests ; Plains of Bengal and 
Assam ; Birma. 



2. GYMNOFTERlä minus. {Mdten.) Sttnll, rhhome creeping, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



431 



clc as a sparrow's quill, scaly at the apex, scales lanceolate ; stipes 
note, slender, 1-3 or in those of thc fertile frond 4 inches long ; 
nie fronds membranaceous, 1 J-a inches long, oblong or broad- 
iceolate, costate, tapering into a stipe 2} inches long ; costules in- 
itinct, areoles with a free included clivate veinlet, smaller towards 
; margin ; fertile fronds 2 inches long, linear obtuse. Metten. Fil. 
ort. Lips.p. ao. Hook. Sp. Fil. v, 277. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 116. 

Khisya Hills, 2,000-4,500 feet, in river sands, perhaps only 
imall form of variabilis var. lanceolata. 



3. Gymnopteris Wallii. {Baker.) Rhizome slender, wide- 




(i./l 



1 fl?260. 

•MNOfTERIS METALLICA. {ütJJ.) 

ee^jing, scales minute, grey, lanceolate acuminate ; sterile f'ionds 
iear, subsessile, 8-9 inches long, under J inch broad, narrowed to 
)th ends, obscurely repand, texture thin but rigid, surfaces naked, 
ight green ; midrib straraineous, veins slender, immersed, forming 
siagle costil row of long areoles, usually with a free decurved vein- 
t springing from the outer border ; fertile frond filiform, 6-8 inches 



432 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

long, long-stalked, fructification often interrupted. Baker in Hook. 
Syn. Fil p. 523. Bedd. F. B. I. Sup. t. 389. 

Ceylon, southern provinces, Mooroowa, rocky ravines. 

4. Gymnopteris Metallica. (Bedd.) Fronds quite sessile, 
3-7 inches long, up to nearly 1 inch broad, of a deep shining metallic 
blue ; main veins not prominent and often not distinguishable from 
the others ; fertile fronds only soriferous towards the apex. Bedd. 

F. Sup. t. 390. 

Ceylon, Haycock Mountain near Galle, in dense forests on 
rocks, 2,000 fect elevation. 

5. Gymnopteris spicata. (Z. /.) Rhizome woody, short, 
creeping; stipes 1-2 inches long, firm; fronds 6-18 inches 
long, \-\ inch broad, the upper part for 4-6 inches, suddenly or 
gradually contracted and fertile, the edge entire, the lower part 
narrovvcd very gradually, texture subcoriacedus, surfaces naked; 
no distinet main veins, areoles uniform, hexagonal, with copious 
free, simple or forked veinlets ; sori mixed with peltate sporangiasters. 
Linn. Fil. Sup. 444, under Acrostichum. Gymnopteris, Presl. TcnU 
Fter. 244, /. 11. Acrostichum, Hook. Syn. Fil. 424. Hymenolepis 
spicata, Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 46. 

North India, Sikkim and Bhotan, 4,000-7,000 feet elevation, 
Khasya 3,000-7,000 feet ; South India, on the Western mountains ; 
Ceylon. 

(Hymenolepis has been proposed as a genus or subgenus forthis 
species, as the fructification is on the contracted apex of the fronds, 
instead of being on a separate frond, the same peculiarity oecurs 
constantly in other species, and I have similarly contracted fronds of 

G. variabilis var. lanceolata, which if separated from their rhizomes 
and other fronds could not be distinguished from this species, so 1 
do not think the genus can hold good.) 

6. Gymnopteris quercifolia. (Reiz.) Rhizome stout, creeping, 
scales linear, hair-pointed ; stipe of the Darren frond 1-2 inches long, 
clothed with soft spreading ferruginous hairs ; barren frond 3-4 inches 



Fi-:uns of British India and Ceylon. 



433 



long, 1 1-2 inches broad, the terminal pinna with blunt rounded lobes 
reaching sometimes i of the way to the rachis, bclow this usually a 
Single pair of small sessile ovate blunt auriculate lateral ones, tex- 
ture thin, heruaceous, veins beneath hairy ; main veins sometimes 
distinct to the edge, at othet times hardly distinguishable from the 
other veins, with copious areoles, including free veinlets; fertile 
fronds with a terminal pinna, 1-2 inches long, $ inch broad, and a 
pair of smaller lateral ones, the stipe slender, 6-9 inches long, naked 
except at ihe base. Acrostichum quercifolium. Sets, Obs. Bot. 6, 
p. 39. Hook. Syn. Flip. 418. Btdd. F. S. I. t. 47. 

Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills, up 
to 2,000 feet elevation, Anamallays ; 
Ceylon, about Colombo. 

7. Gymnopteris flagellifera, 
( Wall.) Rhizome short, terrestrial, or scan- 
dent several feet up trees, streng, densely 
scaly with brown lanceolate scales at the 
extremities, and throwing out rootlets 
encircling the boughs ; stipes ofien 
densely scaly, fronds simple or 3-foliate 
or pinnatewith 5-1 1 pinnse, the terminal 
pinna often much prolonged and rooting 
at the apex ; pinna; stalked entire or re- c 
pand, or even lobed, 4-5 inches long by 
3 inches broad; main veins very prominent to the margin, areoles 
copious with or without free veinlets ; fertile pinna: more or less con- 
tracted, generally without any free veinlets in the areoles, wholly 
soriferous or partially covered with meniscioid sori ; texture herba- 
ceous, drylng a dull brown colour. Wall. Cat. 25. Clarke, F. N.I. 
p. 579. Paecilopteris flagellifera, Bedd. F. B. I.t. 112, 

North India, Sikkim and Assam, Cachar and Chittagong up to 

3,000 feet elevation ; Birma. Some of my Birma specimens have all 

the fronds simple, and are then hardly distinguishable from "varia 

bilis " (type) except by the peculiar colour and scaly stipe, öfters have 

29 




N*262. 
S QUERCIFOL1A. 



434 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



thc fronds all 3-foliate and the pinna often deeply lobed, part'cukriy 
the two lower ones, these simple and 3-foliate fronds grow on 
the same rhizome, the broad sterile fronds are often partially seeded, 
particularly on the long terminal cauda. I have only seen pinnate 
fronds on North Indian examples. 

Sir \V. Hooker in his Sp. FiL. gives Malabar for a localityand 
quotes Rheede,Hort. Malab. xii. 1 1, vvhich plate isDrynariaquercifolia; 
PL 19 is probably intended, which however is Gymnopteris subcrenata. 
On one of Wallich's sheets of this fern (25, No. 3) there is mitten, 
Rheede, Malab. xii. t. 19. 

8. Gymnopteris subrbpanda. (Hook.) Rhizome woody, 
wide-creeping ; stipes of barren fronds stout erect, nearly naked; 
barrcn fronds varying from simple, 1 foot long, i$-2 inches broad, to 
2 feet long, 1 foot broad, copiously pinnate, with several linear-oblong 
entire or subrepand pinnas on each side, which are sometimes 6-9 
inches long, 2 inches broad, texture subcoriaceous, surfaces and 
rachis naked ; main veins distinct nearly to the edge, with copious 
areoles, with free veinlets between them ; fertile fronds like the others, 
but sm-aller. Syn. FiL /. 419. Hook. Sp. FiL v. /. 275. Bdl 

F. B. I. /. 339- 

Penang. 

This is nearly allied to the more pinnate varieties of flagellifera. 
Dodgson's spccimen from the Himalayas referred here in the Kew 
Herb, certainly bclongs to flagellifera. 

9. Gymnopteris tricuspis. (Hook.) Rhizome creeping, 
clothed with subulate setaeeous ferruginous scales : stipes 1 foot long, 
1-3- of thc fertile frond; sterile frond subcoriaceous, subtriangular- 
caudate, 8-10 inches long, 10-12 inches wide at the base, including 
the spread of the lateral lobes, deeply trilobate or 4-lobed, lateral 
lobes 5 inches or more long, i£ inch wide, horizontally patent, inter- 
mediate onc 6 inches and more long, 2 inches wide, all of them ob- 
long-lanceolate acuminate, entire unicostate; venation manifest, 
costulcs distant, indistinet, connected by transverse irregulär curved 
veins forming large areoles enclosing lesser ones which have copious 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



435 



free branched and divaiicating veinlets; feitile fronds much elon- 
gated but contracted, tripartite nearly to the base, Segments scarcely 
$ an inch wide, Hnear strap-shaped acuminate, lateral ones 9-10 
inches long, erect-subpatent, intermedia te one a foot and more long, 
sori generally universal except on the Costa, or sometimes the ter- 
minal lobe only is soriferoup, or rarely the apex only of one or more 
lobes is contracted and soriferous as in Gymnopteris spicata. Hook. 
Sp* Fil. v. 272. Btdd. F. B. f. 1. 53. 

Sikkim, at Goke below Dar- 
jeeling, 1,500 feet elevation. 

10. Gymnopteris conta- 
MiNANS. (Wall) Rhizome thick, 
Short creeping; stipes scaly, 
fronds glabrous, pinnate, 1-2 fett 
long, of which the stipe is about 
$; rachis generally more or less 
wingcd sometimes prominently, 
more or less scaly, pinnse 11-30 
altemate sessile or very shortly 
petiolate, lanceolate from nearly 
entire to slightly crenated or pin- . 
natifid one-third down, with the 
Segments serrated, terminal pinna: 
often more or less elongated, 
generally vivaparous (the lateral 
ones rarely so) ; primary veins rather distant more or less conspieuous 
two-thirds of the way to the margin, areoles broad, in 3-4 series, 
the costal ones without any veinlets, the others with generally 
several veinlets irregulary disposed, mostly joining with the areole 
above, but some free « ith clavate apices ; fertile pinme much 
contracted, entite or sinuate pinnatifid aecording to the form of the 
Sterile, generally wholly soriferous, rarely only partially contracted into 
seed. Acrostichum contaminans, Wall. Ca/. 22, and crispatulum, 
Ca/. 24. Paecilopteris repanda, Btdd. F. S. /. /. 202. Semicordata, 
Baker, Syn. Fil. 412. Btdd. F. B. I. t. 270. Blumeana, Hook. Syn. 




{Hook.') 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



437 



Eil. p. 4*3 (at teast as fär as the Norih Indian specimens ort concerned) . 
Acros. terminans, Wall. Cat. 2168. 

South India, most abundant in all the Western coast moist 
forests from the plains up to about 4,000 feet ; East Bengal, the 
lower hills up to 3,000 feet elevation ; Ceylon (repandum of Thw. 
Eh.) ; Birma, common. 



11. Gymnopteris subcrenata. {Hook, and Grev. under Acros- 
tü/ium) Rhizome thick, fronds / 

glabrous pinnate, 1-4 feet, of 
which the stipe is sometimes 
nearly half; stipes and rachis 
funüshed with a few scales ; 
sterile fronds, pinna; 4-12 
altemate or sub-opposite petio- 
late, broad lanceotate sinuate 
or waved, with a longish ser 
rated acumination, terminal 
ptniue much the longest 
(sometimes 3 feet long), proli- 
ferans at the apex ; primary 
veins close, costate and con- 
spicuous nearly to the margin, 
veinlets anastomosing pretty 
regutaxly at right angles, from 
which proceed one or two 
generally free veinlets with 
clavate apices ; fertile fronds 




(Ifook. and Grev.) 



cooform to sterile, but much contracted. Hook and Grev. le. Fil. 
110. PsecilopterU terminans, Btdd. F. S. I. t. 203 (nit. Wall,). 
P. Hookerianum, Moore, Thw. En. p. 380, prolifera. Hook. Ic. 
PI. t. 681-1. Xheede, Hort. Malab. xii. 19. 

South India, not uncommon in the Western moist forests of the 
Madras and Bombay Presidencies, up to about 4,000 feet elevation ; 
Ceylon, central provinces. 



43« 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



This fern is not known from North India (Mr. Clarke's Chiua- 

gong spccimens being costata), it has generally fewer and largo 

pinnse than contaminans, sometimes up to 2 inches broad, and thcy 

are never quite sessile, the venation diflers considerably, the primarr 

vetns are much more conspicuous or closer together, the areoles 

narrow and generally with an acute apex, the lowest ones empty, the 

others with often only one free excurrent veinlet (and then the 

venation is quite that of Meniscium), there are, however, often wo or 

sometimes three excurrent veinlets, which are very irregulär, free or 

,■--: anastomosing amongst them- 

r selves, or with the superior areolf. 

1 '.'■■' \ 12. Gymnopteris costata. 

1 1 1 ' I f } ( Wall.) Rhizome creeping für- 

'\:- nished with subulate scales; 

stipes up to 1 i feet long ; fromfc 

up to 2 feet long or more, pin- 

nate, pinnas up to 14 inches long 

by 3 incheä broad, petwlate, 

acuininatc, margin entire, sinuate, 

or crenate ; primary vetns very 

prominent and generally much 

mised, close together, areoles 

numerous, but varying with the 

breadth of the pinna, cosal 

ones small (sometimes obsolete) 

empty, several excurrent veinlets 

„.a^nr«»^.«!». 1 ., |- rom a jj [he Qtner ar eoles which 

are irregulär, sometimes free and sometimes anastomosing. Will 
Ca/. 26. Bedä. KB. f. 113. Hook. Sp. Fit. v. 262, deltigerum and 
undulatum, Wall. Cat. 59 and 140, Bedd. F.B.I. 114 <7/«f" iij.are 
only abnormal forms, such as oeeur more or less in nearly all the 
uther species of Gymnopteris and cannot be recorded as varieües. 
(Mr. Clarke has again transferred the former, which was Meniscium 
of Wallich, to that genus, but he now acknowledges that he was 
wrong, and that the venation is different to Meniscium, the samt 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



439 



lenisciotd- sori being very common in flagellifera). Sir W. Hooker 
i his Sf>. Fil. quite correctly described this species and its varieties ; 
jt he lumped subcrenata with contaminans, though he had fonnerly 
istinguished it, first under the name of subcrenata, and afterwards as 
rolifera. Mr. Baker, not understanding the three species, lumped 
lern all in his edition of the Synopsis ; and Mr. Clarke, not knowing 
ibcrenata, has puzzled pteridologists with a lot of varieties which do 
Dt exist;Ihave had subcrenata and contaminans (very common South 
idian plants) for thany 
;ars in cultivation, and 
istata (not South Indian) 
have seen in abundancc 
i Birma, and know them 
i be three distinct species 
ithout any permanent 
arieties, though all three 
iriable, as are nearly all 
:her Gymnopteris. 

North India, Nepal 
id Chittagong, up to 
ooo feet elevation ; Bir- 
.a. (Some of the larger 
irms turn very red in dry- 
ig.) The meniscioid form 
leltigera) is common in 
ikkim and Assam, ihe 
ndulate form (formerly de- 
rribed as a genus, Jenkin- 
a) is, I believe, only from Birma. 

Acros. virens. Wall. Cat. 1033, fromTavoy, is a blank sheet, so 
is impossible to say whether the fern intended to be represented 
as this species or contaminans ; it could not be subcrenata, as it 
oes not grow in Birma. 

13. Gymnopteris Presliana. {Hook!) Rhizome stout creep- 
ig, paleaceous with narrow attenuated lanceolate scales ; stipes 6-10 




Presliana. {Ilwk ) 



440 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



inches long, more or less scaly, as is the rachis and petioles, fronds 
6-12 inches long, pinnated glabrous, pinnae submembranaceous, re- 
mote, subopposite, petiolate, 2-4 inches long, i an inch wide, 
narrow lanceolate acuminated at both ends, rachis more or less winged, 
specially towards the apex of the frond ; fertile fronds gencrally 
longer stipitate, pinnae much contracted, wholly or sometimes only 
partially fertile, costules indistinct, connected by generally 2 pairs of 
oppos ; te veinlets, which meet at an acute angle, from which proceed 
a veinlet, which is either free or joined to the veins above, marginal 
veins free, terminating in a dot within the margin. Hook. Sp. Fü. 
v. 265. Syn. FiL 420. BedJ. F. B. L /. 269 (under Paecilopteris.) 

South India, Coorg, at the foot of the Bhagamandal ghat at no 
elevation, Concan (Law). I have only found this species in the 
s ; ngle locality mentioned, but it is probably more common in the 
Bombay Presidency ; it is of much thinner texture than contami- 
nans, the pinnae differently shaped, and the venation more that of 
subcrenata. 

(Also in the Philippines.) 

GENUS LXXXVI.t-ACROSTICHUM. (Z.) 

{Akros, highest; stfc/ws, order— fructification at the top of the frond) 

Veins uniform, copiously anastomosing, forming numerous sub- 
quadrangular areoles without free included veinlets, no main veins 
present; fronds pinnite, the upper pinnce smaller and wholly so- 
riferous on the lower surface ; stipes adherent to the caudex. 

1. Acrostichum aurkum. (Z ) Caudex erect ; stipe i' 2 
feet long, tufted, strong, erect, glossy ; fronds 2-6 feet long, 1-2 fect 
broad, pinnate, the upper pinnae fertile and slightly smaller than the 
barren ones which are usually stalked, ligulate-oblong, I-3 inches 
broad, the apex acute or blunt, sometimes retuse with a mucro, 
the edge quite entire, the base subcuneate, texture coriaceous, 
rachis and surfaces glabrous ; areoles very small and copious without 
free veinlets. Zinn. Sp. PL 1525. Beid. F. S. 1. 1. 204. 



442 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



Tidal back waters throughout the Indian region. 

(Also throughout the world in warm countrieft near the sea.) 

.GENUS LXXXVIL— PHOTINOPTERIS. ( J. Sm.) 

(Photeinos, shining ; pteris^ a fern.) 

Veins copiously anastomosing, forming numerous areoles with 
free included veinlets, the primary veins costaeform \ fronds pinoatc, 
the upper pinnae much contracted and wholly soriferous on the under 
side ; stipe adherent to the rhizome, pinnae articulate with the rachis. 
(Very like Drynaria in its pinnae and venation, but the vernation is 
adherent not articulate.) 

i. Photinopteris rigida. {Wall.) Rhizome repent or scan- 
dent, paleaceous, with elongated brown subulate fringed scales mixed 
with hair-like ones in age, white glaucescent ; stipes short, nearly as 
thick as a writing pen ; fronds 1-J-3 feet long, broad-lanceolate, very 
hard-coriaceous glossy, pinnate ; sterile pinnae long-petiolate, distant 
3-6 inches and more long, broad ovate, acuminate, the apex gene- 
rally caudate and curved upwards ; venation manifest, elevated on 
both sides, costules subflexuose, united by transverse veins into four- 
angled areoles, which are again divided into lesser areoles including 
branched free clavate veinlets ; petiolcs articulated on the rachis and 
dilated into a large orbicular scutiform base ; sometimes these sterile 
pinnae occupy the whole frond, more frequently the rachis is suddenlv 
elongated at the apex, and bears 1-13 distant very contracted nar- 
row-linear and fertÜe pinnae, 5-12 inches long, soriferous except on 
the costa and on the slightly revolute margin. Wall. Cat. n. 27- 
Hook. Sj>. Fil. v. 281. Btdd. F. B. I. t. 211. 

Malay Peninsula ; Singapore. 

(Also in the Malay Islands, and Philippines.) 

2 Photinopteris drynarioides. {Hook.) Fronds subsessile, 
several feet long, 1 foot or more broad, the upper part with numerous 
distant Lomarioid pinnae, sometimes 1 foot long, 1 line broad, belcwr 




S ÜltilDA. (Wall.) • 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 




this pinnatifid, with nurae- 
rous dose entire lanceolale 
acuminate lobes 4-6 inches 
long, i}-il inch broad 
which reach down nearlyto 
the rachis, all articulated, the 
lower ooes passing dorn 
gradualty into a mere im- 
dulated wing to the radiis, 
which is continued to its 
very base ; texture very cori- 



N*270 
I-IIOI'LNOI'I'ERIS DKVNAKI01DES. (Hook.) 




rsised, 
.nlets, and 
ious small 



CBRIUJIUKANUE. (/ Sm.) 



aceous; msin vein 
with Iransverse v 
between them copioi 
areoles with free veinlets. 
Hooh. Syn. Fit.p. 425. $■ 
Fil. v. %■&*. £t<U. F.B.l- 
'■ 3*5- 

Malay Peninsula, l'n- 

(Also in the Solomol 
Islands.) 

CENUS LXXXVIII. - 
I'IJVTYCERIUM. (Der..) 

(Platys, broad ; ie/vs, a hoiti 
— stag's-horn fem.) 
Sori occupying a [»rtion 
only of the under side of 
the disk of the fertile frond* 
and forming large, often rc- 
niform patches, frequentS)' 
at the sinuses of the primM)' 
lobes . main veins cosUefonn, 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 445 

prominent, furcate, free or anastomosing, veinlets copiously anasto- 
mosing, forming large oblong areoles, usually with free included 
simple or forked veinlets ; fronds dimorphous, the sterile sessile, 
oblique, reniform, round or elongated, the fertile dichotomously 
forked with stag-horn-like divisions, in texture and pubescence 
resembling Niphobolus ; articulate with the caudex. 

1 . Platycerium grande. (J. Sm.) Barren fronds very large, 
suborbicular, convex or the Upper ones erect, deeply laciniated with 
spreading or inflexed divisions ; fertile fronds 4-6 feet long, pendent 
in pairs, the disk broad-cuneate, with the sorus against the upper 
edge, occupying the disk only, with an elongated dichotomously 
forked division beyond it at each corner ; both surfaces green and 
smooth. y. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iii. /. 402. Hook. Syn. 
FiL p. 425. Bcdd. F. B. I. t. 326. There is only one soriferous 
patch to each frond. 

Singapore. 
• (Also in Philippines and North Austraüa.) 

2. Platycerium Wallichii. (Hook.) Fronds ample, bifari- 
ous, at length glabrous ; sterile ones imbricated below, irregularjy 
sinuate-lobate, above elongated, dilated deeply and much dichoto- 
mously pinnatifid, segments patent-inflexed ; fertile fronds geminate, 
very broadly flabellate-cuneate, twice dichotomous suddenly narrowed 
at the base, each primary division or segment bears a sorus on the 
disk (hence there are two sori on each frond), which is semicircular 
and very much produced in the sinus itself, the terminal segments 
beyond the soriferous disk are several times dichotomous and pendent, 
primary veins dichotomous, parallel elevated here and there, anasto- 
mosing into broad elongated areoles which are occupied by lesser 
ones with numerous free-branched included veinlets. Hook. Sp. FiL 
v. 284. Acrostichum alcicorne, Wall. Cat. n. 19, (not Zinn.) 
Bcdd. F. B. I. t. 108. 

Malay Peninsula, Tenasserim. 

3. Platycerium biforme. (Bl.) Fronds ample, bifarious, at 




Wallichii. \,Heex ) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



^8^ 



length glabrous ; sterile ones imbricated, very ihick and corky 
Iowards the base, subrotund bul very varied in circumscription, obed 
and sinuated at the margin, coarsely-reticulatc- venöse ; fertile fronds 
rathcr long-stipitate of great sizc, 
5-15 feet long, from a subcuneate 
base, repeatedly dichotomous, 
the segments loriform, flaccid and 
pendent, fertile segments quite 
different from the rest, forming a 
. large renifonn, stipitate, shield- 
like receptacle, 6-8 inches or 
more in diameter, «hotly sorifer- 
ous beneath, except at tl,e margin . 
Bl. Fil.Jav.p. 14, '- 18. Hook. 
Sp. Fil. v. 285. Beäd. F. ß. I. 
t. 109 and 224. A. fuciforme, 
Wall. Cat. n. 20. 

Malay Peninsula, Tenasserin 




Mergui, Singapore. 



(Also in the Malay Islands and Philippines.) 



SUB-ORDER III— OSMUNDACEiE. 



Capsule 2-valved, opening across the apex, fumished with a short 
horizontal wing ; vernation circinata. 



GENUS LXXXIX.— OSMUNDA. (Lin.) 

{Osmunder, one of the naraes of Thor, a Celtic divinity.) 

Fertile frond wholly, on the upper or middle portion, contracted, 
forming simple or Compound sporangiferous paniclcs ; veins forked. 
free j fronds pinnate or bipinnate, articulated with the rachis. 

1. Osmunda javanica. (Bl.) Stipes tufted, 6-12 inches long, 
firm erect, naked ; fronds up to 3 feet long, 8-1 2 inches broad, simply 
pinnate, the lower or central pinna; fertile ; banen pinrwe 4-8 inches 




OtKUNDA JAVANICA. [Bl.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



449 



ng, f-J incb broad, cuneate at the base, and often slightly stalked, 
e edge entire or sharply toothed ; texture coriaceous, rachis and 
ith sides glabrous; fertile pinnae shorter, made up of numerous 
jse but distinct oblong sessile Clusters. Bl. Enum. fi. 352. Bedd. 

S. I. t. 77. 

Ceylon, about Newera Elya ; South India, cultivated only (?) ; 
alay Peninsula; Tenasserim, banks of rivers in the plains. This 
commonly in cultivation in Southern India, but I very much doubt 

it is wild ; I have never found it myself, though I have specimens 
id to have been collected in the Western ghats. * 
(Also in Java.) 




OSMUKDA CLAYTONIANA. (L.) 



2. Osuunda Claytoniana. (Lin.) Stipes tufted, 1 foot or 
ore long, clothed with loose woolly ferruginous tomentum when 
iung, at length glabrous; fronds 1-2 feet long, 8-12 inches broad, 
imply pinnate ; pinnx deeply pmnatifid, the uppermost and lowest 
Olren, some of the intermediate fertile, harren ones lanceolate, 4-6 
iches long, 1 inch or more broad, the lobes oblong, entire, texture 



45° 



Fekns of British India and Ceylon. 



herbaceous, fertile pinnae shorter, pinnules dense cylindriial tin. Sf 
PL 1521. Bedd. F. B. 1. 1. 187. # 

Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhotan, 6,000-10,000 feet elevaiion. 
Khasya, 4,500-6,000 feet. 

(Also in North America.) 



3. OSMUNDA REGALIS. {£..) 

Slipes tufted, ia-18 inches long, 
firm, crect, naked ; fronds 2-4 feet 
long, 1 foot or more broad, bi 
pinnate, the barren and fertile sepa- 
rate, or the frond barren beton 
and fertile above, barren pinnse 6-12 
inches long, 2-4 inches broad, pin- 
nules sessilc or slightly stalked, 1-2 
inches long, |-j inch broad, oblong, 
blunt, often unequal at the base, 
the edge finely serrula te, texture 
subcoriaceous, rachis and both 
sides naked, fertile pinnules cylin- 
drical, forming a copious panicle. 
L. Sp. PL 152. Bedd. F. S. I. 
/. 76. 

South India, common on the 
Western mountains at the higher 
elevations; North India, Kumaon, 
Bhotan, Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet, 
(small, the fertile and barren fronds 
generally separate.) 




5CHIZ.SA MALACCAKA. 



SUB-ORDER IV.— SCHIZJEACEjE. 



Capsule 2-valved, opening down the side, crowned by a coropte" 
operculiform ring ; venation circinate. 




SCI11Z.EA DICHOTOMIE. tSai.^ 



452 



Ferns'of British India and Ceylon. 



GENUS XC— SCHIZ&A. (Smttk.) 
(ScMto, I cut ; the cut fertile Segments.) 
Capsules sessile in 3-4 rows which cover one side of dose 
distichous spikes, which form separate fertile segments at the »pex 
of the fronds ; veins free. 

1. Schi^a mai.accawa. (Baker!) Stipes dense, not distinguish- 
able fror» the frond, which is 4-8 inches long, weak, Beiuosc, 
subterete, channelled in front not more than i line thick, the harren 
and feRile ones similiai; fertile 
segment erect, often bilateral, 
J inch deep with 3-6 slend« 
spreading spikes on each side, 
the Iowest a-ai lines long. Bahr, 
Syn. Fi!, p. 4 j8. Bedd. F. B. I 
t- 255- 

Malay Peninsula. 
(Also in the Malay Islands 
and Philippines.) 

2. SCHIZ*A DICHOTOMA. 

(S10.) Stipes 6-18 inches long, 
firm, etect, glossy, channelled on 
the face above ; fronds fan-likein 
general outline, 6-9 inches each 
way, many times dichotoinonsly 
forked, the ultimate divisions J-' 
incli broad, with 1 fertile seg- 
ment to each, J-J inchlo 




iSw.) 



rachis often curved with 4-10 close spreading spikes on each side . 
Hook. Syn. Fil.p. 430. Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 65. 

South tndia, on the Western mountains ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical America and West Indies ; AustraÜa, Ne* 
Zealand, Polynesia, Philippines, and Mascareen Islands.) 

3. ScHiz.tA DiGiTATA. (Sw.) Fronds long, Ünear, grass-lil«. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 453 

10-15 inches longby 2-3 lines broad, bearing a digitate fertile crest at 
the apex ; crest 8-14, parted to the base, segments 1 inch long by a 
line broad; sori in 4 series (/.<?., 2 series each side the costa). 
Sw. Syn. FiL 150, 380, /. 4. Bedd. F. S. L 268. 

North India, Khasya and Chittagong ; Ceylon; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands ; Fiji and Philippines.) 

GENUS XCL— ANEMIA. (Sw.) 

(From aneimon, naked — the naked spikes.) 

Capsules small, very abundant, forming a copiously branched 
panicle quite distinct from the leafy part of the frond ; fronds pinnate 
or bi-tripinnatifid ; veins free. 

1. Anemia tomentosa. (Sw.) Stipes 6-12 inches long 
streng, erect, clothed with deeiduous ferruginous hairs ; fronds ter- 
nately divided, the two lateral branches fertile, the terminal one spread- 
ing, sterile bipinnate, with the pinnules variously lobed or pinnatifid, 
texture herbaeeous, rachis and both surfaces pilose ; veins fine, fla- 
bellate. Hook. Syn. Fil. 433. Anemia Wightiana (Gard.\ Bedd. 
F. S. I. t. 66. 

South India, Nilgiris (Sispara ghat), Anamallays, Pulney Hills, 
Travancore Hills, 3,000-4,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Mexico, Peru and West Indies.) 

GENUS XCII.— LYGODIUM. (Sw.) 

(Lygodes, flexible — the climbing habit.) 

Capsules solitary (or casually in pairs), in the axils of large im- 
bricated clasping involucres, which form spikes either in separate 
pinnae or in lax rows along the edge of the leafy ones ; fronds scan- 
dent, pinnae conjugate palmate-lobed, pinnatifid or pinnate ; veins 
forked, free. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 455 

1. Lygodium ci hci natu m. (Sw.) Fully developed barren frond, 
bipartite into 2 palmate lobes or siraply palmate, primary petiole so 
rauch reduced that the fork seems almost to spring from the main 
Tachis, secondary petiole 1-2 inches long, firm, naked, pinnules 
digitate, with 5-6 long lanceolate lobes, reaching nearly down to the 
base, or once or even twice-foiked, ultimate harren divisions 4-13 
inches long, i-i inch broad, the fertile ones contracted sometimes 
so much so, that the lamina is nearly lost, the Spikes 1-2 lines long, 
in dose marginal rows, texture subcoriaceous, surfaces naked. Su: 
Syn. Fil. 153. Tkw. Ert.Pl. 
Zey. p. 379. pedatum, Sw. 
154. L. dichotomum, Bedd, 
F. S.I. 62. Wall. Cat. 176. 
Hook. Syn. Fil. 437. 

North India, Chittagong 
Hills; Ceylon, western, cen- 
tral, and southern provinces, 
up to 2,000 feet elevation ; 
Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay 
Islands ; Philippines ; Hong 
Kong and Chusan.) 

2. Lygodium micro- 
phylluh. (R. Br.) Fronds 
simply pinnate, pinnules pe- i>* m°zhi 

tioled, 3-4 on each side of "godium circinatum. (Sw.) 
the zigzag rachis, with a terminal one which is more or less lobed, 
barren pinna; ovate-oblong, blunt, the margin subentire or rarely some- 
what lobed, the base rounded or cordate, fertile ones short, dellotd, 
with generally a very rounded apex, and a square base and lobed 
round the margin. R. Br. Prod. 162. Wall. Cat. 174. L. scan- 
dens, Bedd. FS././. 61. 

South India, Malabar and West Coast generally, very common 
in the plains, and also in the Wynad, up to about 3,000 feet eleva- 





LVCOniUH MICROniVLLUM. (ff. flr.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

tion ; Ceylon, abundanl ; North India, Bengal plains, rare 
Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands.) . 



3. Lygodium flexuosum. (Sw.) Fronds glabrous or slightly 
hairy, pair of fronds stipitate-pinnate with the pinnnles again pinnaie 
or variously lobed, or subpalmate, all semilate ; sori protruding from 
the margin; texture subcoriaoeous. Sw- Syn. Fil. 153. Btdd. F. 




LYGODIUM FLEXUOSU: 



LVGODIUM POLYSTACHYUM. 



S. 1. 1. 63. L. pinnatifidum, Sw. 153. L. longifolium, Wall. Cat. 
•75- 

South India, on both sides of the Madras Presidency, common 
up to about 4,000 feet elevation ; North India, plains, and up to 
5,000 feet on the Himalayas ; Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in the Malay Islands; Philippines; North Australia, 
and Tropical Africa.) 



4. Lycodium japonicum. (Sw.) As in flexuosum, only Ibat 



458 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

the pinnae are much smaller, with the pinnules smaller and finely 
cut, the fertile ones often so contracted that there is little or no 
lamina present. Sw. Syn. FiL 154. Bedd. R S. L t. 64. Wall. 
Cat 2201. 

North India, abundant, extending west to Kashmir, up to 5,000 
feet elevation ; South India, Western mountains, rare. It is prob- 
ably only a form of flexuosum. 

(Also in Japan, China, Australia, ^ialay Islands and Philippines.) 

5. Lygodium polystachyum. (Wall.) Stem creeping, slightly 
pilose ; fronds conjugate pinnate, membranaceous, pinnae petiolate, 
furnished with a tufted gland at the apex of the petiole, deltoid-ovate 
to lanceolate, glandu ] ar- pilose on the rachis of the pinnae costaand 
veins, pinnatifid more than half-down to the costa, segments witha 
rounded apex, entire or slightly crenate ; costa of the pinnae and 
central vein (or costule) of segments flexuose, veinlets simple or 
forked ; fertile segments contracted. Hook. Syn. FiL 438. Bcdd. 
F. B. I. t. 300. 

Malay Peninsula, Tenasserim. 

SUB-ORDER V.—MARATTIACEJE. 

Capsule opening by a slit down one side or a pore at the apex, 
without a wing, usually joined together in concrete masses (synangia) ; 
vemation circinate. 

GENUS XCIII.— ANGIOPTERIS. (Hoffm.) 

(Angio, open ; pteris, fern — the open sporangia.) 

Capsules opening by a slit down the side, sessile, very dose 
to one another, but not concrete, arranged in a linear-oblong or boat- 
shaped band of sporangia near the edge of the frond ; veins simple or 
forked, free; fronds very large, bipin nate, springing from between 
two fleshy stipulaeform appendages ; the base of the stipes clavate, 
pseudo-articulate with the axis ; pinnae and pinnules articulate wiih 
the rachis. 



460 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 

1 

i. Angiopteris evecta. (Hoffm) Caudex erect» often 2 fcet 
thick, and as much or more in height ; fronds 6-20 feet long, pmnae 
1-3 feet long, spreading, the lowest the largest, rachis swollen at the 
base, pinnules 4-12 inches long, \-i\ inch broad, linear oblong, 
sessileorshortly stalked,theapex acuminate,the edge entire or toothed, 
particularly towards the apex, texture herbaceous to subcoriaceous, 
glabrous, shining ; veins subparallel ; soriof 8-15 capsules. Hoffm. 
Schk. Krypt. Gew. t. 151. Bedd. F. S. L t. 78. 

Throughout the Indian region up to 7,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Japan, Tropica] Australia, New Caledonia, Madagascar, 
and Polynesia.) 

GENUS XCIV.— MARATTIA. (Sm.) 

(After Maratti of Tuscany, a writer on Ferns.) 

Capsules sessile or stalked, 4-12 concrete in boat-shaped 
synangia, which consist of two opposite rows of capsules and open by 
slits down their inner faces, with or without an inferior involucre; 
veins simple or forked, free ; fronds bi-tripinnate, large, springing from 
between two fleshy stipulaeform appendages (which sometimes 
assume the character of abnormal fronds) ; pinnules articulate with 
the rachis. 

1. Marattia fraxinea. {Smith.) Stipes 1-2 feet long, i-iji n - 
thick, smooth deciduously scaly or swollen in the lower part ; fronds 
up to 15 fcet long, bipinnat'e, or sometimes tripinnate; pinnae 1-2 
feet long, pinnules oblong-lanceolate, 4-6 inches long \-i l inches 
broad, the apex acuminate, the edge generally serrate, more rarely 
entire, the base cuneate, or slightly rounded, texture rather coria- 
ceous, glabrous, the rachis of pinnae sometimes slightly winged; 
synangia submarginal, in close rows, the receptacle linear with 6-12 
capsules on each side, an obscure fimbriated inferior involucre often 
present. Hook. Syn. FiL 440. Bedd. F. S. I.t. 79. 

South India, Western forests of the Madras Presidency, 4,000- 
6,000 feet elevation (not nearly so common as Angiopteris which it 




MARATTIA FRAXINEA. (Sät.) 



462 Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



much resembles in general habit) ; Ceylon, central provinces, above 
5,000 feet elevation ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also all round the world in the tropics and a little beyond in 
the southern zone.) 

GENUS XCV.— KAULFUSSIA. {Blume.) 
(After Kaulfuss, of Halle, a writer on Ferns.) 

Capsula sessile, 10-15, quite concrete, in raised circular masses, 
which are hollow in the centre, with the oblong apertures od the 
inner face ; veins costaeform, parallel veinlets copiously anastomosing 
with free venules in the areoles ; fronds 2-3 feet high, long stipate 
palmately lobed, and springing from two short fleshy stipulaeform 
appendages ; lobes of the fronds oblong elliptical ; a genus of a 
single species. 

1. Kaulfussia /Esculifolia. (Bl.) Stipes 12-18 inches loag, 
herbaceous, auricled at the base ; fronds digitate (like a chesnut leaO, 
or ternate; the central pinnae the largest, oblong, spathulate, 6-12 
inches long, 3-4 inches broad, the others smaller, marglns entire or 
lobed, texture fleshy-herbaceous ; sori copious scattered. Bl. En. 
PL Jav. Fil. 260. Bedd. F. B. I. t. 185, (free included veinlets 
not shovvn). K. assamica, Griff. Not. 1. ii. 628. 

North India, Assam, Cachar, Chittagong Hills, 250 feet 
elevation. 

(Also in the Malay Islands and Philippines.) 

SUB-ORDER VI.— OPHIOGLOSSACEJE. 

Capsule deeply 2-valved, opening down the side nearly to tbe 
base, without a ring ; vernation erect ; terrestrial or epiphytic. 

GENUS XCVI.—OPHIOGLOSSUM. (Z.) 

(Oß/iis, a snake ; glossa, a tongue.) 

Capsules sessile, arranged in two rows, forming a natTOw close 
spike, which arises from the base or centre of the barren segment; 








mrw < ':."H-' 



KAULFUSSIA -«CULIFOLtA. (Bl.) 



464 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



q ; veins reticulated ; fronds 



raiely distinct, rising direct from the c 
simple entire, rarely palmate. 

i. Ophioglossum vulgatum (Z.) Rhizome not {überaus, 
short, or elongated, producing annually 1-2 fronds ; fronds 6-9 
inches long, the sterile division generally placed about the middk 
2-4 inch long, j-i inches broad, ovate or ovate oblong, without a 
distinct haft, texture stouter than 
in the others, the midrib usuallj 
indistinct ; fertile spike r inch long 01 
rather more.ona peduncle 2-4Üiches 
long, and considentbly overtopping 
the sterile division wlien fully 
mature. Lin. Sp. PI. 1518. 

Sikkim, Goke, 4,000 feet eleva- 
tion, Rungait camp, below Darjeel- 
irg, 2,000 feet elevation. 

(Widely spread in Europei 
Africa, and its eastem islands ; 
America; Japan; Australia; New 
Zualand, and Sandwich Islands.) 

2. OpHtOGLOSSUM NUDICAULfr 

{£../.) Rhizome Email, slightly tube- 
rous ; fronds 1 inch or more long, 
the sterile ,division placed not tu 
from the base, J-i inch long, 2-5 
N ° £0 ° lines broad, linear to ovate, without 

orHioGLossLM sudicaule. IL. f.) a haf[) Qr wjth only a sUght onCi tbe 

texture thin but with no evident costa and veins not distinct ; fertile 
spike ä inch long, the peduncle often 2 inches long, very elender. Ssi- 
Sylt. ßil. t. 4. O. parvifolium, Hook, and Gm: Btdd. F, S. 1. 1. 71- 

South India, Anamallay Forests, 2,500 feet elevation, and eise- 
where on the Western mountains ; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in America from United States southward to Br.-uil, Se* 
Caledonia, and Tropical Africa.) 




Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



465 



3. Ophioglossuh fidrosum. (Schum.) Rhizome a large 
round white bulb with numerous fibrous rootlets ; stipe very short 
with the sterile division close to its base, the latter 1J-2 inches long, 
by } inch broad, lanceolate, acute or obtuse, the texture thick and 
opaque ; midrib prominent, venation indistinct (except when dried), 
fertiie spike 1I-2 inches long on a spike 4-5 inches long. Schum. 
K. Dansk. Vid. Aß. iv. 226. O. Wightii, Hook and Grev. Bot. 
Mis. iiL 218. 0. brevipes, Btdd. F. S. I. 1. 72. 

South India, Anamallay teak 
forests, 3,000-3,000 feet elevation. 

(Also in Tropical Africa, Guinea 
Coast ; Ascension Island.) 

4. Ophioglossum reticui.a- 
tuh. (£.) Rhizome cylindrical, 
elongatedwith many fibrous rootlets ; 
fronds 6-12 inches long, the sterile 
division placed a little below the 
middle, rj— 3 inches long, by 1-2 
inches broad, with a distinct haft, 
and distinctly cordate at the base, 
the apex blunt or acute, texture 
thin; veins prominent, but usually 
no midrib ; fertiie spike 1 inch or 
more long on a slender peduncle, 

. , , _. „, „, OPHIOGLOSSUM FIBROSUM. ISfhUM.) 

2-4 inches long. Ltnn. Sp. PL 

rsr8. Hook. Syn. ffl.p. 446. Btdd. F. S. I. t. 70. O. cordifo- 

lium (Roxi.), Wall. Ca/. 47. 

South India, Nilgiris and Anamallays, 2,000 feet elevation 
and upwards ; Ceylon, Newera Elya ; Himalayas ; Malay 
Peninsuta. 

(Also in Malay Islands ; Polynesia ; Tropical America ; Africa, 
Mascareen Islands ; Philippines.) 




5. Ophioglossuh pendulum. (Z.) Epiphytic on trees; 




OPHIOGLOSSVM &ETICU 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



467 



fronds pendulous, ribbon-llke, without 
a distinct stein, 1-3 feet long, 1-3 
inches broad, simple or forked, texture 
fieshy ; no midrib and the veining not 
distinct ; fertile spike single, arising 
low down on, but above the base of, 
the sterile segment, 2-6 inches long, 
on a peduncle shorter than itself. 
Zinn. SJ>. PI. 1518. Bedd. F. S. I. 
t. 269. 

Ceylon, at no great elevation ; 
Malay Feninsula ; Assatn (?) 

(Also in Malay and Polynesian 
Islands ; Mauritius ; Australia ; Philip- 
pines.) 




OFHIOCLOSSU 



GENUS XCVIL— HELMINTHOST ACHYS. (Kaulf.) 

(Helminthos, a worm ; stachys, a spike.) 

Capsules in long crested Clusters which form a long loose spike; 
veins forked, free ; fertile spike rising from the base of the leafy 
segment; fronds stipate, sterile segments foliaceous, digitate. A 
genus of a single species. 

1. Helmisthostachys zevlanica. (Zinn, under Osmunda.) 
Rhizome thick, fleshy, creeping ; stipes often 1 foot long, barren 
segment palmately pinnate, often in three principal divisions which 
are stalked, and again forked or pinnate, the ultimate divisions linear- 
oblong, 3-4 inches long, {-1 inch broad, the apex acuminate, the 
edge slightly toothed or entire, texture herbaceous ; fertile spike 
solitary, arising from the base of the barren segment, 3-4 inches 
long, i inch broad, the firm peduncle about as long as the fructi- 
fication. Zinn. Sp. PI. 1519. Book, and Bauer, Gen. Fil. t. 48B. 
' Bedd. F. S. 1. 1. 69. 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 469 



South India, Western forests in swampy places up to 3,000 
feet elevation ; Ceylon, about Colombo and other parts of Western 
and Southern provinces ; North India, Bengal plains to Assam and 
Cachar; Malay Peninsula. 

(Also in Tropical Australia, Malay Islands, Philippines and 
New Caledonia.) 

GENUS XCVIII.— BOTRYCHIUM. (Sw.) 

(Botrys, a bunch ; fructification like a bunch of grapes.) 

Capsules sessile, arranged in two rows, on the face of spikes which 
form a Compound panicle ; veins forked, free ; fronds erect, the 
sterile Segments foliaceous, deltoid, bi-tripinnat- ^k 
ifidly Compound, rarely pinnate ; fertile Segments ^* A 
rachiform, Compound paniculate. 





I. BOTRYCHIUM LüNARIA. (Z. Ufldtr Os- 

munda.) Rhizome small, scarcely thickened, 
enclosed bybrown sheaths furnishedwith stoutish 
fleshybrittle branched roots; stipes erect, smooth, 
cylindrical, hollow, succulent, vernation plicate or n?293. 

folded straight, the fertile branch clasped by the botrychium 
sterile before unfolding, fronds solitary, 3-10 LuNARIA - (£•> 
inches high, firm, stout fleshy, sterile branch oblong, pinnate smooth, 
pinnae 4-7 pairs flabellate or lunate, the margins crenate (rarely 
partially fertile) fertile branch pinnate or bipinnate ; venation (barren 
pinnae) flabellately-furcate, i.e. the vein enters at the base and is re- 
peatedly forked, veins not quite extending to the margin. Zinn. Sp. 
PL 1519. Sw. Syn. Fil. 171. Bedd. F. B. I. t 208. 

North India, Sikkim, Lachen, 11,000-13,000 feet elevation, 
Kumaon, 12,000 feet. 

(Also the arctic and cold temperate zone, extending to South 
Europe; Patagonia; Australia.) 

2. Botrychium daucifolium. (Wall.) Stipes stout, 6-12 




BOTRYCII1UM DAUCIFOMUU. {Wall.) 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



47» 



inches long, the sterile portion with a stalk, 1-6 inches long, i.e. pro- 
longed beyond the fertile spike, 6-12 inches each way; deltoid, tripin- 
natifid ot iripinnate ; the lower pinnx much the largest ; segments 
lanceolate-oblong, \-\ inch broad, finely toothed ; fertile segments 
about equalling the sterile segment when mature; panicle 3-4 
inches long tripinnate, not very dose. Wall. Hook, and Grev. Ic. 
Fil. t 161. B. subcamosum, Wall. Ca/, 49. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 69. 

Throughout the Indian region, up to 8,ooo feet elevation. 

(Also in Java and Polynesia.) 



3- BOTRYCHIUM VIRGINI- 

ANUM. (£. ander Osmunda.) 
Stipes 3-18 inches long, sterile 
portion not prolonged beyond 
the fertile spike 4-12 inches 
each way ; deltoid, quadripin- 
natifid, lower pinnse much the 
largest, pinnules ovate-oblong, 
close ctit down to a broadly 
winged rachis into finely cut 
linear-oblong segments, both 
sides naked or slightly hairy ; 
fertile branch of the rachis 
springing from the base of the 
sterile portion {i.e. sterile por- 
tion, sessile), or from the 
middle of it Zinn. Sp. PI. 
1519. Sa>. Syn. Fil. 171. 




Var. ß lanucinosum. (Sp. Wall. Cat. 48.) Fertile branch 
arising from the middle of the sterile portion. Bedd. F. S. I. t. 67. 
Moore, Ind. Fil. 213. Hook. Card. Ferns, t. 29. In the typical 
American plant, the fertile branch arises from the base of the sterile 
portion, and the latter is quite glabrous ; in the Indian plant the 
fertile branch always Springs from well above the base, and the sterile 



472 



Ferns of British India and Ceylon. 



portion is more or less hairy, they are, however, only cunsidertd 
varieties. 

South India, at the higher elevations on the Wettern mountaiw 
(only appearing in the rains) ; Ceylon, about Newera Elya ; North 
India, on the Himalayas, Kumaonto Bhotan, 5,000-8,000 feet elew- 
tion, Khasya, 4,000-6,000 feet elevatum. 

(The typical plant is widespread in Europe, America and 
Japan.) 





I.KUCOSTEG1A MULTIDBNTATA. (IVa/L) 




UICKOI.KPIA MAJU5CULA. (LttOt.) 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



At page 16, after No. 10, insert : — 

Alsophila Kingi (Clarke MS. in Kew Herb.), a tree fern, 10 feet 
high, main rachis purplish shining glabrous, rachis of pinnae purplish 
glabrous and somewhat glaucous, pinnae 20-24 inches long, pinnules about 
3 inches long by half inch broad, coriäceous, of a blueish glaucous tint, 
, the rachis very scaly beneath and hairy above, cut down nearly to the 
base into oblong crenated segments, the midrib much raised and very 
prominent (particularly in the fertile pinnules) and scaly ; veins once 
forked from a little above the base, or more rarely simple, receptacles 
much raised and very prominent. 

Malay Peninsula at Laroot, in Perak, at 5,000 feet elevation, lately 
discovered by Dr. King's collectors. 



At page 20, line 15, for 900—1,200, read 9,000— 12,000. 

At page 28, for plate 14, read plate 15. 

At page 29, for plate 15, read plate 14. 

At page 292, 9Ü1 line from bottom, for This variety^ read The 
variety. 

At page 295, 1 ith line from bottom, for rugulosum Labill, read 
rugosulum LabilL 

At page 439, 4th line from bottom, for as it read, as that. 



INDEX TO THE PLATES. 



PLATB 



PAGE 



GLEICHENIACEiE. 

i Gleichenia linearis ... 3 

296 „ glauca ... xv 

POLYPODIACEJE. 

CycUhea. 

2 Cyathea sinuata 5 

3 „ spinulosa ... 7 

297 „ Hookeri xvi 

4 Amphicosmia Walkerae... 9 

5 Alsophila Oldhami ... 13 

6 „ crinita 15 

7 Diacalpe aspidioides ... 17 

8 Matonia pectinata ... 19 

DicksoniecB. 

9 Struthiopteris orientalis ... 21 

10 Woodsia elongata ... 23 

11 Peranema cyatheoides ... 25 

12 Dennstaedtia scabra ... 26 

15 „ appendiculata 29 

13 Cibotium Barometz ... 27 

Hymenophyllea. 

14 Hymenophyllum parvifo- 

lium 28 

16 „ exsertum 31 

17 „ Neesii... 35 

18 Trichomanes parvulum ... 38 



PLATE PAGE 

19 Trichomanes digitatum ... 39 

20 „ Kurzii ... 40 

21 „ javanicum ... 45 

DavalliecE. 

22 Humata parallela ... 47 

23 „ pedata 49 

24 Leucostegia assamica ... 51 

25 „ pulchra ... 53 
25 „ nodosa ... 55 

298 „ multidentata 473 

27 Prosaptia Emersoni ... 56 

28 „ contigua ... 57 

29 Davallia triphylla ... 58 

30 „ solida 59 

31 „ bullata 63 

32 Microlepia Hookeriana ... 62 

33 ii platyphylla ... 65 

299 „ majuscula ... 474 

34 Stenoloma chinensis ... 69 

35 Cystopteris setosa ... 71 

Ldndsayea. 

36 Lindsaya cultrata 7^ 

37 „ scandens ... 74 

38 „ divergens ... 76 

39 Schizoloma lobata, var. 

malabarica ... 78 

40 „ cordata ... 79 

41 „ ensifolia ... 81 



478 



Index to the Plates. 



rLATB 



PACS 



\Pteridtct. 

42 Adiantum Parishii ... 82 

43 „ lunulatum, var. 

Mettcnii ... .83 

44 „ caudatum ... 85 

45 „ venustum ... 87 
300 „ hispidulum ... ii 

46 Cheilanthes mysorensis ... 90 

47 „ varians ... 91 

48 „ argentea ... 95 

49 Onychium auratum ... 97 

50 Cryptogramme crispa ... 99 

51 Pellaea Stellen 100 

52 „ concolor 100 

53 „ Boivini 103 

54 „ falcata 104 

55 Pteris longifolia 105 

56 „ dactylina 108 

57 „ Griffithii 109 

58 „ semipinnata ... 110 

59 „ patens 113 

60 Campteria Kleiniana ... 117 

61 Doryopteris Iudens ... 119 

62 Litobrochia incisa ... 121 

63 Ceratopteris thalictroides 121 

64 Lomaria Patersoni ... 126 

65 Plagiogyria adnata ... 128 

Blcchnea. 

66 Blechnum Orientale ... 131 

67 Blechnidiummelanopus... 134 

68 Woodwardia radicans ... 136 

69 Doodiadives 138 

AspleniecB. 

70 Thamnopteris Grevillei... 140 

71 Asplenium ensiforme ... 142 

72 „ alternans ... 143 



PLATB 



PACI 



73 Asplenium Wightiaimm 146 

74 „ tcnenim ... 147 

75 » Zenkerianum 148 

76 „ paradoxum ... 152 

77 » heterocarpum 15$ 

78 „ tenuifolium ... 160 

79 » rutaefolium ... 162 

80 Athyrium falcatum ... 164 

81 „ selenopteris ... 167 

82 „ brevisorum ... 171 

83 „ fimbriatum ... 173 

84 Diplazium lanceum ... 175 

85 „ porrectum ... 176 

86 „ bantamense ... 177 

87 „ longifolium ... 179 

88 „ asperum ... 183 

89 „ polypodioides 185 

90 „ umbrosum, var. 

australe ... 189 

9 1 » umbrosum, var. 

multicaudatum 190 

92 Anisogonium cordifolium 191 

93 99 heterophle- 

bium ... 193 

94 » esculentum 193 

95 Hemidictyum Ceterach ... 194 

96 „ Finlaysonia- 

num ... 195 

97 Allantodiajavanica ... 196 

98 Actiniopteris dichotoma... 198 

AspicUca. 

99 Didymochlaena lunulata... 200 

100 Mesochlaena polycarpa ... 202 

101 Polystichumsemicordatum20i 
i°2 „ auriculatum... 205 
io 3 yy ilicifolium ... 206 
IQ 4 n aculeatum,var. 

rufo-barbatum 208 



Index to the Plates. 



479 



PLATB PAGK 

105 Polystichum Prescottianum 2 10 

106 Cyrtomium falcatum, var. 

caryotideum 213 

107 Aspidium singaporianum 214 

108 „ vastum ... 214 

109 „ subconfluens 215 

110 „ subtriphyllum 216 
in „ variolosum ... 217 

112 „ heterocarpum 216 

113 „ decurrens, var. 

minor ... 221 

114 Pleocnemia Trimeni ... 224 

115 „ membranifolia 226 

116 „ Clarkei ... 227 

117 „ leuzeana ... 228 

118 Lastrea coniifolia 231 

„ aristata 231 

119 „ cuspidata ... 232 

120 „ hirtipes 233 

121 „ calcarata, var. 

ciliata ... 236 

122 „ Beddomei ... 239 

123 „ Thelypteris ... 242 

124 „ syrmatica ... 243 

125 „ flaccida 244 

126 „ Brunoniana ... 245 
i?7 „ " barbigera ... 247 

128 „ odontoloma ... 247 

129 „ Filix-mas,var.nidus249 

130 „ „var. cochleata 251 

131 „sparsa,var.obtusissima253 

132 „ spectabilis ... 256 

133 » deparioides ... 258 

134 „ Parishii 259 

x 35 n scabrosa 263 

136 „ ferruginea ... 265 

137 Nephrodium otaria ... 268 

138 „ cucullatum... 271 
139, „ aridum ... 273 



PLATB PAG« 

140 Nephrodium urophyllum 274 

141 » moulmeinense 275 

142 „ Arbuscula ... ,276 

143 „ truncatum ... 281 

144 Nephrolepis cordifolia ... 283 

145 „ ramosa ... 285 

146 Oleandra neriiformis ... 286 

147 „ Wallichii ... 287 

Polypodiece. 

48 Phegopteris Scottii ... 289 

49 » auriculata ... 291 

50 „ rufescens ... 293 

5 1 » Dryopteris ... 294 

52 „ ornata ... 294 

53 Goniopteris prolifera ... 297 

54 Diclyopteris Barberi ... 299 

55 „ chattagramica 300 

56 „ difformis ... 301 

57 Polypodium parasiticum .. 303 

58 „ Wallii ... 304 

59 » hirtellum ... 306 

60 „ cornigerum... 306 

61 „ cucullatum ... 307 

62 „ trichomanoides3o8 

63 „ glandulosum 309 

64 „ Thwaitesii ... 310 

65 „ decorum ... 311 

66 „ obliquatum... 312 

67 „ repandulum... 313 

68 „ subfalcatum... 314 

69 „ dareaeforme... 315 

70 Goniophlebium amaenum 316 

71 n erythrocarpum 317 

72 „ molle 321 

73 11 subauriculatum 323 

74 „ argutum ... 323 

75 „ verrucosum ... 324 

76 Niphobolus adnascens ... 326 



4»o 



Index to the Plates. 



178 


stigmosus . 


329 


179. 


fissus 


33o 


180 „ 


flo ccii los US . 


331 


181 „ 


Gardneri 


332 


182 


peiiangianus 


331 


183 


mummularia:- 




folius 


333 


184 Dipteris Wallichii 


335 


'8 S ., 


Horsficldii 


336 


186 


Lobbiana 


337 


187 Dynaria coronans 


337 


188 


splendens 


339 


189 n 


propinqua 


340 


190 .. 


mollis ... 


342 


19» •■ 


quereifolia 


343 


192 


rigidula ... 


344 


193 Plcopeltis rostrata 


346 


"94 n 


linearis 


347 


■95 


sinuosa 


349 


196 „ 


longifolia 


350 


'97 


lanecolata 


352 


198 „ 


rhyncophylla .. 


354 


'99 » 
200 „ 


Griffithiana .. 


355 
356 


201 „ 


punctata 


358 


202 „ 


hemionitidca .. 


359 


203 „ 


pteropus 


360 


204 „ 


pteropus, var. 


361 


2°5 .. 
206 


hast ata 


362 
364 


207 1) 


insignis 


365 


108 „ 


nigrescens 


367 


209 


dilatata 


368 


210 „ 


juglandifolia .. 


3°9 


211 „ 


Lehmanni 


37i 


212 „ 


himalayensis .. 


372 



GrammtHdete. 

213 Notholama MaranUe ... 374 

214 Monogramme paradoxa... 37* 

215 Leptogiamme Totta ... 37! 

216 „ aurita .„ 379 

217 „ opaca ... 379 

218 Slegnogrammeaspidioides38i 

219 GymnogrammeAndersoni 381 

320 „ leptophylla 383 

321 ,i raicrophylla 3S4 

222 Syngramme fraxinea ... 385 

223 „ vestita ... 387 

224 „ alismoefolia ... 388 

225 Selliguea Feci 388 

326 „ Hamiltoniana ... 39a 

227 „ ellipika ... 391 

228 Loxogramme involuta ... 394 

229 „ avenia ... 395 

230 Brainca insignis ... 

231 Meniscium Iriphyllum .. 

232 „ Thwaitesii .. 

233 „ salicifolium ... 399 

234 „ cuspidatum ... 400 

235 Antrophyum reticulatum 4« 

236 „ plantagineum 402 

237 „ latifolium ... 40J 

238 Vittaria elongata 4°5 

239 „ sikkimensis ... 4<rf 

240 „ sulcata i<$ 

241 „ scolopendrina ... 408 

242 Ttenitis blechnoides ... 409 

243 Drymoglossum cämöSurti 411 

244 1, piloselloides 4 i; 

245 Hcmionitis arifolia ... 4M 

246 „ Griffithii ... 4'5 

Acrostichea, 

247 Elaphoglossum cnnforme 4'7 

248 „ latifolium ... 41S 



.35* 
.393 



Index to the Plates. . 



M^T« 


fac* 


PLATl 


pAQ 


249 Elaphoglossum 


271 Platycerium grande 


444 




stigmatolepiä 419 


372 Platycerium Wallichü .. 


446 


250 ., 


viscosum ... 419 


373 n bi forme „ 


447 


251 ,, 


squamosum 419 


374 Osmunda javanica 


448 


252 


spathulatum 419 


37; „ Claytoniana .. 


449 


353 Stenochhena palustre ... 422 


276 „ rcgalis... 


449 


254 


sorbifolia ... 433 


277 Schizzea malaccana 


450 


355 Polybotrya appendiculata, 


278 „ dichotoma 


451 




. ß asplcniifolia 425 


z79 ii digicata 


452 


=56 „ 


appendiculata, 


280 Anemia tomentosa 


454 


var. 


S Hamiltoniana 426 


281 Lygodium circinatum .. 


455 


2 57 


appendiculata, 


282 „ microphyllum 


456 


var. 


i costulata ... 426 


283 „ flexuosum 


457 


358 Gymnopte 


ris variabilis ... 428 


284 „ polystachyum 


457 


259 » 


minus ... 430 


285 Angioptcris evccta 


459 


260 


metallica ... 431 


286 Marattia fraxinea 


461 


261 „ 


spicata ... 431 


287 Kaulfussia sesculifolia . 


463 


263 „ 


quercifolia 433 


288 phioglossu m n udicaule . 


464 


263 


tricuspis ... 435 


289 „ fibrosum .. 


465 


264 i> 


contaminans 436 


290 „ reticulatum 466 


265 


subcrenata 437 


291 „ pendulum 


467 


266 


costata ... 438 


292 H elmi nt h oslachy s zey lan ic 


3468 


267 


Presliana ... 430 


293 Botrychium Lunaria 


469 


268 Acrostichum aureum ... 441 


294 „ daucifolium 


470 


269 Photinopt 


risrigida ■ ... 443 


195 „ virginianum 




270 


drynariokles 444 


var. lanuginosuir 


471 




INDEX TO THE SPECIES AND SYNONYMS, 

THE LATTER BEING IN ITALICS. 









PACK 








PA« 


Aconiopteris 








Edgeworthii 


... 


... 


«4 


gorgonea 


• • . 


• • . 


427 


emarginatum 


... 


... 


86 


Acrophorus. see Leucostegia 




flabellulatum 


... 


... 


88 


Acropteris 


... 


... 


H5 


hispidulum 


••• 


... 


86 


Acrostichum 








Lanceum ... 


... 


••• 


75 


alcicorne ... 


... 


... 


445 


lunulatum 


... 


... 


82 


aureum ... 


• • . 


. • . 


44o 


var. Mettenii 


... 


83 


contaminans 


... 


• • • 


435 


orbiculatum 


... 


. • • 


75 


cos tat um ... 


... 


* • . 


438 


Parishii ... 


... 


. • • 


82 


deltigerum 


... 


... 


438 


pedatum ... 


... 


. • • 


86 


dichotomum 


• . . 


* > * 


197 


pteropus ... 


... 


... 


83 


fucifortne 


... 


... 


447 


rhisophorum 


... 


. •• 


84 


quercifolium 


... 


... 


433 


soboliferum 


... 


• • • 


84 


septentrionale 


... 


• • • 


M5 


venustum 


... 


... 


86 


sorbifolium 


... 


... 


443 


Allantodia 








subcrcnatum 


... 


• • . 


437 


Brunoniana 


* • . 


... 


197 


terminans 


• • • 


• • . 


437 


javanica ... 


... 


• • • 


195 


undulatum 


. • . 


• • . 


438 


Allosoms. 








vircns 


... 


... 


439 


crispus ... 


... 


... 


98 


Wightianum 


... 


. • * 


426 


gracilis ... 


... 


... 


100 


Actiniopleris 








Alsophila 








dichotoma 


... 


• • • 


197 


albo-setacea 


. • • 


. • • 


16 


radiata ... 


... 


... 


197 


alternans 


... 


. « • 


10 


Adiantum 








Andersoni 


... 


... 


12 


>Ethiopicum 


• • • 


• • • 


84 


Brunoniana 


... 


... 


10 


capillus-veneris 




. • • 


84 


commutata 


... 


. • . 


U 


caudatum 


... 


• • . 


83 


comosa ... 

1 


... 


... 


13 


var. Edgeworthii 


... 


84 


contaminans 


... 


... 


12 


var. soboliferum 


... 


84 


crinita 


..» 


.%• 


16 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



483 



PAGE 

glabra ... ... ... 14 

glauca 12 

Kingi addenda 

latebrosa 11 

var, hemitelioides ... 10 

Oldhami 13 

ornata 12 

Schmidiana. see latebrosa. 
Scottiana. see Oldhami. 

squamulata 14 

mphicosmia 

alternans 10 

Brunoniana 10 

decipiens 10 

Walkerae 9 

nemia 

tomentosa 453 

Wightiana 453 

ngiopteris 

evecta 460 

nisogonium 

cordifolium . 191 

esculentum 192 

heterophlebium 191 

lineolatum 191 

Smithianum 192 

\nogramma 383 

jitrophyum 

coriaceum 401 

latifolium 404 

parvulum 403 

plantagineum 403 

reticulatum 401 

var. ß parvulum ... 401 

semicordatum 401 

irthobotrys 

macrocarpa 251 

\spidium 

alatum 214 



FACE 

amabile 229 

appendiculatum 239 

aristaium 229 

var, affine 230 

var. assamica ... 230 

var. Hamiltoniana 230 

airatum 252 

Brunonianum ... ... 246 

calcaratum 235 

canariense 250 

canum 235 

cicutarium 220 

cilialum 235 

coadunatum ., ... 222 

coniifolium 230 

crassifolium 238 

cucullatum 272 

cuspidatum 232 

decurrens 219 

var. minor 221 

densum 255 

eberneum 239, 252 

exaltatum 284 

fuscipes 227 

glandulosum 273 

gracilescens 234 

Hccnkianum 282 

heterocarpum 219 

hirsutulum 237 

hirtipes 232 

immersum 235 

lineatum , 274 

macrocarpum 165 

marginatum 252 

membranaceum 225 

multicaudatum 222 

multidentatum 50 

multijugum 279 

multilineatum . . . 277 ^ i3fe 



484 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 







FACE 








FACE 


obliquum ... 


... . 


.. 204 


bullaium 


•«• 


... 


159 


obscurum 


... • 


- 273 


caudatum 


... 


... 


ISI 


o cht ho des ... 


• « • . 


.. 240 


C et er ach ... 


••• 


... 


«94 


oppositum 


•i» . 


.. 255 


contiguum 


... 


... 


IS« 


pcnnigerum 


... . 


.. 277 


crinicaule 


... 


... 


150 


pilosulum 


... . 


.. 258 


decurrens 


... 


... 


15» 


polycarpum 


... . 


.. 20I 


' dreJHznophyllutn ... 


••• 


164 


polymorphum 


. > . . 


.. 218 


eberneu m ... 


•« . 


... 


171 


prionophyllum 


... ii 


.. 280 


elongatum 


••• 


... 


147 


ptcropus ... 


... • 


.. 219 


ensiforme 


... 


... 


141 


puberulum 


. • • . 


.. 277 


erectum ... 


. • • 


... 


148 


rhomboicUum 


... . 


.. 229 


exiguum ... 


... 


. . 


158 


scabrosum 


... . 


.. 264 


falcatum 


... 


••• 


150 


semibipinnatuir 


L... 


.. 215 


fontanum 


••• 


••• 


158 


Simonsii ... 


• • • • 


.. 218 


var. exiguum 


• • • 


158 


singaporianum 


• •• • 


.. 212 


formosum 


••• 


••• 


152 


solu tum ... 


• • • • • 


. 278 


furcatum ... 


••• 


... 


157 


spcciosum... 


• ♦ • • 


.. 230 


Gardneri ... 


... 


• • • 


151 


subconfluens 


• • • • 


.. 214 


Griffithianum 


... 


1 •• 


142 


subdiaphanum 


• • • • * 


. 258 


heterocarpum 


... 


«•• 


153 


subtriphyllum 


* m • • « 


. 215 


hirtum 


. • • 


... 


149 


syrmaticum 


• • • • 


- 243 


Hookerianum 


... 


.*• 


195 


tcctuin 


t • • • 


,. 278 


jaroanicum 


... 


•*. 


195 


variolosum 


• • • «4 


.. 216 


laciniatum 


... 


• • • 


154 


vastum ... 


• • • t f 


. 212 


var. crinigerum 


••• 


154 


venulosum 


• • • • 


■• 273 


„ depauperatum 


154 


Wallichii 


• • • • 


.. 288 


lanceolatum 


... 


... 


158 


Zollingerianum 


• • • • 


.. 218 


laserpitiifolium 


... 


... 


158 








lobulosum 


... 


... 


179 


Asplenium 






longifolium 


... 


. • • 


179 


acuminatum 


• • • • 


.. 178 


longissimum 


. • • 


... 


145 


adiantum-nigrum 


.. 156 


lunulatum 


. • * 


... 


147 


affine ... 


• • • • 


.. I57 


var. camptorachis 


1 ... 


148 


altern ans ... 


• • • • 


.. I42 


„ trapeziforme 


... 


148 


ariifolium 


• • • • 1 


• 413 


macrophyllum 


••• 


•*. 


150 


auritum ... 


• • • • i 


. 149 


marginatum 


... 


... 


185 


Beddomci 


• • • • a 


. I50 


monanthemum 


* • • 


... 


144 


Belangeri 


• • • • < 


.. I6l 


multijugum 


... 


... 


144 


bulbiferum 


• •• • < 


• 159 


nitidum ... 


... 


... 


157 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



485 









PAG« 






normale ... 


• • • 


• • t 


144 


Atkinsonii 


.*• 


var. ß 


• • • 


• • • 


144 


var. Ande 


rsonii 


paradoxum 


• • • 


• • • 


151 


australe ... 


»• • 


pekinense 


• • • 


• • • 


156 


brevisorum 


... 


persicafolium 


• • • 


• •• 


149 


Clarkei ... 


... 



pinnatifido-pinnatum ... 178 

pianicaule 154 

prcemorsutn. see furcatum 

pumilum 154 

var.hymenophylloides 1 56 

resectum 152 

Ruta-muraria 156 

rutaefolium 159 

septentrionale 145 

sikkimense 184 

spathulinum 157 

spinulosum 166 

squarrosum 165 

stenophyllum 141 

subavenium 144 

tenerum 147 

tenuifolium 159 

trapeziforme 148 

Trichomanes 143 

unilaterale 152 

var. delicatulum ... 153 

„ rivale 153 

„ udum 153 

varians 158 

viride 143 

vulcanicum 146 

Wightianum 146 

„ var. microphyllum 146 

zamioides 151 

Zenkerianum 148 



Athyrium 




allantodioides ... 


... 164 


aspidioüies 


... 166 



PAG* 

... I63 

163, 174 

... I89 

... 171 

... 166 

drepanophyllum ... 164 

erythrorachis 168 

falcatum 164 

Filix-foemina 168 

var. attenuata ... 169 

„ dentigera ... 169 

„ flabellulata ... 170 

„ parasnathensis 170 

„ pectinata ... 169 

„ polyspora ... 170 

„ retusa 170 

fimbriatum 172 

var. foliosa ... ... 172 

„ sphoeropteroides 174 
Griffithii 

gymnogrammoides ... 168 

var. erythrorachis ... 168 

Hohenackerianum ... 163 

macrocarpum 165 

var, Atkinsoni ... 165 

„ i-pinnata ... 165 

multicaudatum 190 

nigripes ... ... ... 166 

var. Clarkei ... 166 

„ dissecta ... 166 

„ selenopteris ... 166 

oxyphyllum 170 

var, Kulhaitense ... 171 

pectinatum ... 168, 169 

selenopteris 166 

spinulosum 161 

stramimum 171 

subtriangulare 163 

thelypteroides 164 



486 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 







PAGS 








PACt 


Blechnidium 






fragrans 


... 


... 


88 


melanopus 


••• 


»33 


laxa 


... 


... 


92 


Blechnum 






mysorensis 


... 


... 


«9 


cartilagineum ... 


... 


130 


nitidula 


... 


... 


102 


Findlaysonianum 


••• 


132 


rufa 


•*• 


... 


94 


melanopus 


•• • 


133 


subvillosa 


. • * 


... 


93 


nitidum 


••• 


130 


Szovitzii 


• • • 


... 


89 


Orientale 


i • • 


132 


tenuifolia 


» • • 


... 


92 


serrulatum 


• i • 


132 


Thwaitcsii 


... 


... 


92 


Botrychium daucifolium 


• • • 


462 


varians ... 


... 


... 


9i 


lanuginosum 


• . • 


47i 


Chnoophora 








Lunaria 


... 


469 


glauca 


... 


... 


12 


subcarnosum 


• . • 


47i 


Chrysodium 


■ 






virginianum 


•• • 


47i 


aureum ... 


. •• 


... 


440 


var lanuginosum 


•• • 


47i 


Cibotium 








Brainea insignis 


••• 


395 


Barometz 


... 


... 


24 


CalUpteris. see Anisogoni 


tum 




glaucum 


. * • 


... 


24 


esculcntum 


• t • 


192 


Calopteris 


... 


... 


3<3 


Campteria 






Crepidomanes 








anamallayensU ... 


• • • 


118 


nanum 


... 


... 


40 


biaurita 


• • • 


116 


Cryptogramme 








%eminata 


• • • 


118 


Brunoniana 


... 


... 


98 


Kleiniana 


• • • 


116 


crispa 


... 


... 


9* 


Paten s 


• • # 


114 


Cryptosorus ... 


• • . 


• •• 


W 


Wallichiana 


• • • 


118 


Cyathea 








Ceratopteris 






Brunonis 


... 


... 


5 


thalictroides 


• • • 


123 


Hookeri 


• • • 


• •• 


6 


Ceterach 






sinuata 


••• 


• •• 


5 


officinarum 


• • • 


194 


spinulosa 


... 


... 


6 


Cheilanthes albo-marginata. . . 


94 


Cyrtomium 








argentea 


• • • 


95 


caducum ... 


... 


••• 


211 


„ var. chrysophylla 


93 


caryotideum 


... 


... 


211 


bullosa 


• • • 


93 


falcatum 


... 


. •• 


211 


Dalhousics 


• • • 


93 


var. caryotideum 


i ... 


211 


farinosa 


• • • 


92 


Cystopteris fragilis 


•• . 


... 


70 


var. chrysophylla 


• • • 


93 


retusa 


... 


... 


170 


„ Dalhousire 


• • • 


93 


setosa 


... 


.*• 


7° 


„ flaccida 


• • • 


93 


Davallia achilleifolia 


... 


423 


fragilis 


• • • 


9i 


affinis ... 


••• 


.«• 


54 



Index t6 the Species and Synonyms. 487 







PAGE 








PAGE 


bullata 


•*• 


6l 


Dictyopteris 




. 




calvescens 


. •% 


64 


Barberi ... 


... 


. •• 


298 


chinensis 


. •• 


70 


chattagrammica 


... 


299 


Clarkei ... 


..« 


52 


difformis 


... 


... 


300 


divaricata 


... 


60 


heterosora 


... 


••• 


302 


elegans 


• . • 


59 


irregularis 


... 


... 


300 


epiphylla 


... 


60 


polycarpa 


... 


• .. 


350 


Griffithiana 


• •• 


60 


tenerifrons 


... 


... 


298 


hymenophylloides 


. •• 


54 


Didymochlaena 








Lorrainei 


. »• 


61 


lunulata 


... 


... 


199 


ornata 


* •• 


59 


polycarpa 


... 


••• 


201 


Parvula 


. «• 


54 


Diplazium 








pilosula 


... 


68 


asperum 


... 


... 


I84 


polyantha 


. .. 


60 


assimile ... 


... 


. •• 


I90 


puberula 


• •• 


68 


austräte ... 


... 


... 


189 


pulchra 


... 


52 


bantamense 


. .« 


... 


177 


pyramidata 


... 


68 


bellum 


... 


... 


I89 


Roxburghii 


. . • 


68 


decurrens 


... 


... 


186 


schizophylla 


... 


75 


decussatum 


... 


• • . 


l8o 


solida 


... 


59 


dilatatum 


... 


... 


187 


speciosa ... 


... 


61 


var. ß minor 


... 


186 


tenuifolia 


... 


70 


fraxineum 


... 


... 


386 


trichomanoides 


... 


75 


fraxinifolium 


... 


... 


177 


triphylla 


... 


58 


Griffithii 


... 


... 


I90 


Dennstaedtia 






japonicum 


... 


... 


180 


appendiculata ... 


... 


26 


Jerdoni ... 


... 


... 


I90 


deltoidea 


... 


26 


lanceum 


... 


... 


174 


Elwesii 


... 


26 


lasiopteris 


... 


... 


180 


scabra 


. •• 


24 


latifolium 


... 


. .« 


187 


Diacalpe 

aspidioides 
fceniculacea 


... 
. . . 


18 
18 


Lobbianum 

lobulosum 

longifolium 

• 


... 
... 
... 


... 
... 
... 


187 
179 
179 








maximum 


... 


. . • 


187 


Dicksonia 






multicaudatum 


... 


... 


189 


scabra 


»•• 


24 


pallidum 


... 


... 


175 


Diclisodon 






pinnatifido-pinnatum 


... 


178 


deparioides 


... 


257 


polypodioides 


... 


... 


184 


Dictyocline 






var. decurrens 


... 


186 


Griffithii ... 


... 


415 


1 var. ß (Thw.^ 


... 


186 



488 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 







PACK 








FACE 


Polyrhison 


• • • 


180 


mollis 
. 1 


• « • 


• •• 


341 


porrectum 


• • • 


176 


propinqua 


• * • 


• • • 


339 


Prescottianum . . . 


• • • 


178 


quercifolia 


• •• 


• • • 


34i 


procerum 


t • • 


189 


rigidula ... 


• • • 


• •• 


344 


Schkuhrii 


• • • 


l8l 


splendens 


• • • 


• • • 


339 


sikkimense 


• •• 


I84 


Dryostachyum 


• • ■ 


• • • 


339 


sorzogonense 


• • • 


l8l 


Elaphoglossum 








speciosum 


• • • 


178 


con forme 


• • • 


• • • 


416 


Stoliczkae 


182, 


I84 


latifolium 


• • • 


• • • 


416 


var. hirsutipes 


• • • 


182 


laurifolium 


• • • 


• •• 


418 


subserratum 


• • • 


174 


Norissii ... 


• • • 


• • • 


418 


sylvaticum 


• • • 


177 


piloselloides 


• ■ • 


• • • 


421 


var. Prescottianum 


178 


spathulatum 


• • • 


• • • 


420 


thelypteroidcs ... 


• • • 


I84 


squamosum 


• • • 


• • • 


420 


Thwaitesii 


• • • 


I8O 


stelligerum 


• • • 


• •• 


240 


tomentosum 


• • • 


179 


stigmatolepis 


• • • 


• • • 


41« 


travancoricum ... 


• • • 


188 


viscosum 


• • • 


• • • 


420 


umbrosum 


• • • 


180 


Galeoglossa ... 


• • • 


• • • 


394 


var. assimile 


• • * 


I9O 


Gleichenia 








„ australe 


• • • 


I89 


circinata... 


• • • 


• • • 


2 


„ multicaudatum 


I90 


dichotoma 


• • • 


• « • 


4 


„ procerum 


• • • 


I89 


gigantea... 


• • • 


• • • 


1 

m 


Zeylanicum 


• •• 


175 


glauca 


• • • 


• • • 




Dipteris 






linearis ... 


• • • 


• • • 


4 


Horsfieldii 


• • t 


336 


longissima 


• • • 


• • • 


2 


Lobbiana 


• • • 


336 


Norrisii 


• • • 


• • • 


1 

* 


Wallichiana 


• • • 


334 


scmivestita 


• • • 


* • t 




Doodia 






Goniophlebium armenum 


• •• 


3» 7 


dives 


• • • 


137 


argutum ... 


• • • 


• •• 


323 


Drymoglossum 






erythrocarpum 


• • • 


• •• 


3*9 


Beddomei 


• • • 


413 


Hendersoni 


• • • 


• • • 


320 


carnosum 


• • • 


411 


lachnopous 


• • • 


t • • 


319 


piloselloides 


• • • 


411 


microrhizoma 


• • • 


• • • 


322 


var. ß Beddomei 


• • • 


413 


molle 


• • • 


• • • 


322 


Drynaria 






subamsenum 


• • • 


• • • 


317 


conjugata 


• • • 


339 


subauriculaturr 


1 ... 


• •• 


3« 


coronans 


• • • 


338 


verrucosum 


• ■ • 


• •• 


324 


diversifolia 


• • • 


344 


Goniopteris 








Linnaei 


• • t 


343 


lincata ... 


• • • 


275 


,276 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



489 









PAGE 1 








PAGB 


multilineata 


• • • 


... 


275 


Wallii ... 


• • • 


... 


43 1 


penangiana 


• • • 


... 


276 


Haplofiteris ... 


• ■ • 


... 


408 


prolifera 


• • • 


... 


296 


Helmin thostachys 






• 


urophylla 


• • • 


... 


274 


dulcis. see ze 


ylanica 






Grammitis 








zeylanica 


... 


... 


467 


aurita 




... 


377 


Hemidictyum 








Hamiltoniana 


• • ■ 


... 


373 


Ceterach 


... 


... 


194 


lanceolata 


• • • 


... 


393 


Finlaysonianum 


... 


195 


Totta 


• • • 


... 


377 


Hemionitis 








vestita . . . 


• • • 


... 


387 


arifolia ... 


... 


... 


413 


Gymnogrammß 








cordifolia 


... 


... 


415 


alismaefolia 


• • • 


... 


389 


Griffithii ... 


... 


... 


415 


Andersoni 


• • • 


... 


382' 


hos lata, see arifolia 






Hamiltoniana 


• • « 


... 


390 


Hemitelea 








javanica 


• • • 


... 


386 


decipiens 


... 


... 


10 


leptophylla 


• • • 


... 


382 


Beddomei.setCysithesL spinulosa 


microphylla 


• ■ • 


... 


384 


Humata 








obtusata 


• • • 


... 


380 


alpina ... 


... 


... 


48 


serrulata 


• • • 


... 


386 


angustata 


... 


... 


47 


vestita ... 


• • • 


... 


387 


heterophylla 


... 


... 


46 


Wallichii 


• • • 


... 


387 


parallela 


... 


... 


47 


Gymnopteris 








pedata ... 


... 


... 


48 


axillaris 


• • • 


... 


430 


vestita ... 


... 


... 


48 


contaminans 


• • • 


... 


438 


Hymenolepis 








decurrens. see 


; variabilis 




spicata ... 


... 


... 


432 


flageliifera 


... 


.. • 


483 


Hymenophyllum 








Feeu see variabilis 






badium ... 


... 


... 


33 


lanceoalata 


... 


... 


429 


Blumeanum 


... 


... 


32 


metallica 


... 


... 


432 


ciliatum ... 


... 


... 


33 


minus 


... 


... 


430 


crispatum 


... 


... 


33 


Presliana 


... 


... 


439 


denticulatum 


... 


... 


34 


quercifolia 


... 


... 


432 


var. flaccidum 


... 


35 


spicata ... 


... 


... 


432 


emersum 


... 


... 


30 


subcrenata 


... 


... 


437 


exiguum 


... 


... 


37 


subrepanda 


... 


... 


434 


exsertum 


... 


... 


30 


tricuspis ... 


... 


... 


434 


flaccidum 


... 


... 


35 


variabilis... 


... 


... 


429 


javanicum 


... 


... 


32 


var. ß lanceolata ... 


429 


var. badium 


... 


33 


„ 7 axillaris 


... 


43o 


khasianum 


... 


... 


35 



490 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 









PAGE 








PACI 


Levingii ... 


• • • 


... 


36 


concinna ... 


... 


••• 


258 


microglossum 


• • • 


. •• 


3» 


coniifolia 


... 


... 


238 


Ncesii ... 


• • • 


• «• 


35 


crassifolia 


... 


... 


238 


parvifolium 


• •• 


... 


28 


crenata 


. «• 


••• 


258 


polyanthos 


• • • 


••• 


30 


cuspidata 


... 


. .. 


232 


var. Blumeanum 


... 


32 


deltoidea... 


... 


... 


*54 


„ microglossum 


32 


deparioides 


••• 


... 


257 


„ minor 


... 


32 


dissecta 


... 


••• 


260 


Simonsianum 


• • • 


... 


34 


var. ingens 


\ ... 


••• 


261 


Smithii ... 


• • • 


... 


34 


divisa ... 


... 


••• 


264 


tenellum ... 


• • • 


. •• 


30 


elongata. see 


filix-: 


mas. 




Tunbridgense 


« • • 


... 


35 


Elwesii 


... 


••• 


239 


Hypolepis 








eriocarpa 


... 


••• 


258 


hostilis 


• • • 


... 


295 


Fairbankii 


... 


••• 


240 


Kaulfussia 








falciloba 


... 


... 


235 


aesculifolia 


• • • 


. •• 


462 


Falconeri 


... 


••• 


248 


assamica 


• • • 


... 


462 


ferruginea 


... 


••• 


264 


Lastrea 








Filix-mas 


... 


... 


248 


affinis 


• • • 


... 


230 


var. apicifli 


ora 


... 


249 


alsophiloidcs 


• • • 


... 


8 


„ cochleata 


... 


250 


amabilis ... 


• • • 


... 


229 


„ elongata 


... 


250 


angustifrons 


• • • 


... 


262 


„ fibrillosa 


••• 


250 


apiciflora... 


• • • 


... 


249 


„ marginata 


... 


250 


aristata ... 


• • • 


. . • 


229 


„ odontoloma 


•*• 


248 


var. Hamiltonii 


... 


230 


„ panda 


... 


... 


251 


barbigera 


• • • 


... 


246 


„ paralellogramma 


249 


Beddomci 


• • • 


... 


239 


„ Schimperiana 


250 


Bergiana 


• • • 


... 


239 


flaccida 


... 


... 


244 


Blumei 


• • • 


... 


259 


fceniculacea 


... 


... 


18 


Boryana 


• • • 


... 


266 


fuscipes 


... 


.. . 


243 


Brunoniana 


• • • 


... 


246 


gracilescens 


... 


... 


239 


Buchanani 


• • • 


... 


255 


gracilescens 


... 


... 


234 


calcarata 


• • • 


... 


235 


var. decipiens 


... 


234 


var. ciliata 


• • • 


. «• 


235 


„ hirsutipes 


... 


234 


„ falciloba 


... 


237 


gracilis 


... 


... 


207 


„ sericea 


... 


237 


grisea ... 


••• 


••• 


241 


cana 


• •• 


... 


238 


Hendersoni 


• *• 


... 


257 


Clarkei ... 


• ■ • 


... 


250 


hirtipes ... 


••• 


... 


232 


cochlcata. see 


Filix-mas. 




immersa ... 


... 


... 


234 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



491 







PAGE 








PAGB 


ingens 


... 


26l 


splendens 


... 


••• 


262 


intermedia ... 


.. • 


250 


syrmatica 


••• 


••• 


243 


intermedia (Baker) 


... 


260 


tenericaulis 


... 


••• 


266 


melanopus 


... 


243 


Thelypteris 


... 


... 


241 


membraniifolia . . . 


. •• 


26l 


Thwaitesii 


... 


••• 


258 


microstegia 


. >• 


292 


tylodes 


... 


• «• 


240 


nephrodioides 


... 


238 


undulata 


... 


. •• 


254 


Nidus 


... 


250 


viscosa ... 


. » . 


. .. 


238 


obtusiloba 


... 


264 


Walkerae... 


... 


... 


233 


octhodes 


• • . 


240 


d bipinnata 


. .. 


234 


„ ß tylodes ... 


••• 


240 


ß macrocarpa 


... 


233 


odontoloma 


... 


248 


y pinnatihda 


... 


233 


Parishii 


... 


259 


Leptochilus, see Gymnopteris 


• 


patentissima 


... 


249 


Leptogramme 








platypus 


... 


230 


aurita 


... 


... 


377 


pulvinulifera 


... 


255 


var. Levingii 


• •• 


377 


recedens 


... 


260 


ob t us ata ... 


... 


» •» 


380 


rhodolepis 


••• 


260 


opaca 


... 


... 


379 


rigida 


... 


251 


Totta 


... 


... 


377 


sagenioides 


... 


243 


Leucostegia 








scabrosa ... 


... 


263 


affinis 


... 


.*• 


54 


sericea 


... 


235 


assamica 


... 


... 


5* 


setigera 


... 


267 


darece/ormis 


... 


... 


52 


setosa. see Cystopteris 




Hookeri 


... 


. . . 


52 


sikkimensis 


• »• 


259 


hymenophylla 


... 


... 


48 


sparsa 


••• 


252 


hymenophylloides 


• .. 


54 


var. deltoidea 


••• 


254 


immersa 


... 


... 


5i 


„ gracilis 


... 


207 


membranulosa 


• . • 


• .. 


5o 


„ latesquama 


... 


255 


multidentata 


... 


... 


30 


„ minor 


. . . 


254 


nodosa 


... 


... 


54 


,, nitidula 


•*• 


254 


parvula ... 


... 


... 


54 


„ obtussissima 


... 


254 


pseudo-cystopteris 


... 


54 


„ squamulosa 


... 


255 


pulchra ... 


... 


••* 


52 


„ undulata 


... 


254 


Lindsaya 








„ zeylanica 


••• 


254 


caudata ... 


... 


••• 


75 


spedabilis 


* . • 


244 


cultrata ... 


... 


••• 


72 


spectabilis 


... 


257 


divergens 


... 


• • . 


76 


spinulosa 


•*• 


252 


flabellulata 


... 


... 


75 


var. remota... 


... 


252 


heterophylla 


• • • 


• . . 


77 



492 



Index to tue Species and Synonyms. 









PAGB 








PACI 


Lancea ... 


... 


... 


75 


longifolium 


••• 


... 


457 


lanuginosa 


... 


••• 


77 


microphyllum 


... 


... 


455 


Lobbiana ... 


... 


... 


72 


pinnatifidum 


... 


••• 


457 


nitens 


... 


... 


79 


Pedatum 


... 


... 


455 


orbiculata 


... 


... 


75 


polystachyum 




... 


457 


var. tenera 


... 


••* 


75 


scandens 


... 


... 


455 


pectinata ... 


• • * 


... 


74 


Marattia fraxinea 


... 


. .. 


460 


repens 


• • • 


... 


74 


Matonia pectinata 


• • . 


... 


19 


var. minor 


... 


.. • 


74 


Meniscium 








rigida ... 


... 


... 


75 


cuspidatum 


... 


... 


400 


scandens 


... 


• • . 


74 


deltigerum 


.«• 


... 


43« 


trapeziformis 


• •• 


... 


75 


longifrons 


.*• 


... 


400 


Walkerae 


... 


. . . 


76 


Pariskii ... 


... 


... 


399 


Litobrochia 








salicifolium 


... 


... 


399 


aurita 


••• 


... 


122 


Thwaitesii 


... 


... 


399 


incisa 


... 


... 


120 


triphyllum 


••• 


... 


397 


ludens 


... 


... 


120 


var. Parishii 


... 


399 


marginata 


... 


... 


122 


Mertensia. see Gleichenia 




pedata 


... 


... 


120 


Mesochloena 








tripartita 


... 


••• 


122 


polycarpa 


... 


... 


199 


Lomaria 








Microlepia 








adnata 


... 


... 


127 


flaccida 


... 


... 


68 


elongata ... 


... 


... 


125 


hiria 


... 


... 


68 


euphlebia 


... 


... 


129 


Hookeriana 


... 


... 


62 


glauca 


• * * 


... 


127 


Kurzii 


... 


... 


66 


limoniifolia 


• • * 


... 


423 


majuscula 


... 


... 


66 


Patersoni 


... 


... 


125 


margin alis 


... 


... 


64 


pycnophylla 


• • • 


... 


129 


var. calvescens 


• . • 


64 


scandens 


... 


... 


423 


pinnata 


. .. 


... 


64 


Lomariopsis ... 


... 


... 


423 


* platyphylla 


... 


... 


66 


Loxogramme 








polypodioiiies 


... 


... 


68 


avenia 


... 


... 


393 


proxima ... 


... 


... 


67 


involuta 


... 


... 


393 


pteropus ... 


... 


... 


• 50 


lanceolata 


• • . 


. . •- 


392 


rhotnboidea 


... 


... 


68 


Lygodium 








scabra 


... 


... 


64 


circinnatum 


... 


... 


455 


speluncae 


. . • 


... 


67 


dichotomum 


... 


... 


455 ! 


var. hirta 


••» 


... 


68 


flexuosum 


... 


... 


457 | 


strigosa ... 


... 


... 


67 


japonicum 


... 


... 


457 ■ 


urophylla 


... 


••• 


64 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



Monogramme 


»» 


otaria 


267 


Junghuknii 


• 37S 


parasUiatm 


278 


paradoxa 


• 37S 


pennigemm 


277 


Nephro dium 




var. multilintaium 


277 


abortivum 


. 277 


procurrms 


278 


abrupt um ... 


■ 277 


prolixum 


240 


amboiwnse ' ... 


. 278 


propinquum 


269 


Arbuscula 


. 276 


pteroides 


269 


aridum ... 


. 272 


punciatum 


270 


artituxum 


. 227 


stmulans 


223 


brach yodon 


. 280 


singaporianum 


212 


costatum 


• 275 


ttrminans 


269 


crinipes 


■ 279 


truncatum 


28o 


cucullatum 


. 270 


unitum ... 268, 272 


cuspidatum 


. 232 


urophyllum 


274 


didymosorum 


. 278 


■uariöiosum 


218 


elatum 


. 272 


WghtÜ 


218 


eusorum 


. 280 


Zollingerianum 


218 


extensum 


. 269 


Nephrolepis 




var. microsorum . 


. 270 


acuta 


284 


„ minor ... 


. 278 


biserrata 


284 


Jaicilobum 




cordifolia 


282 


var. pubtra ... 


. 277 


exaltata 


282 


ferox 


• 279 


obtiterata 


285 


glandulosum 


• 273 


ramosa 


284 


var. /te/e-s/rigosa . 


• 277 


luberosa 


282 


Grißthii 


. 222 


volubilis 


284 


immersum 


■ 235 


Niphobolus 




ingetts. see Lastrea disseeta 


acrostichoides 


327 


javanicum 


. 201 


adnascens 


325 


lineatum 


• 274 


angus/atus 


3S3 


microsorum 


. 270 


Boothii 


333 


molle 


■ 277 


costatus 


329 


var. amboioense . 


. 2?8 


detergibilh 


33« 


„ aureum 


■ 279 


fissus 


330 


„ didymosorum . 


. 279 


floecigerus ... ' ... 


331 


„ multijugum , 


279 


flocculosus 


331 


„ procurraii . 


. 278 


Gardneii 


331 


moulmemense ... 


■ 275 


Heteractis 


327 



494 Index to the Species and Synonyms. 









*AG« 








TACK 


Joint ensis 


••• 


... 


327 


vulgatum 


••• 


... 


4^4 


laevis 


. • • 


... 


325 


Wigktü ... 


... 


••• 


465 


Lingua ... 


... 


327 


,328 


Ornitkopteris ... 


... 


.«. 


"5 


nummularisefolius 


••• 


324 


Osmunda 








pannosus 


•*« 


•• • 


328 


Claytoniana 


.«• 


... 


449 


penangianus 


... 


... 


332 


javanica 


... 


... 


447 


porös us ... 


•*. 


•*. 


330 


Leschenaultii. 


sce 


regalis 


Schmidianus 


••• 


* •• 


33' 


regalis ... 


... 


... 


450 


spharocephalus 


••• 


••• 


353 


virginiana 


... 


... 


47i 


stigmosus 


... 


* • • 


328 


seylanica,.. 


... 


... 


467 


subfurfuraceus 


... 


»•• 


329 


Patania 








Niphopsis 


••« 


. • • 


353 


appendiculata 


... 


... 


26 


Nothochlccna ... 


... 


••• 


375 


Elwesii ... 


... 


... 


26 


Notholoena 








Pellaea 








lanuginosa 


... 


... 


375 


Boivini ... 


... 


... 


102 


Marantae 


... 


... 


373 


calomelanos 


... 


... 


104 


vellea 


•* * 


•• • 


375 


concolor 


... 


... 


100 


Odontoloma 








falcata 


... 


... 


102 


repens 


• • . 


• • • 


74 


geraniifolia 


. • . 


... 


101 


Oleandra 








gracilis ... 


• . • 


... 


100 


Cumingii 


... 


... 


288 


nitidula ... 


• • . 


... 


IOI 


musaefolia 


. ■ * 


• • • 


287 


Stellen ... 


. •• 


... 


100 


neriiformis 


• . . 


. • . 


285 


Tamburii 


... 


... 


IOI 


Wallichii 


. • • 


• • • 


287 


Peranema 






' 


Onoclea 








cyatheoides 


... 


■ • * 


tt 


orientalis 


•■ • 


• • • 


20 


Phegopteris 








Onychium 








auriculata 


... 


. • . 


290 


auratum 


• • . 


• . • 


96 


davallioides 


•• • 


** 


296 


japonicum 


• • . 


... 


96 


distans ... 


. • . 


. • . 


292 


var. intermedia 


. • • 


96 


var. glabrata 


... 


292 


„ multidentata 


• • « 


96 


„ minor 


« . • 


... 


292 


Ophioglossum 








Dryopteris 


... 


... 


293 


brevipcs ... 


• • • 


... 


465 


erubescens 


. • • 


. . • 


289 


cordifolium 


... 


... 


465 


ornata 


... 


... 


294 


fibrös um ... 


• « « 


••• 


465 


pallida ... 


... 


. •• 


295 


nudicaule 


. • • 


... 


465 


polycarpa... 


... 


... 


300 


parvifolium 


••• 


• r« 


464 


punctata ... 


... 


«•* 


295 


pendulum 


. • • 


• • • 


465 


recedens ... 


... 


... 


260 


reticulatum 


... 


... 


464 


Robertiana 


... 


... 


293 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



495 







PAGE 








PAGE 


Phegopteris 






ebenipes ... 


... 


... 


363 


rufescens... 


... ... 


293 


var. Oakesii 


... 


364 


rugulosa ... 


••• ... 


295 


„ Parishii 


... 


364 


Scottii ... 


... ... 


289 


Griffithiana 


... 


... 


354 


subdigitata 


... ••* 


295 


hastata ... 


... 


... 


362 


vulgaris ... 


... ... 


290 


hemionitidea 


... 


... 


358 


Photinopteris 






luterocarpa 


... 


... 


357 


drynarioides 


... •• . 


442 


himalayensis 


... 


... 


37o 


rigida 


... ... 


442 


incurvata... 


... 


... 


364 


Phymatodes. see 


Pleopeltis. 




insignis ... 


... 


... 


365 


Plagiogyria 






irioidcs ... 


... 


... 


357 


adnata ... 


... ... 


127 


juglandifolia 


... 


... 


368 


euphlebia 


... ... 


129 


var. tenuicauda 


... 


37o 


glauca 


... ... 


127 


lanceolata 


... 


... 


351 


pycnophylla 


... ... 


129 


Lehmanni 


... 


... 


37o 


triquetra. see euphlebia 




leiorhiza... 


... 


... 


372 


Platycerium 






lepidota ... 


... 


... 


35i 


biforme ... 


... ... 


445 


linearis ... 


... 


... 


346 


grande ... 


... ... 


445 


var. steniste 


... 


347 


Wallichii... 


... . * • 


445 


longifolia... 


... 


... 


349 


Platyloma 






longissima 


... 


... 


366 


falcata 


... ... 


104 


macrosora 


... 


... 


353 


Pleocnemia 






malacodon 


... 


... 


363 


aristata ... 


... ... 


268 


var. ß majus 


... 


363 


Clarkei ... 


... ... 


227 


membranacea 


... 


... 


355 


gigantea ... 


... ... 


224 


musaefolia 


... 


... 


358 


leuzeana ... 


... ... 


228 


nigrescens 


... 


... 


367 


membranacea 


... ... 


225 


normalis ... 


... 


... 


353 


membranifolia 


L 


225 


nuda ... 


... 


... 


347 


Thwaitesii 


... ... 


223 


ovata 


... 


... 


354 


Trimeni ... 


... ... 


224 


palmata ... 


... 


... 


368 


Pleopeltis 






Parishii ... 


... 


... 


34i 


accedens... 


... ... 


345 


phymatodes 


... 


... 


366 


angustata 


... ... 


35i 


pteropus 


... 


... 


359 


var. depauperata ... 


35' 


var. minor 


... 


... 


361 


capitdlata 


... ... 


37o 


„ zosteraeformis .. 


362 


clathrata... 


... ... 


348 


punctata ... 


... 


... 


357 


crytolobum 


... ... 


363 


rhyncophyila 


... 


... 


353 


dilatata ... 


... ... 


3fy 


rostrata ... 


... 


... 


345 



496 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 









PACK 








rAca 


simplex ... 


... 


... 


347 


conjugatum 


... 


... 


336 


sinuosa ... 


... 


... 


349 


contiguum 


... 


... 


350 


stenophylla 


... 


... 


348 


cordifolium 


... 


... 


282 


Stewartii... 


... 


... 


363 


cornigerum 


... 


... 


307 


superficialis 


.«. 


... 


35i 


cos tat um,.. 


... 


... 


275 


trifida ... 


... 


... 


362 


cremt/um 


... 


... 


2 S 8 


Wightiana 


... 


... 


347 


cucullatum 


... 


. •• 


307 


Zippellii ... 


... 


... 


357 


dareaefonne 


... 


... 


316 


sosterafortnis 


... 


... 


362 


decorum ... 


... 


... 


310 


Pacilopteris 








dentigerum 


... 


... 


169 


Blumeana 


... 


... 


435 


Dipteris ... 


... 


... 


336 


co st ata ... 


... 


... 


438 


distans. see Phegopt 


eris 




flagellifera 


... 


... 


433 


Dryopteris 


... 


... 


293 


Hookeriana 


... 


... 


437 


elongatum 


... 


... 


232 


Presliana 


... 


... 


440 


etlipticum 


... 


... 


392 


prolifera ... 


... 


... 


437 


erubescens 


... 


... 


289 


rcpanda ... 


... 


... 


435 


exaltatum 


... 


... 


282 


scmi cor data 


... 


•• • 


435 


creavatum 


... 


... 


347 


Polybotrya 








Filix-mas 


... 


... 


249 


appendiculata 


. • • 


. • • 


424 


fragrans ... 


. • . 


... 


89 


var. aspleniifoli 


& ... 


424 


furfuraecum 


... 


... 


327 


„ costulata 


... 


426 


fuscatum... 


... 


... 


3" 


„ Hamiltoniana... 


424 


glabrum ... 


... 


• • • 


358 


„ major 


•• • 


• • • 


424 


gtadiatum 


... 


••• 


346 


„ subintegra 


... 


427 


glandulosum 


... 


. •• 


309 


aspieniifolia 


. • . 


. • • 


426 


glaueum ... 


... 


• • • 


2 


Helferiana 


• • . 


... 


426 


grandifolium 


... 


... 


355 


Polypodium 








Grevilleanum 


... 


• • • 


347 


acutissimum 


• • f 


... 


346 


Griffithii ... 


... 


. • t 


291 


adnasccns 


... 


... 


325 


harpophytlum 


• • ■ 


. • « 


204 


adnatum ... 


# • • 


... 


292 


hast at um ... 


... 


• • • 


364 


alternifolium 


... 


366 & 367 


heterocarpum 


... 


. ■ • 


355 


appcndiculatum 


i... 


• • • 


290 1 


hirtellum... 


. • . 


.. • 


305 


argutum... 


... 


• • • 


323 j 


furtum ... 


• • ■ 


• . • 


305 


auriculatum 


•• • 


203 & 


: 290 1 


jaintense ... 


... 


... 


327 


Beddomei 


... 


... 


322 


khasyanum 


... 


. • • 


308 


bifurcatum 


... 


• • • 


338 


lanceolatum 


•• . 


... 


351 


brunneum 


... 


.« . 


292 


lasiosorum 


... 


... 


305 


comifolium 


• • • 


... 


296 


lepidota ... 


... 


... 


35» 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



497 









PAGB 






PAGB 


lineare (Linn.) 


... 


... 


5 


Russellianum 


••• 


267 


lineare var. /3 simplex ... 


347 


semibipinnatum ... 


•*. 


215 


Linncei ... 


... 


... 


343 


serra ... ... 


... 


310 


Lonchitis 


... 


... 


203 


sesquipedale 


... 


347 


longifrons 


... 


• • . 


353 


sessilifolium 


... 


307 


longipes ... 


... 


... 


292 


simplex 


.. . 


347 


loriforme ... 


... 


... 


346 


speluncce 


••• 


57 


marginale 


... 


.» . 


64 


sphcerocephalum 


... 


353 


mediale ... 


... 


• . • 


303 


subconfiuens 


.* . 


300 


minutum... 


• . • 


... 


3U 


subdigitatum 


. .. 


296 


multilineatum 


... 


... 


275 


subevenosum 


.. . 


303 


mysurense 


... 


... 


33* 


subfalcatum 


... 


314 


nigrocarpum 


... 


... 


264 


subtripinnatum ... 


.. . 


266 


normale ... 


... 


... 


353 


superficiale 


... 


35i 


nummulariafolium 


... 


334 


tenericaule 


.. . 


266 


obliquatum 


... 


... 


3" 


Thwaitesii 


•« • 


309 


obscurum... 


... 


... 


243 


trichomanoides ... 


... 


308 


ornatum ... 


• . • 


... 


294 


tridactylon 


.. . 


361 


ovatum ... 


... 


... 


354 


unit um 


... 


269 


oxylobum 


... 


... 


362 


venustum 


. .. 


37o 


4>aludosum 


... 


... 


292 


verrucosum 


324t 325 


palustre ... 


... 


... 


421 


vittarioides 


. .. 


325 


parasiticum 


... 


. • • 


278 


W alker a 


... 


233 


parasiticum 


... 


... 


302 


Wallii 


.. . 


305 


var. pilosiusculum... 


305 


Wightianum 


.. . 


346 


parvulum 


... 


. . • 


314 


Zeylanicum 


• . • 


303 


pcnangianum 


... 


... 


276 


Polystichum aculeatum 


... 


207 


pertusum 


... 


... 


325 


var. anomalum 


... 


209 


Phegopteris 


... 


... 


292 


„ angulare 


.. . 


207 


polycephalum 


... 


... 


358 


„ biaristatum 


... 


209 


porosum ... 


... 


... 


33i 


„ lobatum 


... 


207 


pteroides ... 


... 


... 


269 


„ mucronifolium .. 


210 


quercifolium 


... 


... 


343 


, , rufo-barbaturn . . . 


207 


repandulum 


... 


• .* 


313 


„ simifertile 


... 


209 


rivale 


... 


... 


3i 


„ setosum 


... 


209 


Robertianum 


... 


.. . 


293 


„ travancorium 


... 


209 


rufescens ... 


... 


•< . 


293 


amabile. see Lastrea 






rugosulum 


... 


... 


295 


aristatum. see Lastrea 




rugulosum 


... 


••• 


295 


var. affine, see 


Lastrea 



33 



l-rachyptcn,,,, 

•■-»niifoh'uut. see Lasire 

f<***atlaceum '", 
i'icifoliiun 
lachenense 
Lonchitis .. 
»btiquum.., 
Prescottianum . 

var. Bakerijumm " 
* i) castaneum 

semicordatum 

Stimulans 
Thomsoni 

vaf-gracilis.. 
Pasia 

J*rosaptia 

«•omigua ... 
Emersoni 
Pteris 

aquilina... 

v ar.esculenta '" .' 

•uPericaulis ... '" 

tiaurita ... '" ,: 



Index to the Species and Synonyms. 



499 









PAGE 








PACK 


coadunata 


• • • 


• fl • 


222 


Sphceropteris 








gigantea ... 


• • • 


• • • 


224 


barbata ... 


• •• 


■ • • 


22 


var. minor 


a • • 


• • • 


225 


Stegnogramme 








Griffithii 


• • • 


• •• 


222 


aspidiodes 


• • • 


• •• 


380 


heterocarpa 


• • • 


• •• 


219 


Stenochlaena 








heterosora 


• • • 


• • • 


219 


palustre ... 


• • * 


• • • 


421 


pteropus .. 


• •• 


• •• 


220 


scandens ... 


• • • 


• •• 


423 


var, tninor 


• • • 


• •• 


220 


sorbifolia 


• • * 


• • « 


423 


siifolia 


• •• 


• •• 


218 


Stenoloma 








simulans ... 


• •• 


• •• 


223 


chinensis 


• •• 


• «• 


70 


Thwatesii 


• •• 


• • • 


220 


Struthiopteris 








variolosa ... 


• • • 


• • • 


218 


orientalis 


• • • 


* • • 


20 


Schellolepis ... 


• • • 


• • • 


324 


Syngramme 








Schizaea 








alismaefolia 


• • • 


• • • 


389 


dichotoma 


• •• 


• • • 


452 


fraxinea ... 


• • • 


• • • 


386 


digitata ... 


• •* 


• • • 


452 


vestita ... 


• • « 


• • « 


386 


malaccana 


• • • 


• • • 


452 


Wallichu 
Tcemopsis 


• • • 


■ • • 


387 


Schizoloma 








falcata 


• • • 


• • • 


4IO 


cordata ... 


• • • 


• •• 


79 


lineata 


• • • 


• • • 


407 


davallioides 


• • • 


• • • 


79 


scolopendrium 


• • • 


■ • • 


407 


ensifolia ... 


• • • 


• • • 


80 


Taenitis 








Griffithiana 


• • • 


• • • 


80 


blechnoides 


• • • 


• • • 


4IO 


gueriniana 


• • • 


• •• 


80 


Teratophyllum 








heterophylla 


• • • 


• • • 


80 


aculeatum 


• • • 


• • * 


423 


lobata 


• • • 


• • • 


78 


Thamnopteris 








var. malabaricum 


• • • 


79 


Grevillei 


• • • 


• • • 


139 


nitens 


• •• 


• • • 


79 


musctfolia 


• •• 


• • • 


139 


recurvata... 


• • • 


• • • 


79 


Nidus 


• • • 


• • • 


137 


Selliguea 








var. musaefolia 


• • • 


139 


avenia 


• • • 


• • • 


394 


„ phyllitidis 


• • • 


139 


caudiformis 


• • • 


• ■ • 


39o 


Simonsiana 


• •• 


• • • 


141 


decurrens.*. 


• •• 


• • • 


392 


Trichomanes 








elliptica ... 


• ■ • 


• • • 


392 


anceps 


• • • 


* •• 


44 


F£ei 


• • • 


• • • 


389 


auriculatum 


• • • 


• • • 


44 


Hamiltoniana 


• • • 


• • • 


390 


bipunctatum 


• • • 


• • • 


41 


involuta 


• •• 


• • • 


393 


var. insigne 


• • • 


42 


lanceolata 


• • • 


• • • 


393 


„ plicatum 


• • • 


42 


Maingayi 


• • • 


• • • 


39 2 


birmanicum 


• • • 


• • * 


43 




Moüeyi 
muscoides 
var. ni/in 

Deilgherrense 



Seleotion 



FROM THE 



MlSOELLANEOUS PuBLICATIONS 



OF 



Thaoker, Spink and Co. 



CALCUTTA. 



London : W. Thacker & Co., 87 Newgatk Strebt. 



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*^NB^ 


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': 


?fiP 


















| 


fcg. : '■• 


fSjj 










''BS 








^jjLTV 






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-** 



LAYS OP IND. By Aliph Cheem. 

COMIC, SATIRICAL, AND DKSCBIPTIVE 

$ornw fthurtratifjc of Snguj'Sirtiiait 3ELCft. 

Stvtnth Edition. Enlargai. Clotk.gilt. Rt. 7. 



' ■ This 



REVIEWS OF PREVIOUS EDITIONS. 
larkably brighi liltle book. 'Aliph Cheem,' supposed to be the 



□fftcer in Ihe 181h Hussars, is. afier bis fashion. an Indiau Bon 
Gaullier. In a few of ihe poems ihe jokes, tuming on local nnmes and cusioms, 
are somewhat csoieric ; but, laken ihroughoul, Ihe vcrses are characleriied by high 
animal spirils. grcat clevemess. and most exccllent fooling."— Tlu World. 

" Aliph Cheem presenis us in this volume with some highly amusing ballads and I 
songs, which have alieady in a former edilinn warmed the hearts and cheered ÜK ' 
lonelv hours of many an Anglo-lndian, the piclures being chiefly those of Indiin I 
life. There is no mistaking Ihe humour, and at titnes, indeed, (he fua is both ' fast ■ 
and furious.' Many portions remind us of the ' Bab Bsllads.' One can readily I 
imagine Ihe merrimenl created round the camp fire by the recitation of ' The Two 
Thumpers.' which is irresistibly droU. . . . The edition before us is enlarged, i 
and coniains Illustration 5 by the author, in addition to which it is be&utifully printed | 
and handsomely gol up, all which recommendations are sure to malte Ihe name of 1 
Aliph Cheem more populär in India than ever." — Liverpool Mercmry. 1 



THACKER, SP1NK &• CO., CALCUTTA, 



Review! of " L«y» of Ind." 

"The 'Lays' are nol only Anglo-Indian in urigin, bul out-a 
subject and colour. To one who knows somcthing o{ life al a 
will be especially ai 
)D of the ill. 

"To many An 
glo-Indians Ibi 

'Aliph Cheem 




menrled for ihe picturc which tlioy give of many of its lighter incidents and con- 
diüons. nndof scveralof its ordinary personnges. . . . We hsve read the volume 
with real pleasure. and we have only to add lhat it is nicely prinled and elegantly 
finished. and that ii has several charniing woodcuts, of which some are by the author, 
whom Indian goüiip. hy the way, has idenlified with Captain Yeldhain, of Ihe i8th 
Hussars."— Bali Chronicli. 

"Satire of the most amusing and inoßensive kind, humour the most genuine, and 
pathos the most touching pervade these ■ Laysof Ind.' . . . From Indian friends 
we have heard of Ihe popularity these ' Lnys ' havo obtained in the land where they 
were writlen, and we predict for them a popularity cqually great at hörne."— 
Moxlkly ffomaopalhü Review. 

" Former editions of thi-s ■■ntri-tiiinim; Look having been received with great favour 
hy the public and bv the press, a new edition has been issued in elegant type and 
bindirig. The author, nllhough asstiming a bot de plume, is recogniied as a dis- 
tinguished cavalry oflicet, possessed of a vivid imaginalion and a Sense of humour 
nmounling sometimes to roll ick ing and contagious fun. Manyof his 'Lays' suggest 
recollections of some of the best pieces in die ' Ingoldsby Legendi.' or in the 
' Biglow Papers" of Russell Lowell. while revealing a character of their own. 
Anglo-Indian terms and usages are skilfully employed. and even what appenxs to 
some the uneventful lifc of a seeluded Station is made to yield incidents for humorous 
description. "—Capital and Labeur, Afay Ijli, 187& 



THACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA. 



REVIEWS OF CAPT. HAYES' 

RIDING: ON THE FLAT AND ACROSS COUNTRY. 

A Guide to Practical Horsemanship. 



Illustrated Spotting and Dramatic News— "The book is one that no man who 
has ever sat in a saddle can fail to read with interest" 

The Field. — "The general directions are in most cases in accordance with our 
own opinions ; and Mr. Hayes has supplemented his own experience of race-riding 
byresorting to Tom Cannon, Fordham, and other well-known Jockeys for illustration, 
* The Guide ' is, on the whole, thoroughly reliable ; and both the illustrations and 
theprjnting do credit to the publishers." 

The Sport ing Life. — " It has, however, been reserved for Captain Hayes to write 
what in our opinion will be generally accepted as the most comprehensive, en- 
lightened, and • all round ' work on riding, bringing to bear as he does not only his 
own great experience, but the advice and practice of many of the best recognixed 
horsemen of the period." 

Athenäum. — ' ' Is 
an eminently sen- 
sible and useful 

manual Is 

in all respects satis- 
factory. 

Scotsman. — ' • A 
thoroughly practi- 
cal treatise." 

Graphic. — " Is 
as practical as Cap- 
tain Horace Hayes' 
1 Veterinary Notes ' 
and 'Guide to 
Horse Manage- 
ment in India,' Greater preise than this it is impossible to give." 

Vanity Fair. — " Three-fourths of those who indulge in what they call riding in 
Hyde Park would do well to tearn this book by heart." 

The Queen. — "The chapter devoted to 'ladies* riding* calls for notice in these 
columns, as in it wül be found information of a kind which is frequently asked for, 
while it is not always easy to point out to the enquiret a trustworthy source from 
which it may be obtained." 

Society. — " The whole book is written in a style eminently suited to the subject" 

Betts Life. — " There is left nothing unsaid in the present publication to ensure a 
thorough acquaintance with the subject" 

Spotting Times. — " • Riding,' we venture to say, will take its place as a manual 
for equestrians, and will be equally appreciated by the boy with his first Shetland 
pony and the practised sportsman of the shires. . . . It is written in an easy, pleasant 
style ; not too elaborate for the youthful rider, and suffitiently instructive for the 
practical horseman. We heartily commend it to our readers. 

The Standard. — " Captain Hayes having written an able work on the horse and 
how to treat him, goes on by a course of natural progress to describe how to ride 
him, and displays in his last book the ability which chaiacterised his previous efTort. 
To possess knowledge and to succeed in imparting it are two different things ; bat 
Captain Hayes is not only master of his subject, but he knows how to aid others in 
gaining such a mastery as may be obtained by the study of a book." 




HINDU MYTHOLOGY. 




THACKER, SP1NK &• CO., CALCUTTA. 

JUST PUBLISHED. 

Uniform wilh ' Laysof Ind," "Riding," " Anglo-Indian Dornest« Life," ftt 
Imperial i6mo. Rs. j. 

HINDU MYTHOLOGY: 

VEDIC AND PURANIC. 




By REV. W. J. WILKINS, 

OF THE LONDON UISSIONARY SOCIKTY, CALCDTTA. 



THACKER, SPINAT & CO., CAL.COTTA. 

IN PRRPARATION. 
Uniform wilh "L*ys of Ind." "Ridlng," "Hindu Mjtbology." &t 

A NATURAL HISTOKY 
MAMMALIA OF INDIA. 




By R. A. STERNDALE, 




Of PREPARA TIOS. 



*Y Uniform with '• Lay* of Ind." " Rtding," " Hindu Mythology," &c 

Anglo-Indian Domestic Life. 

BY THE AUTHOR OF "RüRAL LlFB IN BENGAL." 



PROFUSBLY ILLU3TRATED. 





HANDBOOK OF INDIAN FERNS. 



krkkämHE 




Bv COLONEL R. H. BEDDOME. 



THACKER, SPINK &• CO., CALCUTTA, 



IN THE PRESS. 



Uniform witfa " I.ays of-Ind," "Natural History of ihe Mammali» of Inda," 
"Hindu Myöiology," " Ridiiig," Sc 



A POPULÄR HAND-BOOK 

INDIAN FEBNS. 

Bv COLONEL R. H. BEDDOME, 



Tbc «urk hiis been sptciallj wollen in 
a style as free fror» techajcaltlies as possi- 
ble, 10 meel ihc wants of non-5cientifie 
readers, and 10 assist visitors to Ihe nu- 
inerous Hill Slaiions of India in the selec- 
liun and galhering of Fenu. 

Illusttatud with 300 Plate* Tram the 
Urawings ntready so weil known in India. 




LUSTRATED PROM DRA WINGS BY THE AUTHOR, 



THACKER, SPMK *• CO., CALCUTTA. 

Second Edition, in Crown 8vo„ nimtratnl, Rs. 7. 

VETERINARY NOTES FOR HORSE-OWNERS. 

AN EVESY-DAY HOSSB BOOK. 

By capt. m. horace hayes. 



OPIHION8 OP THB PREBS. 



Saturday Rtuitm.— "The werk is writteu Ina cteaj and practica] way." 
The Ficlä. —" Of the man]' populär veterinajy books which have comc undtionr 
notice, Ihis is eenainly one of the mosl scientific and reliable. The author lells us, 
the firsl edilion, tliat any merit which Ihe bock may possess is 10 
be ascribed lo Ihe leaching of the Prin- 
cipal and Professors of the New Veleri- 
nary College at Edinburgh, where he 
sludied. It is much to bc desired thal 
evety Student would tnake so much use 
of bis opportunities ns G-ipL Hayes ha! 

■ ' Some nolice is aecorded to neaily 
all the diseases which are common tu 
horeea in this country, and Ihe writer 
lakes advantage of his lndian experience 
10 [ouch upon several maladies of horsrs 
in tbal country, where veterinary sur- 
geons nie few and far hetwecn. Tbc 




is for the application of lemctlics are 
given in perfeclly piain terms, «hieb the 
lyio will find no difficulty in eompre- 
hending ; and, for the purpose of fbrtbet 
smoothing bis palh, a chapter is given 
on vcterinary niL-dicines, their actions, uses, and doses, This information will be 
most aeeep table to the majoriiyof horse-owoers, and raaybe invaluable on an emer- 
gency when no advice better than that of the village cow doctor can be obtained." 



THACKER, SPINK &■ CO., CALCUTTA. 



Tht Vttiriaary Journal,— ■" A handy littlc book for ihe iae of 
ivhich may provc of much Service lo Ihcm when they cannot obtain the ossislance of 
:i vcicrinary surgeon, as well as afford Ihetn some nolion of many of Ihe ailmenls 
lo which ihe horse is esposed. and 111'; inaimrr in which ihcy may be best ireated." 

Tht Sperling Timti. — " It is what il professos to be — a clear and comprehensive 
manual für all horse-owncrs, and, without [rcnching 100 much upon the aloios! 




-ncrci! mysicrk-« of itie vcierirmry an, it p!aces a valuable weapon of defence in Ihe 
band! of ihose who may be out of Ihe teaoh of professional assislance, and we 
should be glad lo seeil as a psirt of Ihe 'properties' wherever a horse is kept." 

llluitraltd Sporliug and Dramaik Nfut.'. — " Simplicily is one of the most eom- 
mendablc featurcs in ihe book. Whai Captain Hayes has to say he says in plaffi 
terms, nnd the book isavery usefulone for cvcrybody who is concemed with horses." 

Tht Sperling Lift. — " Wc heartily welcome ihe second edition of Ihis eiceed- 
ingly useful book. The first edition was brought oui aboui two years sinee, bat 
lim mn) HO* under notice is fully double the size of ils predecessor, and as a matter 
of coursc coniains more informalion. Captain Hayes. ihe author, is not only a. 
practica! man in all things connected with the horse, but has also studied hissubjeet 
from a scientific poinl of view." 



THACKBR % SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA. 



New Edition. Crown 8ra, price R& 5. 

A GUIDE TO 

TRAINING AND HORSE MANAGEMENT 

IN INDIA. 

By capt. m. horace hayes. 



OPINIONS OP THE PRESS. 

® 

The Pioneer (Allahabad). — " The merits of Captain Hayes' book are so well 
known to all Anglo-Indians that it would be idle to go over old ground in 
praising the sound practica! knowledge shown by the author in all he writes 
concerning race-horses. The new edition, however, gocs even farther than 
this, for the subject of horse management is no longer made suliservient to 
training, but is dealt with fully and clcarly in separate chapters." 

Oriental Sporting Magazine. — " His intentions are truly sportsmanlike and 
praiseworthy, and if carefully followed ought to ensure the attainment of a 
portion of that success in training which the author himself has l>een renowned 
for." 

Englishman (Calcutta). — " It is the practical part of the lx>ok with refer- 
ence to the more ordinary matters connected with horses that makes it so 
useful." 

77ie Veterinary Journal. — "We entertain a very high opinion of Captain 
Hayes' book on 'Horse Training and Management in India,' and are of 
opinion that no better guide could be placed in the hands of either amatefir 
horseman or veterinary surgeon newly arrived in that important division of 
our empire. We had not the opportunity of seeing the first edition, but from 
a careful perusal of the present it appears to contain everything pertaining to 
training and managing horses. The author proves himself to be not only 



14 



TH ACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA. 
1 



well-informed theoreticaüy and practically, as to preparing horses for racing 
in that hot climate, as well as to their equipment and handling for ordinary 
work, but he also shows that he is possessed of no mean amount of that 
knowledge which is derived from the study of veterinary mediane. His re- 
marks on shoeing are most judicious and sensible, and if his recommendations 
were adopted and carried into effect, the pernicious farriery of the native 
shoeing-smiths would be replaced by a method which would greatly benefit 
horses and their owners. 

" Everything relating to racing in India, and the rules of the turf in that 
country, is embodied in Captain Hayes' book, and not the least valuable portion 
of it is the Hindustanee vocabulary, containing vernacular terms referring to all 
matters relating to the horse, as well as diseases, medicine, etc. This alone 
should make the guide valuable to the young veterinary surgeon, who finds 
himself compelled to pick up, as best he can, the rudiments of a stränge 
language when he commences his tour of professional duty." 

Saiurday Review. — '" Captain Hayes has brought out a second edition of his 
work on the training and management of horses in India. It is, of course, 
special ly adapted to the circumstances of that country ; but the general 
Instructions which it contains, and which are of a shrewd and practical cha- 
racter, render it a useful guide in regard to horses anywhere." 

Bombay Gazette. — "We have to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the 
new edition, re-arranged and much enlarged, of Captain Hayes' very valuable 
handbook on the above subject. Captain Hayes, by his ' Veterinary Notes for 
Horse-owners,' as well as the former edition of the work we are now noticing, 
has already made his name pretty familiär to the lovers of horseflesh in India, 
and it would therefore be quite superfluous for us to say that he is an authority 
to whom the horse-owner may safely turn for advice and assistance on evety 
kind of subject connected with the horse and his use." 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. IN THE PRESS. 

INDIAN RACING REMINISCENCES. 

REPRINTED, WITH ADDITIONS FROM THE INDIAN NEWSPAPERS, 
WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 



15 



THACKER, SPINK 6* C(K % CALCUTTA. 



OneVoL Small 8ra Rs.3-8. 

TALES FROM INDIAN HISTORY: 

BBINO THE 

%uwä* of %ttiü* i^lößt in $ amdi^s. 

By J. TALBOYS WHEELER. 

Forma a complete History of India from the earliest period to the present. 
day, drawn up as a series of " Narratives " for general reading in schools and 
families. So far it will resemble the history of Scotland as told in Sir Walter 
Scott's " Tales of a Grandfather," omitting all details and disquisitions which 
are sufficiently given in the author's larger histories of India, and seeking to 
teil the progress of events in the most simple and attractive manner. 



Reviews of Wheeler's Tales from Indian History. 



" While the work has been written for them (natives), it has also been written 
for the people of England, who will find in the volume, perhaps for the first time, the 
history of our great dependency made extremely attractive reading. Mr. Wheeler's 
narrative is written in a most graceful style : indeed, he is master of the English 
language. He does not confine himself to the mere dry details of history, but teils 
the adventures of Indian heroes and heroines in legends of love and war ; describes 
the village communities of India, their Organization and self-government ; dclineates 
the results of caste, infant marriage, and other Hindoo institutions and usages as 
seen in the family and social life of the people in villages and towns, as well as in 
courts and palaces. . . . The work also contains valuable observations on the 
foreign relations of the Indian Empire with Persia, Russia, Turkey, and China. 
Altogether this is a work of rare merit " — Broad Arrow. 

" In going through an interesting book, the reader will be furnished with a good 
general notion of Indian history, and learn besides sometbing about Indian modes 
of life."— Queen. 

"Will absorb the attention of all who delight in thrilling records of ad venture 
and daring. It is no mere compilation, but an earnest and brightly-written book." 
— Daily ChronicU. 

" This little volume contains a history of India in the form of tales and narra- 
tives, intended by the author for the people of India as well as for those of the 
British Isles." — Artny and Navy Gazette. 

" No young reader who revolts at the ordinary history presented to him in his 
school books will hesitate to take up this. No one can read a volume such as this 
without being deeply interested." — Scotsman. 



16 



In Crown 8vo., Rs. 3-8. 



BASIL ORMOND, and CHRISTABEL'S LOVE. 

BY THE AUTHOR OF "L.AYS OF IND." 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 



Broad Arrow. — "Display remarkable power, coupled with melodious versifi- 
cation." 

Graphic. — "The author of 'Lays of Ind' shows in his latest book, • Basil 
Ormond, and Christabel's Love,' that he can write something more than good 
homorous verse — a fact which was indeed foretokened by more than one piece in 
his former volume, notably by 'The Loafer.' There is, perhaps, no one amongst 
our minor singers whose rhythm is more easy and natural, whilst in the first of the 
two poems there is an amount of tragic intensity for which we were hardly pre- 
pared." 

Times of India. — " Both stories are prettily told, and we feel assured that these 
modest poems will command a large circle of readers. * Aliph Cheem ' is so well 
known to the Indian public through his * Lays of Ind,' that anything from his pen 
requires but few words of recommendation from us ; but in his present poems he 
has opened a new mine, and we are mistaken if the public do not agree with us in 
thinking that he has hit upon a vein of rieh metaL" 

Statesman. — " We have already seen how 'Aliph Cheem' can use his pen for 
good-natured satire and raey fun, and are now presented with a couple of poems of 
a deeper vein. The plaintive strain in these prolonged ballads, for such the poems 
are, is maintained wilhout a break from the first stanza to the last" 

Islington News. — " 'Aliph Cheem,* the poet who reeeived the commendation of 
the entire Press, both of England and India, upon his former work, has written the 
above volume, which comprises two love stories of an Idyllic yet striking character. 
. . . At the present time, when there is so much versification, which is not only 
inelegant but unintelligible, it is gratifying to have a book placed in our hands for 
review that is clear in style, and displays a genuine poetic instinet from the first page 
to the last" 



17 



THACKER % SP1NK, 6* CO., CALCUTTA. 



In 8va, price Rs.3-8. 



THE 



RACES OF AFGHANISTAN 

BEING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE 

PRINCIPAL N ATI VE TRIBES INHABIT1NG 
TN AT COUNTRY. 

By surgeon-major h. w. BELLEW, C.S.L, 

Laie on Political Duty at Kabul. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 



.©. 



The Examin fr. — " If Lord Hartington wants to begin to undcrstand the problem 
he has to deal with in Afghanistan, he should take down with him to the House of 
Commons this new book by Dr. Bellew. . . . Dr. Bellew perceived, by the 
Ignorant comments of Speakers and writers on the Afghan question, how very much 
some book was needed to enlighten the understandings of public instructors ; and 
therefore, amid the multifarious dutics he had to fulfil at Cabul, he set himself to 
produce a work which does not err on the side of elaborateness, but which yet 
contains ample information to keep journalists and Members of Parliament and 
platform orators from vain babblings on this intricate subject . . . The rtsumi 
of the history of the Afghans, including a chapter summarising our relations with 
the country, leads naturally up to the story of the life of Shere Ali, which results in 
the conclusion that the Aighan ' is not fit to govern either himself or others, and 
sadly wants a master. If we don't take up that röle, Russia will. For a master 
the Afghans want, and a master they must have sooner or later.' ... An 
admirable index increases the value of the work. " 

Indian Mail. — "This short book is of considerable merit, and ought to seriously 
influence the judgment of those who have assumed the direction of England's 
affairs. Its value lies in the preciseness of the information given, ils clear and me- 
thodical arrangement, and its trustworthiness, from the acknowledged ability and 
absolute knowledge of the subject possessed by the author. Dr. Bellew is not a political 
speculator, but a serious scholar, who has spent many years among and in connection 
with the people of Afghanistan ; he speaks their languages with ease, is well read 
in the history and literature of the country, and enjoys the confidence of the tribes- 
men. .* . . Dr. Bellew's book will be read with considerable interest, both as a 
valuable contribution to ethnography and as a guide in the maze in which polititians 
have lost themselves." 



18 



THACKER, SPINK &• CO., CALCÜTTA. 



A MANUAL OF SURVEYING FOR INDIA: 

DETAILING THE MODE OF 
OPERATIONS ON THB 
TRIGONOMETRICAL . 

TOPO CRAPHICAL, 

AND REVENUE 

.SURVEYS OF INDIA. 

COMPILED BY 

Sir H. L. THUILLIER, K.C.S.I., Royal Artillery, 




Lieut.-Col. R. SMYTH, late Bengal Artillery. 




THACKER % SPINK Ä- CO., CALCÜTTA. 



In Crown 8va, Rs.3-8. 



THE 



STEEPLECHASE HORSE: 

1 mtt Ixt JB*fyd, Wtpün mA Xfo$ 1 te* 

W/77/ NOTES ON ACCIDENTS AND DISEASES, AND 

THEIR TREATMENT. 



By CAPTAIN J. HUMFREY. 



OPINIONS OP THE PRESS. 



-<• 



Sporting Life, — " Undcr this title we have to notice a very useful and inte- 
resting volume, evidently the work of a practical pen. The subject-matter 
applies principally to Indian experiences, but is for the most part applicable to 
the selection, education, and management of the horse in any country. The 
treatment of equine ailments is also set forth in piain language. 

"With these remarks we feel justified in heartily commending the book, 
and its perusal cannot fail to repay." 

Illustraied Sporting and Dramatic News, — "The following aneedote is an 
admirable speeimen of what ingenuity and determination can aecomplish. It 
is borrowed from an excellent little volume by Captain Humfrey, entitled, 
'The Steeplcchase,' a treatise which though primarily intended for Indian 
readers, may be studied with advantage by all who care to know what a prac- 
tical judge has to say upon the subjeet." 



20 



THACKER, SPINK 6* CO., CALCUTTA. 



Third Edition, Deray 8vo, Rs. ia 

A MANUAL OF GARDENING 

FOR 

BENGAL AND UPPER INDIA. 

By THOMAS A. C. FIRMINGER, M.A. 




Operations of Gardening. 

Cbap. i. — Climate — Soils — Manures. 

Chap. II — Laying-out a Garden— Lawns 
— Hedges— Hoeing and Digging — 
Drainage — Conservatories — Betel 
Houses — Decorations — Implements — 
Shades— Labels— Vermin— Weeds. 

Chap. III.— Seeds— Seed Sowing— Pot 
Culture— Planung— Cuttings— Layers 
— Gootee — Grafting and Inarching — 
Budding— Pruning and Root Prunmg 
— Conveyance. 

Chap. IV. — Calendar of Operations. 



Garden Plants. 

i. Culinary Vegetables. 
a. Dessert Fruits. 

3. EdibleNuts. 

4. Ornamental Annuals. 

5. Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, 
and Herbaceous Perennials. 



In Preparation. Demy8vo. 

MANUAL OF AGRICULTTJRE 

FOR INDIA. 

By J. FRED. POGSON, 



„. "II. 



AUTHOR OF "INDIAN GARDENING, "THB INDIAN AGRICULTITRIST. 



Principal Headings.—So\U&, PLOUGHING. MANURES, WHEAT, BARLEY, OATS, 
Millet, Maize, Pea, Bean, Dall. Sugar, Root Field Crops, &c, &c 



21 



TH ACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA. 



In Demy8va, cloth., Rs. 8. 

MALARIA: 

/TS CAUSES AND /TS EFFECTS; 

AND 

INJUKEES OF THE SPLEEN. 

By E. G. RUSSELL, M.B., B.Sc, Lond., 

Surgeon, Bengal Medical Service 



OPINIONS OP THB PRESS. 

© 

The Lance t. — " In the present volume Dr. Russell discusses most exhaustively 
the subjeet of malaria and its effects, and the work should be read by all who arc 
liable to be called upon to treat the conditions to which it gives rise. The chapter 
which describes the malarial lesions of the stomach and liver will perhaps be read 
with most interest by the English practitioner. Dr. Russell offers a useful hint not 
to mistake severe dyspepsia and gastric irritability associated with pale diarrheea 
arising from too constant and prolonged a residence in malarious regions for hepatic 
disease induced by 'free living' — a caution the more needed since, we fear, all 
dyspeptic troubles oecurring in old Indians are apt to be regarded as due ' to liver ' 
provoked by unlimited brandy pawnee, hot curries, and tropical suns. Dr. Russell 
ably discusses the relationship between ague and typhoid — a question that has been 
raised by Sir Joseph Fayrer. . . . The second part of the volume is devoted 
to an analysis of fifty cases of injury of the spieen. These injuries, from the fre- 
quency of their oecurrence, and the importance of their medico-legal bearings, are 
of peculiar interest to the medical practitioner in India, but their consideration need 
not detain us at present Wc therefore leave Dr. Russell's volume, commending it 
to the notice of our readers as a book füll of facts and of clinical research, and 
which must be considered as an authority on the subjeet of malaria." 

The Medical Press and Circular, — "(The appearance of this work is opportune 
at this time, when the subjeet of fevers in relation to climate in India is obtaining 
special attention. The author, from his position as civil surgeon of Kamrup in 
Assam, had ample opportunities of practically study ing his subjeet, for üa district 
of which that Station is the centre is noted for its malarious character, and for the 
prevalence of malarial disease, including 'fever and its sequelae, dysentery, diarheea, 
and cholera.' But besides the resulls of his personal observations, he summuises 
the views of recognised authorities on his subjeet, and thus presents to his realers I 
a convenient epitome of previous investigations. His work is of considera.k" 
merit, and deserves to be extensively read." 



22 



1 



THACKER, SPINAT <&• C0. $ CALCUTTA. 



Entirely Rb-written. Seventh Edition. Crown 8vo., Rs. 7. 

GOODEVE'S HINTS 

FOR THE 

MANAGEMENT and MEDICAL TREATMENT 

OF 

CHILDREN IN INDIA. 

Re-written by EDWARD A. BIRCH, M.D., 

Surgeon-Major, Bengal Establishment. 



Dr. Goodeve. — "I have no hesitation in saying, that ihe present edition is for 
many reasons superior to its predecessors. 1t is written very carefully, and with 
much knowledge and expericnce on the author's part, whilst it possesses the great 
ad van tage of bringing up the subject to the present level of Medical Science." 

The Medical Times and Gazette, in an article upon this work and Moores 
' Family Medicine for India,' says : — M New editions of these two well-known works 
have recently appeared. They are both intended to supply in some measurc the 
medical wants of our numerous countrymen in India, who may be either fax from 
professional help, in emergencies of sickness or of aeeident, or deslitute of medical 
advice regarding the proper management of their own health, and especially that 
of their children, in the trying climate of Hindostan. Although we are, as a rule, 
very much opposed to populär medical Instruction, believing that the result is most 
frequently a minimum of serviceable knowledge along with a vast preponderance of 
what is but partial, misleading, and dangerous, yet the peculiar circumstances of 
many of our countrymen in India, together with the special and insidious dangers 
of its varying climate, fully justify the publication of a few trustworthy populär 
works to warn the unwary new-comer, before it be too late, of the dangers he has 
to encounter, and to give judicious counsel to solitary individuals and famüies who 
cannot enjoy the advantages of personal professional advice. Moreover, the two 
works before us are in themselves probably about the best exaraples of medical 
works written for non-professional readers. The style of each is simple, and as free 
as possible from technical expressions. The modes of treatment recommended are 
gcnerally those most likelv to yield good results in the hands of laymen; and 
throughout each volume the important fact is kept constantly before the mind of 
the rcader, that the volume he is using is but a poor Substitute for personal pro- 
fessional advice, for which it must be discarded whenever there is the opportunity. 
Written with such objeets, and in such a spirit, these volumes cannot fall to be of 
the greatest service ; and that they are appreciated is shown by the rapid appear- 
ance of successive editions, the second mentioned and eider treatise having now 
reached the seventh edition. We would add, that although they are specially 
written for lay readers, there are few young medical ofneers proeeeding to India 
who would not reeeive several useful hints from these unpretentious volumes. But 
it is to parents or to the guardians of European children in India that they must 
be of pre-eminent service. ' 



28 



THACKER, SPINX *• CO., CALCÜTTA. 




1 



PastL, Ra.i. Pakt IL, [U.a. 

A TEXT BOOK 

or 

INDIAN BOTANY: 

MORPHOLOGICAL, 

PHYSIOLOGICAL, 
and SYSTEMATIC. 



BY W. H. GREGG, 

Lrctureh oh Botant, HuCHJ.t 

ClOLLKGE. 





Crown 8to, cloth, Rs. a-8. 



JHE 

if jhe Pill/ 



HlNTS FBOM VATilOVS AUTHORITIBS OH 

GARDEN MANAGEMENT 

And ndapted lo the Hills; with Hints od 

FOWLS, PIGEONS, AND RABBIT KEEPINC ; 



7HACKER, SFINK *• CO., CALCÜT1A. 




In Super Royal Bvo, witb 166 lUuitntioiii. R*. 6-8. 

RURAL LIFE IN BENGAL. 

Illustrativ! ef Anglo-lmdian Suburbttn U/t; tkt Habits of tkt Rml 

Clonts: tkt varitd Prodvct of tkt Seil and Saisons; and tkt 

Cultun and Alanrfiuturt of Indigo. 

Bv C. GRAHT. 




THE 




A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK TO THE 

KITCHEN IN INDIA : 
ADAPTED TO THE THREE PRESIDKNCIES. 

Cootalrunjä Orijpnal and Approved Recipes in evaj depari- 
ment of lndian Cookery; Recipes lor Kummer Beverages 
and Horne-made Liqueuii ; Mediana! and olber Ri-dpe» ; 
togelher wilb i varietr of ihings worth knowing. 

Bt A THIRTY-FIVE YEARS" resident. 



THACKER, SPINK cV CO., CALCUTTA. 



GUIDE BOOKS, &c. 



AGRA. 

A Handbook for Visitors to Agra and its Neighbour- 

hood. By H. G. Kerne, CS. Fourth Edition, ravised. Maps, Plan» 
&c. Fcap. 8vo., cloth. Rs. 2-8. 

ALLAHABAD— CAWNPORE* 

A Handbook for Visitors to Aüahabad, Cawnpore, and 

Lucknow, By H, G. Keene, CS. Second Edition» re-written and 
enlarged. Fcap. 8*o. Rs. 2-8. 

CENTRAL INDIA. 

A Memoir of Central India, including Malwa and adjoin- 

ing Provinces, with the History, and copious Illustration*, of the Past 
and Present Conditions of that Country. By Major-General Sir JoifN 
Malcolm, G.C.B., K.L.S. Reprinted from the Third Edition. With 
Map. In 2 vols., crown 8vo. Rs. 7. 

DELHI. 

A Handbook for Visitors to Delhi and its Neighbourhood. 

ByH.G. Keene, CS. Fourth Edition. Maps. Fcap. 8 vo., cloth. Rs.2-8. 

KASHMIR. 

The Kashmir Handbook : A Guide for Visitors. With Map 

and Routes. By John Ince, M.D. Third Edition. Rs. 5. 

NORTHWEST PROVINCES. 

How we did "the Lions" of the North- West: A Trip 

in the Durga-Pujahs to Lucknow, Delhi, Agra. By F. O. B. Re. 1. 

HOMJBWARD, via AMERICA. 

Calcutta to Liverpool, hy China, Japan, and America, 

in 1877. By Lieut. -General Sir Henry Norman. Second Edition» 
Fcap. 8vo., cloth. Rs. 2-8. 

THE HIMALAYA. 

Tbree Months' Tour through Bussahir, Kunawar, and 

Spiti, to Lahoul. By Mrs. J. C Murray Aynsley. Crown 8vo. 

MASURL 

A Guide to Masuri Dehra, Doon, and the Hills to the 

North, including Chapters on Hardwar, Roorkee, &c. By J. Northah« 



TH ACKER, SPINK & CO., CALCUTTA. 



MEDICINE. 



Municipal 'Work in India ; or, Hints on Sanitation, General 

Conservancy, and Improvements in Municipalities, Towns, and Villages. 
By R. Craufuird Sterndale, Vice-Cnairman Calcutta Suburban 
Municipality. Crown 8vo. Rs. 5. 

Blindness. Causes of Blindness in India; Treatment and 
Cure. By G. C. Hall, Esq., Surgeon Ind. Medl. Service. Fcap. 8vo, 
cloth. Rs. 2. 

Malaria: its Cause and Effects. Injuries of the Spleen: an 
Analysis of Thirty-nine Cases. By E. G. Russell, M.B. 8vo, cloth. 
Rs. 8. 

" Must be considered an authority on the subject." — Leutcct. 

Jail Hygiene in India. By T. Hume, M.B. Fcap. 8vo. 

Rs. 2-8. 

The Himalaya: Climate and Medical Topography, in their 

relation to the Disease Distribution of the Himalaya and Sub-Himalayan 
Districts ; with reason for assigning a Malarious Origm to Goitre and other 
Diseases. By F. N. Macnamara, M.D., F.R.G.S. With Map. 8vo. 
Rs. 10. 

The Materia Medica of the Hindus. Compiled from 

Sanscrit works by Udoy Chand Dutt ; with a Glossary of Indian Plants. 
By G. King, F.L.S., M.B. 8vo, cloth. Rs. 6. 

A Monograph of Two Hundred and Forty-eight Cases 

of Lateral Lithotomy Operations performed in the North- West Pro- 
vinces during a period of twelve years, by Ram Narain Dass. IUus- 
trated by 256 Diagrams of Calculi, showing exterior and section, executed 
in Lithography. Pp. viii., 94. 8vo., cloth. Rs. 10. 

A Glossary of Medical and Medico-Legal Terms, in- 

cluding those most frequently met with in the Law Courts. Compiled by 
R. F. Hutchinson, M.D., Surgeon-Major, Bengal Army. Fcap. 8vo., 
cloth. Rs. 3. 

Hidayat-ul-Hukuma. A Hindustani Manual for the use of 

Indian Medical Officers, Native Doctors, and others. Bv George S. A. 
Ranking, B.A., M.B., Cantab., Surgeon, 6th Bengal Cavalry. i8mo., 
sewed. Rs. 1-4. 



7 HACKER, SPINK $• CO., CALCÜTTA. 



DOMESTIC, GARDEN, AND PRODUCE. 



Goodeve's Hints for the Management and Medical 

Treatment of Children in India. By Edward A. Birch, M.D., Surgeon- 
Major. Seventh Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth. Rs. 7. 

" I havc no hesitation in saying that the present one is for many reasons snpertor to its pre- 
decessors. 1t is written very carefully, and with much knowiedge and experience od the 
author's part, whilst it possesses the great advantage of bringing up the subject to the present 
level of Medical Science. M — Dr. Goodevs. 

Indian Notes about Dogs ; their Diseases and Treatment 

Compiled by Major C. , author of " Horse Notes." Fcap. 8vo., cloth. 

Re. 1-8. 

Indian Domestic Economy and Receipt Book. With 

Hindustani Romanized Names ; comprising numerous directions for Piain 
Wholesome Cookery, both Oriental and English ; with much miscellaneous 
matter answering all general purposes of reference connected with House- 
hold Affairs likely to be immediately required by Families, Messes, and 
Private Individuais residing at the Presidencies or Out-Stations. By Dr. 
R. Riddell. Eighth Edition, revised. Royal I2ma Rs. 6. 

Indian Cookery Book : A Practical Handbook to the Kitchen 

in India, adapted to the three Presidencies. By A Thirty-five Years' 
Resident. Crown 8vo. Rs. 3. 

Queries at a Mess Table : What shall we Eat ? What shall 

we Drink? By Joshua Duke, Surgeon, 3rd Punjab Cavalry, Author of 
" Banting in India." Fcap. 8vo., cloth, gilt. Rs. 2-4. 

How to get Thin ; or, Banting in India. By J. Duke. i2mo., 

stifT cover. Re. I. 

A Manual of Gardening for Bengal and Upper India. 

By T. A. C. Firminger, Honorary Member Agri.-Horti. Society. Third 
edition. 8 vo., cloth, gilt. Rs. 10. 

The Amateur Gardener in the Hills : being Hints and 

Recipes. By An Amateur. Crown 8vo. Rs. 3. 

Familiär Indian Flowers. Thirty Coloured Plates and de- 

scriptive Letterpress. By Lena Lowis. 4to., cloth. Rs. 22-8. 

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